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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti Dec 2014

Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prohormone proglucagon encodes for multiple peptide hormones, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-2, produced through tissue-specific processing by prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2. In alpha cells, PC2 yields glucagon, the major counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, which together, control glucose homeostasis. In contrast, GLP-1 and GLP2 are mainly produced in intestinal L-cells by PC1/3. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion following a meal, and therefore has opposing function to glucagon regulating glucose homeostasis; in contrast, GLP-2 enhances gut nutrient absorption. Efficient sorting of proglucagon to secretory granules is required for nutrient-regulated secretion. The aim of this thesis is ...


The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell Nov 2014

The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ku is an abundant, highly conserved DNA binding protein found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that plays essential roles in the maintenance of genome integrity. In eukaryotes, Ku is a heterodimer comprised of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80, and is best characterized for its central role as the initial DNA end binding factor in the “classical” non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway, the main DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammals. At the break, Ku directly and indirectly interacts with several C-NHEJ factors and processing enzymes, serving as the scaffold for the entire DNA repair complex. In this work we ...


Post-Translational Control Of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation, Paul M. Stafford Sep 2014

Post-Translational Control Of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation, Paul M. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) functions through multiple mechanisms to serve as a tumor suppressor. pRB has been well characterized to be inactivated through phosphorylation by CDKs. pRB dephosphorylation and activation is a much less characterized aspect of pRB function. In this thesis, I detail work to study the post translational control of pRB phosphorylation. Here I present work detailing efforts to generate a gene targeted mouse which disrupts PP1 binding to the C-terminus of pRB, allowing for detailed study of the mechanisms of pRB dephosphorylation. This work also details an examination of acetylation in the C-terminus of pRB ...


Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky Aug 2014

Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spt7 is a 1,332 residue protein critical for maintaining structural integrity of the SAGA complex. I demonstrated that the extreme N-terminus of Spt7 plays an important role in SAGA function. Deletion of the first 73 (Spt773-1332) and 121 (Spt7121-1332) N- terminal residues resulted in slow growth, decreased transcriptional activation at PHO5 and INO1, and a partial decrease in acetylation at lysine 18 of histone H3 at PHO5. The Spt7121-1332 mutant did not affect Spt7’s association with Gcn5 or Tra1, or its localization within the cell. Mutation of the first four positively charged residues to glutamine ...


The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam Aug 2014

The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pre-sensor 1 (PS1) hairpin is found in helicases of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) of proteins and is implicated in DNA translocation during DNA unwinding. To determine whether the PS1 b hairpin is required in the eukaryotic replicative helicase, Mcm2-7 (also comprised of AAA+ proteins), we mutated the conserved lysine residue in the PS1 hairpin in each of the S. cerevisiae Mcm subunits to alanine. Only the PS1 hairpin of Mcm3 was essential for viability, while mutation of the PS1 hairpin in the remaining Mcm subunits resulted in minimal phenotypes, with the exception ...


Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu Aug 2014

Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efferocytosis is the clearance of apoptotic cells and is necessary for homeostasis. Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor whose loss is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. While previous studies have shown that MerTK mediates efferocytosis through a unique mechanism that requires integrins, MerTK signalling pathway remains unknown. Given this unusual internalization mechanism, I hypothesized that MerTK signals and engages integrins through a novel signalling pathway different from that used by other phagocytic receptors. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the signalling pathways activated by MerTK, utilizing conventional cell biology and pharmacological approaches.

I found that ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce Apr 2014

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...