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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

The 2Β Insert Perturbs Folding, Stability And Hydrophobic Exposure Of Stromal Interaction Molecules, Steve Chung Oct 2018

The 2Β Insert Perturbs Folding, Stability And Hydrophobic Exposure Of Stromal Interaction Molecules, Steve Chung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stromal interaction molecule (STIM)1 and 2 regulate agonist-induced and basal cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels through oligomerization and translocation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions. At these junctions, the STIM cytosolic coiled-coil domains couple to PM Orai1 protein subunits to form Ca2+ released activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels that facilitate store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). One splice variant of STIM2, STIM2β, contains an extra 8-residue (2β insert) located within the coiled-coils and inhibits SOCE through an unresolved mechanism, adding another layer of complexity to Ca2+ regulation in mammals. I hypothesize that the 2β insert perturbs the coiled-coil conformation and dynamics ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Insights Into Chibby's Structural Elements And Their Interplay In Wnt Signaling Protein-Protein Interactions, Ryan C Killoran Aug 2016

Insights Into Chibby's Structural Elements And Their Interplay In Wnt Signaling Protein-Protein Interactions, Ryan C Killoran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway is critical to embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Mutations to Wnt signaling components can cause dysregulation of the pathway, leading to various human diseases such as cancer. The partially disordered protein Chibby (Cby) is a conserved nuclear protein that acts as an antagonist in the Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway. Cby’s antagonism is accomplished via two mechanisms. First, by competing with the Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors, Cby abrogates the b-catenin-mediated transcription of Wnt signaling genes. Moreover, upon phosphorylation on serine 20 by the kinase Akt, Cby forms a complex with the protein ...


Structural And Functional Studies Of The Heptose Modifying Enzymes That Play A Role In Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence., Heba Soliman Barnawi Jan 2016

Structural And Functional Studies Of The Heptose Modifying Enzymes That Play A Role In Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence., Heba Soliman Barnawi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. The capsule of some species contains unique modified heptoses. Heptose modification was elucidated for C. jejuni NCTC11168 and 18-176, and novel epimerases and reductases essential for the heptose modification were identified. We hypothesized that heptose modifying enzymes in C. jejuni have specific catalytic residues that allow for substrate and product specificity. Substrate synthesis, structural modeling, point mutations, and enzymatic analysis have been applied to map the active sites. Putative catalytic residues showed substrate and/or product specificity. The epimerases structures were solved by crystallography done by our collaborator. We also ...


The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam Aug 2014

The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pre-sensor 1 (PS1) hairpin is found in helicases of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) of proteins and is implicated in DNA translocation during DNA unwinding. To determine whether the PS1 b hairpin is required in the eukaryotic replicative helicase, Mcm2-7 (also comprised of AAA+ proteins), we mutated the conserved lysine residue in the PS1 hairpin in each of the S. cerevisiae Mcm subunits to alanine. Only the PS1 hairpin of Mcm3 was essential for viability, while mutation of the PS1 hairpin in the remaining Mcm subunits resulted in minimal phenotypes, with the exception ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Transactivation By Human Adenovirus Early Region 1a-Conserved Region Three, Jailal Ng Ablack May 2011

Transactivation By Human Adenovirus Early Region 1a-Conserved Region Three, Jailal Ng Ablack

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One of the critical functions of human adenovirus (hAd) early region 1A (E1A) protein is to activate transcription of the early viral genes. The largest isoform of E1A contains a unique region termed conserved region 3 (CR3), which includes a Cysteine-4 (C4) zinc finger domain. This region activates viral gene expression by interacting with and recruiting cellular transcription machinery to the regulatory regions of early viral genes. Although this process has been studied at length with hAd type 5 E1A, far less is known about how the E1A proteins from other hAd types activate transcription. There are dramatic differences in ...


Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel Dec 2010

Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

S100A11 is a dimeric, EF-hand calcium-binding protein. Calcium binding to S100A11 results in a large conformational change that uncovers a broad hydrophobic surface used to interact with phospholipid-binding proteins (annexins A1 and A2), and facilitate membrane vesiculation events. In contrast to other S100 proteins, S100A10 is unable to bind calcium due to deletion and substitution of calcium-ligating residues. Despite this, calcium-free S100A10 assumes an “open” conformation that is very similar to S100A11 in its calcium-bound state (Ca2+-S100A11). To understand how S100A10 is able to adopt an open conformation in the absence of calcium, seven chimeric proteins were constructed where ...