Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Building Muscle: The Role Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-6 And Insulin-Like Growth Factors In The Differentiation Of Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Skeletal Muscle, Doaa Aboalola Apr 2017

Building Muscle: The Role Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-6 And Insulin-Like Growth Factors In The Differentiation Of Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Skeletal Muscle, Doaa Aboalola

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human placenta is a readily available source for isolation of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), for potential use in regenerative therapies. MSC fate is influenced by the microenvironment in vivo, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are critical components of the stem cell niche, as they regulate proliferation and differentiation into different lineages including bone, fat, and skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6), relative to other IGFBPs, has high affinity for IGF2 and is believed to be the main modulator of IGF-2 function. However, the role of IGFBP-6 in muscle development has not been clearly defined. In this study ...


The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan Feb 2017

The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although cancer survival rates have significantly improved over the past few decades, the improvements are primarily due to early diagnosis and inhibiting cancer growth. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis, which contributes to 90% of cancer related deaths, and therapeutic agents targeting the various aspects of metastasis are lacking. One potential approach is to utilize small pharmacological compounds to inhibit tumour cell motility, as a strategy against tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The acetylenic tricyclic bis-(cyano enone), TBE-31, has been shown to be a promising chemopreventative compound. However, its effects on cell migration ...


The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai Dec 2016

The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins involved in different cellular processes including stress responses and differentiation. The role and expression of galectins under oxidative stress and during neutrophilic differentiation was examined in HL-60 cells. Galectin gene (LGALS), and galectin protein expression were determined using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Neutrophilic differentiation was measured via a spectrofluorometric assay. DNA methylation and JNK signaling were investigated as galectin regulatory mechanisms. Menadione-induced oxidative stress, DMSO-induced differentiation, DNA hypomethylation and JNK signaling all promoted similar galectin expression profiles. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the menadione-induced galectin expression but only partially attenuated DMSO-induced galectin expression. Galectin inhibitory ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad Aug 2016

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei Jun 2016

Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular events rely on protein-protein interactions that are often mediated by modular domains which recognize particular sequence motifs in binding partners. The NUMB protein is the first described cell fate determinant and multifaceted adaptor that is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. NUMB mainly mediates protein interactions via its modular PTB domain. Here we present a systematic investigation of the NUMB-PTB interactome by employing an integrative strategy combining both protein and peptide arrays. We profiled NUMB-PTB binding specificity and interacting proteins genome-wide. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are found highly enriched in the interactome, raising the possibility that ...


Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi Dec 2015

Hd2d Is A Regulator Of Abscisic Acid Responses In Arabidopsis, Joshua A. Farhi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Histone deacetylases have important roles in development and stress response in plants. To further investigate their function, the HD2D gene, of the plant specific HD2 family, was studied. An hd2d-1 mutant and two HD2D overexpression lines were used in this study. Germination was delayed in hd2d-1 and HD2D overexpression seeds only in the presence of ABA. HD2D was found to positively regulate the expression of members of the ABA-response pathway (ABI1, ABI5, and RD29A) leading to increased resistance to drought and salinity treatments. Furthermore, HD2D expression delayed flowering by positively regulating FLC expression. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, the HD2D protein ...


Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen Sep 2015

Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human Adenovirus (HAdV) E1A is the first protein expressed during viral infection. The primary function of E1A is to reprogram the cell for viral replication, but it is additionally capable of transforming primary rodent cells in co-operation with other oncogenes such as HAdV E1B. Despite extensive study, little is known about the function and cellular targets of the C-terminal region of E1A. Importantly, this region is required for the transforming ability of E1A with E1B, but can also suppress transformation with Ras. Previous studies showed that interaction with the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) plays a role in both functions described ...


Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park Aug 2015

Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Neurons within different brain regions have varying levels of vulnerability to external stress and therefore respond differently to injury. A potential reason to explain this may lie within a key lipid class of the cell’s plasma membrane called gangliosides. These glycosphingolipid species have been shown to play various roles in the maintenance of neuronal viability. The purpose of this study is to use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the temporal changes in the expression profiles of various ganglioside species during the course of neurodegeneration in rat primary cortical neurons exposed to glutamate toxicity. Primary ...


Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo Apr 2015

Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I studied the capabilities of the two DNA lesions 8-oxo-guanine and cisplatin intrastrand crosslinked 1,2-d(GpG) or Pt-GG to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Using isogenic cell lines generated from mice with selective gene knockouts of distinct DNA polymerases as models, I deduced the biological functions of the translesion DNA polymerases Pol eta, Pol kappa, Pol iota, Rev1 and Rev3L on bypassing each of the lesions 8-oxo-G and Pt-GG. My study takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to determine mutagenic effects of the DNA lesions in vivo and effects of translesion DNA polymerases on bypassing the ...


Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu Aug 2014

Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efferocytosis is the clearance of apoptotic cells and is necessary for homeostasis. Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor whose loss is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. While previous studies have shown that MerTK mediates efferocytosis through a unique mechanism that requires integrins, MerTK signalling pathway remains unknown. Given this unusual internalization mechanism, I hypothesized that MerTK signals and engages integrins through a novel signalling pathway different from that used by other phagocytic receptors. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the signalling pathways activated by MerTK, utilizing conventional cell biology and pharmacological approaches.

I found that ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce Apr 2014

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...


Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi Jul 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies have demonstrated that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring, faced with a nutritional mismatch postpartum, have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. The maternal protein restriction (MPR) rat model has been extensively studied to investigate the adverse effects of a nutritional mismatch in postnatal life of IUGR offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated that MPR leads to impaired function of the liver, an important metabolic organ. However the underlying mechanisms which predispose these offspring to the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. In the following studies, low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation led to IUGR offspring with decreased liver ...


Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh Nov 2012

Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is an evolutionarily conserved nucleocytosolic protein that has been proposed to regulate various cellular processes, including protein stability, gene expression, receptor-mediated signalling pathways, cell adhesion, development, and apoptosis. Despite the multitude of functions attributed to RanBPM however, little is known regarding the precise mechanisms by which RanBPM executes these cellular roles. In this work, we seek to address this matter by describing functions for RanBPM in the regulation of apoptotic and pro-survival signalling pathways, and in cellular transformation.

We first identify RanBPM as a pro-apoptotic protein that regulates the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian May 2012

Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are vital to nuclear-cytoplasmic communication in eukaryotes. The yeast Thp1-Sac3-Cdc31-Sus1 complex, also known as the TREX-2 complex, is anchored to the NPC via the nucleoporin Nup1, and is essential for mRNA export. In this study, the Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast TREX-2 complex was discovered. Physical and functional evidence support the identification of the Arabidopsis orthologs of the yeast Thp1 and Nup1. Of three Sac3 Arabidopsis homologs, two are putative TREX-2 components. Surprisingly, none are required for mRNA export as is the yeast Sac3. Physical association with TREX-2 was observed for the two Cdc31 homologs, but ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes Apr 2012

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stem cell microenvironment contains soluble factors, support cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that combine to effect cellular behavior. Mass spectrometry based proteomics offers the opportunity to directly assay components of extracellular microenvironments, thereby providing a sensitive means for obtaining insight into the stem cell niche. In this study we present the generation and analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) matrix microenvironments using an MS-based proteomics approach.

One of the primary limitations in the proteomics analysis of hESCs and hiPSCs is the reproducible generation of sufficient cell numbers amenable ...