Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 152

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar May 2019

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomembranes are permeable barriers that enclose the cell and the intracellular organelles in a cell. The selective nature of these robust barriers acts as the first line of defense towards the harsh factors that can compromise cell survival. Biomembranes primarily consist of membrane lipids that are organized into layers to form a dynamic bilayer structure. The dynamic nature of the membrane requires the synchronized modulation of lipid composition through de novo synthesis, degradation, intracellular movement, and remodeling. Phospholipids are the major membrane lipid class, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic biomembranes.

PC is primarily produced ...


Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen Jan 2019

Disease Resistance In Wheat And Its Relatives, Ethan James Andersen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plants have evolved a complex defense system against pests and pathogens utilizing many types of receptors, signaling factors, and defense compounds to detect pathogen presence and respond effectively. Since many pathogens have evolved immunesuppressing effectors used to reduce plant resistance, plants have evolved a family of receptors that detect pathogenic effectors as a result of an evolutionary arms race. These receptors contain Nucleotide-Binding Site and Leucine-Rich Repeat domains and are called NBS-LRR or NLR proteins. Many grasses possess huge genomes with hundreds of NLR-encoding genes, often found in clusters at the extra-pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, where unequal crossing over causes ...


Functional Consequence Of Psat1 Association On Pkm2'S Inherent Enzymatic Activity., Alexis Avidan Vega Dec 2018

Functional Consequence Of Psat1 Association On Pkm2'S Inherent Enzymatic Activity., Alexis Avidan Vega

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is predominantly found in tumors, where it allows the cancer cell to adapt to metabolic conditions through allosteric regulation of its activity. We recently discovered that phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) associates with and activates PKM2. Here, I sought to affirm PSAT1's ability to increase PKM2 activity through kinetic and association studies of wild-type or mutant PKM2 enzymes. I demonstrate that His-tagged WT and mutant PKM2 enzymes are active, exhibit different kinetics, yet cannot be activated by PSAT1. Comparison studies using untagged WT PKM2 suggest that inclusion of the His-tag disrupts PSAT1 association. In support, pull-down ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich Aug 2018

Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid that contaminates drinking water supplies worldwide. Due to concerns for human health, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established a safe level in drinking water of ≤ 10 ppb. Arsenic has been shown to have carcinogenic effects in humans at high and low doses. Chronic exposure may result in dermal conditions such as hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. Recently, arsenic exposure has also been linked to lower IQ values in children. The effect of arsenic on neurogenesis, specifically eye development, has not been widely explored. This study aimed to examine the ...


The N-Terminal Methyltransferase Homologs Nrmt1 And Nrmt2 Exhibit Novel Regulation Of Activity Through Heterotrimer Formation., Jon David Faughn Aug 2018

The N-Terminal Methyltransferase Homologs Nrmt1 And Nrmt2 Exhibit Novel Regulation Of Activity Through Heterotrimer Formation., Jon David Faughn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein, DNA, and RNA methyltransferases have an ever-expanding list of novel substrates and catalytic activities. Even within families and between homologs, it is becoming clear the intricacies of methyltransferase specificity and regulation are far more diverse than originally thought. In addition to specific substrates and distinct methylation levels, methyltransferase activity can be altered through formation of complexes with close homologs. This work involves the N-terminal methyltransferase homologs NRMT1 and NRMT2. NRMT1 is a ubiquitously expressed distributive trimethylase. NRMT2 is a monomethylase expressed at low levels and in a tissue-specific manner. They are both nuclear methyltransferases with overlapping target consensus sequences ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Canonical Nuclear Factor-Κb Signaling In Satellite Stem Cell Homeostasis And Function., Alex R. Straughn Aug 2018

Canonical Nuclear Factor-Κb Signaling In Satellite Stem Cell Homeostasis And Function., Alex R. Straughn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Satellite cells are adult stem cells that are required for the regeneration of skeletal muscle following injury. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate satellite stem cell homeostasis and function in adult animals remain less understood. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a major nuclear transcription factor that regulates the gene expression of a plethora of molecules involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and the inflammatory immune response. NF-kB can be activated through a canonical or non-canonical pathway. However, the role of canonical NF-kB signaling in the regulation of satellite stem cell function during skeletal muscle regeneration has not been yet investigated ...


Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria May 2018

Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess if a novel combination of melatonin and three other natural bone-aiding micronutrients: strontium citrate, vitamins D3 and K2 (MSDK) could improve bone health by modulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of balanced bone remodeling and by improving the overall health-related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Methods: The Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS) is a translational research study that used both clinical and in vitro approaches to assess the efficacy of MSDK on bone health in women and to identify potential mechanisms for its effects ...


Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler Jan 2018

Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates by forcing infected host cells to produce new virus particles, which assemble form protein components on the inner leaflet of the host cell's plasma membrane. This involves incorporation of the essential viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) into a structural lattice of viral Gag proteins. The mechanism of Env recruitment and incorporation is not well understood. To better define this process, we seek to describe the timing of Env-Gag encounters during particle assembly by measuring angular positions of Env proteins about the surfaces of budding particles. Using three-dimensional superresolution microscopy, we show that Env ...


Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu Jan 2018

Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are gram-negative photosynthetic bacteria. In some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena cylindrica, every 10th to 20th vegetative cells can differentiate into nitrogen fixing heterocysts. Heterocyst can induce the neighboring cells developing into spore-like akinetes. The specialized cell functions and resourceful networks have contributed to the prosperity of cyanobacteria for over 2 billion years, but the genetic mechanisms for multi-cellular differentiation are barely known, especially for akinete formation. The heterocysts, akinetes and vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica were isolated for proteomic study. This study identified a total of 1395 proteins, including 664 proteins from akinetes, 751 proteins from ...


Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru Dec 2017

Type Ix Secretion System : Characterization Of An Effector Protein And An Insight Into The Role Of C-Terminal Domain Dimeration In Outer Membrane Translocation., Lahari Koneru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are two of the primary pathogens that are associated in the etiology and progression of chronic periodontitis. In T. forsythia, KLIKK proteases are the recently identified group of proteolytic enzymes that are secreted through Type IX secretion system (T9SS). Among, these KLIKK proteases a synergistic relationship was observed between karilysin and mirolysin in invading the host complement system for the survival of the bacteria. Since, karilysin has been already characterized, in this study we propose to study about mirolysin through structural, biochemical and biological characterization. The obtained results from the experiments has shown the propensity ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore May 2017

Cloning, Purification, And Biochemical Characterization Of Human Prolyl Endopeptidase, Travis K. Moore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Eurygaster integriceps Puton, common name sunn Pest, is one of the primary sources of wheat crop wastes in North Africa, Middle East, and Eastern Europe. It feeds by injecting the wheat grain with an enzyme characterized as prolyl endoprotease (spPEP) that breaks down Gluten, the wheat’s main constitutive protein necessary for bread production (Darkoh et al., 2010). Previously, it has been shown that peptides isolated from Lactobacillus hydrolysates of caseins in bovine milk are able to inhibit mammalian PEP in colon cells, as well as bacterial PEP (Juillerat-Jeanneret et al., 2010). While recombinant versions of these peptides are also ...


Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May May 2017

Divergent Responses Of Larval And Juvenile Blue Mussels To Low Salinity Exposure, Melissa A. May

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, we compared the osmotic stress response of larval and juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) at the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and whole organism levels. Blue mussels inhabit coastal areas, where they face climate-induced reductions in nearshore salinity. Despite their ecological and economic importance, scientists do not fully understand the underlying transcriptomic and cellular mechanisms of the osmotic stress response in blue mussels or how the ability to respond to stress changes throughout development. Blue mussels spend the first weeks of life developing through several larval stages in the plankton. These early life history stages are more vulnerable to environmental ...


Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock May 2017

Evaluation Of Different Probiotic Strains Supplemented In Commercial Broiler Rations And Their Influences On Performance, Yield, And Intestinal Microbiota., Justin M. Glasscock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus subtilis, as probiotic strains compared to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate (BMD) 50 as the antibiotic growth promotor, supplemented in commercial broiler rations and their influences on performance, yield, and intestinal microbiota. This trial was completed as a randomized-block design with 4,800 birds split into 96, 5’x10’ pens, and randomly assigned to one of eight treatment groups. The birds were placed at a stocking density of 1.00 ft2/bird, (50 birds/pen), and reared on used pine shaving for 55 days. Throughout the study ...


Primate Proteomic Composition Of Seminal Plasma And Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase Activity In Relation To Sexual Selection., Amanda M.C. Zielen Jan 2017

Primate Proteomic Composition Of Seminal Plasma And Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase Activity In Relation To Sexual Selection., Amanda M.C. Zielen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) have diverse mating systems with varying levels of sperm competition. Several seminal plasma genes have been claimed to evolve under positive selection, while others are altered or lost. This study aims to identify biologically relevant differences among seminal plasma proteomes of primates in relation to mating systems and previous genomic studies. Seminal plasma from three individuals of each species were run in triplicate in shotgun liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and confirmed with Western blots. Over 7,000 peptides were identified across all individuals; 168 proteins were identified ...


Dense Core Vesicle Heterogeneity In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kelly Sinak Jan 2017

Dense Core Vesicle Heterogeneity In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kelly Sinak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peptides, which are packaged in dense core vesicles, are an integral part of the function of the endocrine and neurological systems. The dense core vesicles function as an efficient form of peptide storage prior to regulated exocytosis. Two different dense core specific transmembrane proteins traffic different when comparted to retained prolactin cores, offering evidence of heterogeneity of vesicles within a single cell. By comparing synaptotagmin 1 and 7 distribution in male rat and lactating female lactotrophs, a distinct pattern emerges. Cells that retain prolactin cores after exocytosis correspond with those that contain synaptotagmin 1. This finding is a reversal for ...


The Synthetic Biology Of N2-Fixing Cyanobacteria For Photosynthetic Terpenoid Production, Charles T. Halfmann Jan 2017

The Synthetic Biology Of N2-Fixing Cyanobacteria For Photosynthetic Terpenoid Production, Charles T. Halfmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the last few decades, concerns over global climate change, energy security, and environmental pollution have been rising. To overcome these challenges, the concept of “-nth generation” biofuels has emerged as a strategy to convert solar radiation into fuels and bulk industrial chemicals for societal use, while decreasing our consumption of nonrenewable energy sources. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria hold a distinct advantage in biofuel production over plants, given their ability to convert sunlight, air (CO2 and N2), and mineralized water to energy-dense carbon molecules, as well as fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into ammonia for metabolism. Engineered cyanobacteria with re-wired ...


Tnf-Like Weak Inducer Of Apoptosis (Tweak) : Not So Weak After All., Joseph Dekward Mcmillan Iv Dec 2016

Tnf-Like Weak Inducer Of Apoptosis (Tweak) : Not So Weak After All., Joseph Dekward Mcmillan Iv

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF super family. TWEAK produces a variety of cellular responses through the binding to fibroblast growth factor inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of TNF receptor superfamily. Although Fn14 lacks a death domain, TWEAK has been found to induce apoptosis in some cell types by perturbing the activity of certain pathways such as TNF-receptor signaling. TWEAK is also known to regulate proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. We have previously reported that the TWEAK-Fn14 system causes skeletal muscle wasting both in vitro and ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted Dec 2016

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


A Novel Role Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In Suppressing Ca2+ Overload-Induced Parp1-Mediated Necrosis, Hui Wang-Heaton Dec 2016

A Novel Role Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In Suppressing Ca2+ Overload-Induced Parp1-Mediated Necrosis, Hui Wang-Heaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) is well known for its regulatory role in DNA damage responses (DDR) as a checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates hundreds of protein substrates. However, its role in cellular non-DNA damage stress responses (NDDR) is unknown. Necrosis is one form of cell death and traditionally has been regarded as a passive and uncontrolled cell death. Recently, evidence has emerged to support the concept that necrosis also may occur in a programmed manner and that PARP1 can be a mediator. Active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) hydrolyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to produce poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers on ...


Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke Aug 2016

Dynamic Host-Pathogen Interactions Result In Fungal Epitope Unmasking, Alex Hopke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular camouflage is used by a diverse set of pathogens to disguise their identity and avoid recognition by protective host receptors. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a good example, as it masks the inflammatory component β-glucan in its cell wall to evade detection by the immune receptor Dectin-1. Interestingly, it has been seen that β-glucan becomes unmasked during infection in vivo, though the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Exposure levels of this epitope may be important, as Dectin-1 mediates protection from some strains of C. albicans and alterations in the organization and composition of the Candida cell wall can ...


A Systems Biology Approach Identifies A Gene Regulatory Network In Parotid Acinar Cell Differentiation., Melissa Ann Metzler Aug 2016

A Systems Biology Approach Identifies A Gene Regulatory Network In Parotid Acinar Cell Differentiation., Melissa Ann Metzler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: This project sought to understand the gene regulatory networks that drive parotid salivary gland acinar cells to terminally differentiate, and drive expression of terminal differentiation genes in dedifferentiated ParC5 cells. Methodology: Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate acinar cells at multiple time points during differentiation. This important step allowed us to measure gene expression in a single and important cell type. A systems biology approach was taken to measure global mRNA and microRNA expression across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. In ParC5 cells, the ER stress activator tunicamycin was used to stimulate Xbp1 ...


Characterization Of Sip470, A Family 1 Lipid Transfer Protein And Its Role In Plant Stress Signaling, Timothy Ndagi Audam Aug 2016

Characterization Of Sip470, A Family 1 Lipid Transfer Protein And Its Role In Plant Stress Signaling, Timothy Ndagi Audam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

SIP470, a putative tobacco lipid transfer protein, was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen to interact with SABP2. SABP2 is a critical role in SA-mediated signaling in tobacco and other plants. In vitro studies using purified recombinant SIP470 confirmed that it is a lipid binding protein. In an attempt to determine its role in mediating stress responses, Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion knockout lines lacking SIP470 homolog were used for the analysis. These mutant plants were defective in basal resistance against microbial pathogens. Expression of defense gene PR-1 was also delayed in these mutant plants. Interestingly, these mutant plants were not defective ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price Aug 2016

Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The importance of social behaviour is evident in human society, but there are both costs and benefits associated with cooperation and sociality throughout the animal kingdom. At what point do the benefits outweigh the costs, and when do selective pressures favour sociality and colonization over solitude and independence? To investigate these questions, we have focused on an anomalous species of spider, Anelosimus studiosus, also known now as the northern social spider. Throughout its broad range, A. studiosus is solitary and aggressive, but recently, colonies of cooperative and social individuals have been observed at northern latitudes. This leads to two research ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Role Of Microrna-21 In Atherogenesis., Rihab Hamed-Berair May 2016

Role Of Microrna-21 In Atherogenesis., Rihab Hamed-Berair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA, abundant in most cardiovascular tissues. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases including restenosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, little is known about the contribution of miR-21 in atherosclerosis. My data show that expression of miR-21 is increased by >1.5-fold in murine atherosclerotic lesions and by 1.5-2.0-fold in the macrophages of Western diet (WD)-fed LDLR-KO mice (for 12-20 weeks). In vitro, LDL, oxidized LDL, acetylated LDL and LPS induced miR-21 by 2-4-fold and down-regulated its target protein, PDCD4, in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Basally, macrophages ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...