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City University of New York (CUNY)

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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack Jan 2018

Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack

Dissertations and Theses

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for a proper adaptive immune response by regulating thymocyte development and establishing central tolerance. In the thymus, TECs differentially express Wnt proteins, which activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Wnt signaling is thought to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and development although the direct molecular mechanisms in TECs have yet to be elucidated. The inducible inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk1 leads to a rapid loss of TEC progenitors as well as a decline in mature Aire-expressing mTECs. Therefore, we explore the role of Wnt ligands potentially responsible for stimulating and/or regulating ...


Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang Sep 2017

Insight Into The Interaction Between The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (Pparγ) And Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (A-Fabp), Qian Wang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (AFABP) is mainly expressed in fat cells. It can bind fatty acids and other lipophilic substances such as eicosanoids and retinoids. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor protein that requires ligand binding to regulate the specific gene transcription. PPARγ is expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissue, macrophages, and the large intestine, where it controls lipid adipogenesis and energy conversion. Moreover, it has been found that AFABP and PPARγ can form a complex in vivo. It is proposed that AFABP carries the ligand and enters into the nucleus where it ...


A Combined Computational Strategy Of Sequence And Structural Analysis Predicts The Existence Of A Functional Eicosanoid Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michael Scarpati Sep 2017

A Combined Computational Strategy Of Sequence And Structural Analysis Predicts The Existence Of A Functional Eicosanoid Pathway In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michael Scarpati

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With increased understanding of their roles in signal transduction and metabolism, eicosanoids have emerged as important players in human health and disease. Mammalian prostanoids and related lipid mediators perform varied functions in different tissues and organs. Synthesized through the oxygenation of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mammalian eicosanoids are both pro- and anti-inflammatory. The physiological contexts in which eicosanoid family members act at the cellular level are not well understood. In this study, we examined whether the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, a powerful model for innate immunity and inflammation, codes for the enzymes required for eicosanoid biosynthesis. We report the existence ...


Range Of Detection For Proteins And Dna From Fingerprints On Fired And Unfired Cartridge Casings, Stacey-Ann R. Sterling Aug 2017

Range Of Detection For Proteins And Dna From Fingerprints On Fired And Unfired Cartridge Casings, Stacey-Ann R. Sterling

Student Theses

Cartridges and spent cartridge casings can be probative pieces of evidence. Unfortunately due to a combination of factors such as exposure to high temperatures and initially low amounts of biological material on the surface, DNA testing so far has been mostly unsuccessful for these items. Typing other marker systems, such as protein polymorphisms, on the same biological evidence would add power of discrimination. To explore this option we developed a DNA-protein trypsin-based co-extraction method that was optimized for unfired and fired cartridges. Various sample wet and dry collection methods and multiple metal casings, such as aluminum, nickel, steel, and brass ...


Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu Feb 2017

Transcriptional And Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Histone Variant H2a.Z During Sea Urchin Development, Mihai Hajdu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A.Z peak expression in 24-h embryos, endogenous H2A.Z 3’ UTR sequences stabilize GFP mRNAs relative to those with SV40 3’ UTR sequences, although the 3’UTR of H2A.Z does not determine the spatial distribution of H2A.Z ...


Tuning Into Toxins And Channels: The Characterizations Of Tv1 And A Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensor Domain, Mohammed H. Bhuiyan Sep 2016

Tuning Into Toxins And Channels: The Characterizations Of Tv1 And A Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Voltage-Sensor Domain, Mohammed H. Bhuiyan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In nature, peptide toxins are an abundant resource, produced both by marine and terrestrial organisms. A major target of these peptide toxins is the group of the highly important voltage-gated ion channels. Due to their high specificity and affinity, peptide toxins have been used for over a decade in discovery and characterization of voltage-gated ion channels. Although peptide toxins have been extensively characterized structurally, the structural characterization of eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels has seen much less progress, due to their large size and high hydrophobicity. Voltage-gated sodium channels play crucial roles in many physiological processes, and when these processes are ...


Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed Sep 2016

Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Topoisomerases are ubiquitous proteins that alter supercoiling in double stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription and replication and. vaccinia and the closely related poxvirus variola virus, at 314 amino acids in length, encode the smallest of the type I topoisomerases(TopIB). TopIB is a two domain protein that recognizes the sequence 5’-T/CCCTT, cleaves at the 3’-end and relaxes supercoiling through rotation. The C-terminal domain (CTD) alone contains the catalytic activity and specificity. Deletion of the N-terminal domain results in a greatly reduced rate of relaxation and rapid dissociation. Biochemical data suggests that the N-terminal domain (NTD) is important ...


Molecular Analysis Of Ftsz-Ring Assembly In E. Coli Cytokinesis, Kuo-Hsiang Huang Sep 2016

Molecular Analysis Of Ftsz-Ring Assembly In E. Coli Cytokinesis, Kuo-Hsiang Huang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

An essential first step in bacterial division is the assembly of a cytokinetic ring (Z-ring) formed by the tubulin-like FtsZ at midcell. The highly conserved core domain of FtsZ has been reported to mediate assembly of FtsZ polymers in vivo and in vitro. Species-specific differences in the FtsZ C-terminal domain such as the FtsZ CTV region and interactions with several modulatory proteins such as ZapC and ZapD, restricted to certain bacterial classes, also serve as key determinants of FtsZ protofilament bundling. Here, we characterize (i) the roles of the FtsZ CTV region in mediating both longitudinal and lateral interactions of ...


Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama Jun 2016

Circular Oligodeoxynucleotides (Coligos) As Chemically Synthesized, Promoter-Independent Small Rna Expression Vectors, Lodoe Lama

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Small RNAs (sRNA) such as microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and other types of RNA have been found to play many important biological roles in regulation of different cellular process leading to their possible use as therapeutics. However, one of the biggest hurdles in exploiting these sRNAs in therapeutics has been the difficulty in delivering them safely and stably into human tissues. Many delivery approaches have been undertaken to deliver these sRNA, albeit with many shortcomings in terms of cost, stability, and side effects, necessitating the need for alternative approaches. We are exploring an entirely different approach for conveying ...


Chamber-Specific Patterns Of Epicardium Formation In Zebrafish, Sana Khan Feb 2016

Chamber-Specific Patterns Of Epicardium Formation In Zebrafish, Sana Khan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The outer cardiac layer, the epicardium, coordinates the final steps of vertebrate heart development. This cardiac tissue arises from cells in the proepicardial organ (PEO) that forms around the base of the inflow tract. Its general location is conserved across species despite morphological differences. Cellular mechanisms of migration differ across species. Three strategies of PEO migration are described: 1) The floating cyst model - PEO cells released into the pericardial cavity are directed by fluid movements to migrate onto the myocardium; 2) Villi transfer - cardiac contractions may mediate multicellular PEO villi contact to the myocardium; and 3) Tissue bridge-mediated transfer - PEO ...


Messenger Rna Transport And Translation Regulated By The 3' Utrs Of Dendritic Mrnas And Abnormal Alternative Splicing Of Neuroligin1 In The Fmr1 Ko Mouse Hippocampus, Tianhui Zhu Feb 2016

Messenger Rna Transport And Translation Regulated By The 3' Utrs Of Dendritic Mrnas And Abnormal Alternative Splicing Of Neuroligin1 In The Fmr1 Ko Mouse Hippocampus, Tianhui Zhu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is one of the most commonly inherited mental retardations. It is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Loss of functional FMRP is the most widespread single-gene cause of autism. The most prominent phenotype of FXS patients is an IQ ranging from 20 to 70. FMRP is an RNA binding protein, widely expressed in almost all tissues and highly expressed in brain. As a RNA binding protein, 85-90 % of FMRP in the brain is associated with polyribosomes. Approximately 4 % of total mRNA is associated with FMRP, which functions in the stability ...


The Evolution Of The Viral Rna Sensor Oas1 In Old World Monkeys And Cetartiodactyls, Ian Fish Feb 2016

The Evolution Of The Viral Rna Sensor Oas1 In Old World Monkeys And Cetartiodactyls, Ian Fish

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals produce an array of sensors patrolling the intracellular environment poised to detect and respond to viral infection. The oligoadenylate synthetase family of enzymes comprises a crucial part of this innate immune response, directly signaling endonuclease activity responsible for inhibiting viral replication. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 plays a vital role in animal susceptibility to pathogens including flaviviruses such as dengue, West Nile, and hepatitis c virus. This thesis includes a population level analysis of OAS1 diversity within macaque and baboon species followed by a broader survey of the gene in nineteen Old World monkeys. My research found that at the species ...


The Interaction Between Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor Eif4g And 3’ Cap Independent Translation Element Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Is Affected By Multiple Initiation Factors, Pei Zhao Feb 2016

The Interaction Between Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor Eif4g And 3’ Cap Independent Translation Element Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Is Affected By Multiple Initiation Factors, Pei Zhao

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) lacks a 5’ (7-methyl guanosine) cap as well as a 3’poly A tail. Like many plant viruses, BYDV contains a cap independent translation element (CITE) in the 3’ untranslated region of the viral mRNA. BTE (Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus like cap-independent translation element) is one of the well characterized CITEs. BTE mediated translation primarily depends on eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G. BTE binds to eIF4G; however, the details of BTE initiated translation are still unclear. Three eIF4G deletion mutants with different domain organization were used to investigate BTE interaction with eIF4G: eIF4G601-1196 is the eIF4G ...


Regulation Of The Vacuolar Atpase Activity, Paulina Konarzewska Sep 2015

Regulation Of The Vacuolar Atpase Activity, Paulina Konarzewska

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In eukaryotes, V-ATPases play an essential role in cellular pH homeostasis as they transport hydrogen ions into the vacuoles. This assures an acidic vacuolar interior and normal physiological processes associated with this organelle. Studies show that mutations in any of the VMA genes encoding for subunits of the V-ATPase pump result in growth inhibition in the absence of inositol, suggesting that V-ATPases may play an important role in phospholipid biosynthesis or vice versa. It is not clear how VMA genes affect phospholipid biosynthesis and how the regulators of phospholipid biosynthetic genes may affect ATPase activity. Here, we employ biochemical and ...


The Role Of Atp And Cleavage Factor Phosphorylation In Pre-Mrna 3' Cleavage Reaction, Asya Khleborodova Sep 2015

The Role Of Atp And Cleavage Factor Phosphorylation In Pre-Mrna 3' Cleavage Reaction, Asya Khleborodova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The 3' end cleavage/polyadenylation (3' processing) is important in generating a functional messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript. It is long-known that ATP can significantly stimulate the in vitro cleavage of adenovirus type 2 L3 (Ad2L3) RNA substrate. Here, we used ATP analogs in structure-activity assays to show that the structural features of ATP and its analogs determine in vitro 3' cleavage efficiency. More specifically, we demonstrate that the structure of the nitrogenous base, the nucleotide sugar and the triphosphate group contribute to the efficiency of the nucleotide-stimulated in vitro 3' cleavage reaction.

It was found that AppNp, an analog of ...


Exploiting Cancer Cell Signaling And Metabolism: Implications For Therapeutic Approach, Suman Mukhopadhyay Sep 2015

Exploiting Cancer Cell Signaling And Metabolism: Implications For Therapeutic Approach, Suman Mukhopadhyay

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the last decade, metabolic dysregulation in cancer cells has stimulated a significant amount of interest in basic research. It has been established that cancer cells increase glucose uptake and alter the fate of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates for the synthesis of biological molecules to accommodate high rates of cellular growth and proliferation. Moreover, it is more prominent that some metabolic dysregulations are specific to particular oncogenes. Exploiting the dysregulated metabolic dependency of cancer cells with therapeutic means could represent a novel approach for clinical aspect.

To meet the need of increased anabolic metabolism cancer cells engage ...


Exploring Chromatin-Bound Mdm2 Functions In Compromised Transcriptional Regulation Of P53 Target Genes, Melissa Rosso Sep 2015

Exploring Chromatin-Bound Mdm2 Functions In Compromised Transcriptional Regulation Of P53 Target Genes, Melissa Rosso

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

MDM2 overexpression is a common occurrence in many types of cancer. A single nucleotide polymorphism (T to G) near the mdm2 promoter, termed mdm2 SNP309, leads to MDM2 overexpression. This polymorphism is associated with accelerated tumor formation, decreased sensitivity to DNA damage treatment and compromised p53 transcriptional activity. Two G/G SNP309 cancer cell lines MANCA and A875, a Burkitts' lymphoma and melanoma respectively, express a stable wild-type p53 protein. We previously reported these cells have DNA damage resistant MDM2-p53 chromatin complexes and hypothesized that MDM2 is the contributing factor for the compromised p53 transcriptional activity. We created constitutive mdm2 ...


Incipient Speciation In Freshwater Fish Species From Two Isolated Watersheds, Paula Gore Miller Sep 2015

Incipient Speciation In Freshwater Fish Species From Two Isolated Watersheds, Paula Gore Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The process of speciation occurs as a result of restricted gene flow between segments of an interbreeding population occupying different geographic areas. This separation may result in isolated populations which undergo genetic and phenotypic changes. The Wisconsin glacial period, which ended approximately 17,500 years ago, dramatically altered the geography of North America. The glacier covered almost the entire North America as it advanced. Areas that were not covered with ice provided suitable habitats (refugia) for relict species that were previously widespread in the northern section of the continent. As the ice sheet retreated, animals and plants were able to ...


Functional Characterization Of The Plant 15-Cis-Zeta-Carotene Isomerase Z-Iso, Jesus Alonso Beltran Zambrano Feb 2015

Functional Characterization Of The Plant 15-Cis-Zeta-Carotene Isomerase Z-Iso, Jesus Alonso Beltran Zambrano

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Vitamin A deficiency is a widespread health issue in the tropics. To solve this issue, efforts are underway to increase provitamin A carotenoids such as β-carotene in staple crops which can be achieved by breeding, metabolic engineering or a combination of both approaches. However, rational strategies to improve carotenoid content in crops require sufficient knowledge of pathway regulation. Therefore, to better understand how plants synthesize provitamin A and to guide metabolic engineering strategies in crops such as maize, the functional characterization of the new ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO) is of significant importance.

Z-ISO was recently discovered in maize and Arabidopsis (Chen ...


Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee Jun 2014

Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F binding to mRNA is the first committed step in cap-dependent protein synthesis. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) employs a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation which is mediated by a structural element BTE (BYDV translation element) located in the 3’ UTR of its mRNA. eIF4F bound the BTE and a translational inactive mutant with high affinity; thus questioning the role of eIF4F in translation of BYDV. To examine the effects of eIF4F in BYDV translation initiation, BTE mutants with widely different in vitro translation efficiencies ranging from 5-164% compared to WT were studied. Using fluorescence anisotropy ...


Structure And Function In Bacteriophage Phi6, James Carpino Jun 2014

Structure And Function In Bacteriophage Phi6, James Carpino

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The present study of bacteriophage Phi6 has been preceded by a great number of exploratory studies of its structure and function, and these studies have formed a basis for Phi6's development into a model organism. In this study, two aspects of the model organism have been examined. 1. There are several uncharacterized and presumed untranslated regions (UTRs) in Phi6's 13.3 kilobase-pair dsRNA genome. I examined the impact of specific modification to the 3' UTR of the small segment of bacteriophage Phi6. I determined that modification to the purported UTR of the small segment resulted in severe fitness ...


Recruitment Of The Ribosomal 40s Subunit To The 3'Untranslated Region Of A Viral Mrna, Via The Eif4 Complex, Facilitates Cap-Independent Translation, Sohani Das Sharma Jun 2014

Recruitment Of The Ribosomal 40s Subunit To The 3'Untranslated Region Of A Viral Mrna, Via The Eif4 Complex, Facilitates Cap-Independent Translation, Sohani Das Sharma

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Translation of uncapped plant viral RNAs can be facilitated by either an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) or a cap-independent translation element (CITE) in the 3' UTR. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) mRNA, which lacks both cap and poly(A) tail, has a translation element (3'BTE) in its 3' UTR that is essential for efficient translation initiation at the 5'-proximal AUG. This mechanism requires binding of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) subunit of the heterodimer eIF4F to the 3'BTE and base pairing between the 3'BTE and the 5' UTR ...


The Sex Of The Cell Dictates Its Response, Carlos Ganesh Penaloza Feb 2014

The Sex Of The Cell Dictates Its Response, Carlos Ganesh Penaloza

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Male and female differences in frequency of occurrence in disease have perplexed scientists for some time. This in part derives from limitations in the systems in which one can evaluate sex differences. At the organismal level, differences can be hidden by a myriad of extensive and complex factors. Additional limitations exist since most biomedical studies are performed almost exclusively on male subjects, as the female hormonal milieu is intrinsically more variable and too troublesome for routine inclusion in research protocols. Research documenting sex differences continues to grow, and while most researchers suggests that sex hormones are at the core of ...


Polymerase Alpha Components Associate With Telomeres To Mediate Overhang Processing, Raffaella Diotti Feb 2014

Polymerase Alpha Components Associate With Telomeres To Mediate Overhang Processing, Raffaella Diotti

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Telomeres consist of TTAGGG repeats, which end with a 3' G-overhang and are bound by a six-protein complex, known as Shelterin. In humans, telomeres shorten at each cell division, unless telomerase is expressed and able to add telomeric repeats to the 3' G-overhang. However, for effective telomere maintenance, the DNA strand complementary to that made by telomerase must be synthesized. In this study, I focused on the Polα/primase complex, in particular the subunits p68 (POLA2, the regulatory subunit) and p180 (Polα, the catalytic subunit), and their potential roles at telomeres. I was able to detect p180, p68 and OBFC1 ...