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Articles 31 - 60 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most ...


Application Of Lipid Styryl Dye For Staining Intracytoplasmic Membranes In Gram-Negative Bacteria, Theodore J. Hammer Jan 2015

Application Of Lipid Styryl Dye For Staining Intracytoplasmic Membranes In Gram-Negative Bacteria, Theodore J. Hammer

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Intracytoplasmic membranes are structures that form within cells which help facilitate a variety of different metabolic processes. This feature of intracellular membranes makes them particularly valuable for studying compartmentalization and cell dynamics in bacteria. In the past, transmission electron microscopy has been the primary method for imaging bacteria with intracytoplasmic membranes. Because transmission electron microscopy takes images of a cell in fixed slices, it’s impossible to follow a cell’s growth and development over time. Fluorescence microscopy is a particularly effective method of measurement that can combat these issues when evaluating live bacterial cells. Here, standard biochemical laboratory procedures ...


New Strategies To Reveal Protein Candidates In Protein-Protein Interactome Study, Meng-Chieh Chen Oct 2014

New Strategies To Reveal Protein Candidates In Protein-Protein Interactome Study, Meng-Chieh Chen

Open Access Theses

Comprehensive protein-protein interaction network analysis can help reveal protein functions in a system-wide manner. A reliable knowledgebase of interaction networks is not only important for selecting the candidates for drug therapies, but also for evaluating the disease risk. In current interaction databases, 322579 interactions comprised of 56460 proteins have been reported (statistical analysis from APID: Agile Protein Interaction DataAnalyzer; http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/apid/index.htm). The huge datasets are contributed mainly by yeast -two -hybrid (Y2H) screening and affinity-purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS). High false positive rates and failing to cover certain interaction categories are the limitations ...


Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee Jun 2014

Interactions Of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors And 3' Untranslated Region Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Mrna During Protein Synthesis: A Study Of Equilibrium Binding, Kinetics And Thermodynamics, Bidisha Banerjee

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F binding to mRNA is the first committed step in cap-dependent protein synthesis. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) employs a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation which is mediated by a structural element BTE (BYDV translation element) located in the 3’ UTR of its mRNA. eIF4F bound the BTE and a translational inactive mutant with high affinity; thus questioning the role of eIF4F in translation of BYDV. To examine the effects of eIF4F in BYDV translation initiation, BTE mutants with widely different in vitro translation efficiencies ranging from 5-164% compared to WT were studied. Using fluorescence anisotropy ...


Identification Of Molecular Determinants That Shift Co- And Post-Translational N-Glycosylation Kinetics In Type I Transmembrane Peptides: A Dissertation, Heidi L. H. Malaby Apr 2014

Identification Of Molecular Determinants That Shift Co- And Post-Translational N-Glycosylation Kinetics In Type I Transmembrane Peptides: A Dissertation, Heidi L. H. Malaby

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation occurs on 90% of membrane and secretory proteins and drives folding and trafficking along the secretory pathway. The N-glycan can be attached to an N-X-T/S-Y (X,Y ≠ P) consensus site by one of two oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) STT3 enzymatic isoforms either during protein translation (co-translational) or after protein translation has completed (post-translational). While co-translational N-glycosylation is both rapid and efficient, post-translational N-glycosylation occurs on a much slower time scale and, due to competition with protein degradation and forward trafficking, could be detrimental to the success of a peptide heavily reliant on post-translational N-glycosylation. In evidence, mutations ...


Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio Apr 2014

Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio

Open Access Theses

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic systems has led to research on their fate and effects. PPCPs have been found in mixture in wastewater effluents, surface, ground, and drinking water at low concentrations from areas of intense urbanization. Although adverse effects to human health from the current environmental concentrations are unlikely, the impacts to ecological receptors are not clear. We performed field and laboratory studies to quantify and evaluate effects of PPCPs on fish. First, a field study was conducted at the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado (2010-2012) because a portion of ...


Inducible Protein Dimerization: New Tools And Applications To Understanding The Mitotic Checkpoint, Edward Raymond Ballister Jan 2014

Inducible Protein Dimerization: New Tools And Applications To Understanding The Mitotic Checkpoint, Edward Raymond Ballister

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cellular processes such as growth, migration, signaling and cell division require choreographed interactions between dozens or hundreds of proteins carefully organized in time and space. In order to test hypotheses about complex cellular functions, it is desirable to experimentally perturb the interactions of individual proteins that perform these functions with a level of spatial and temporal control commensurate with the time and space scales over which the system is naturally organized. Inducible protein dimerization offers the ability to experimentally control protein-protein interactions. Inducible dimerization can be used to test the immediate effects of dimerizing two proteins, or it can be ...


Studies Of Integrins' Lateral Dynamics At A Single Particle Level, Dipak Mainali Jan 2014

Studies Of Integrins' Lateral Dynamics At A Single Particle Level, Dipak Mainali

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the important factors in controlling the dynamics, structure, and functioning of the cell membrane is the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins and lipids. Integrins are one of the ubiquitous transmembrane proteins that are vital for numerous cellular functions. Integrins' lateral mobility and rearrangement is essential for integrins primary function of cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, cell-cell adhesion, and signaling. Lateral movement allows integrins to associate with extracellular ligand and other cytoplasmic and membrane proteins to incite biological activity such as signaling and downstream effects. This thesis describes the role of both downstream and upstream effectors, such as extracellular ligand, selected ...


Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Temporally Regulates Actin Ring Formation, Daniel Patrick Miller Jan 2014

Dephosphorylation Of Iqg1 By Cdc14 Temporally Regulates Actin Ring Formation, Daniel Patrick Miller

Masters Theses

"Cytokinesis is the final step in cell division when the cell separates the cytoplasm by contracting a ring composed of filamentous actin (F-actin) and type II myosin. Iqg1, an IQGAP family member, is an essential scaffolding protein in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) required for actin recruitment to, and contraction of, the actomyosin ring. Actin is recruited by the calponin homology domain (CHD) in anaphase after Iqg1 is localized to the bud neck. Consensus sites for the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Cdc28 were identified flanking the CHD. This led us to the hypothesis that phosphorylation of Iqg1 by Cdc28 negatively regulates actin ...


Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey Dec 2013

Transcending Microbial Source Tracking Techniques Across Geographic Borders: An Examination Of Human And Animal Microbiomes And The Integration Of Molecular Approaches In Pathogen Surveillance In Brazil And The United States, Amber Mae Koskey

Theses and Dissertations

Waterborne illnesses, attributed to the ingestion or contact with contaminated water, present a significant global health concern. Surface water sources can be impacted by wide array of pollution inputs, but fecal pollution generates the most significant and acute threat to human health. Therefore, the detection of fecal bacteria in surface water sources remains an important public health objective. Current surface water monitoring employs the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including E. coli and enterococci as proxies for pathogenic organisms carried in fecal pollution. These traditional indicators, detected by culture-based microbiological methods, do not discriminate fecal sources from another. New ...


Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin Dec 2013

Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin

Masters Theses

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a powerful tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) tool frequently implemented in proteomic studies to provide targeted analysis of proteins and peptides. The selectivity that MRM delivers is so strong that it provides the quadrupole mass spectrometers (QQQ), on which it is commonly employed, with pertinence to proteomic studies that they would otherwise lack for their relatively low resolution. Additionally, this increased level of selectivity is sufficient enough to supplant complicated fractionation techniques, additional dimensions of chromatography, and 24 hour long MS/MS experiments in simplistic biological samples. But there is a deficiency of evidence to ...


Generation And Statistical Modeling Of Active Protein Chimeras: A Sequence Based Approach, Nicholas Fico Oct 2013

Generation And Statistical Modeling Of Active Protein Chimeras: A Sequence Based Approach, Nicholas Fico

Open Access Dissertations

Generation of active protein chimeras is a valuable tool to probe the functional space of proteins. Statistical modeling is the next logical step, allowing us to build a model of gene fragment replaceability between species. In this thesis I begin to develop the statistical tools that are needed to systematically describe combinatorial protein libraries. I present three sets of diverse chimeric protein libraries developed using sequence information. The statistical model of the human N-Ras and human K-Ras-4B genes reveal a set previously unidetifed surface residues on the N-Ras G-Domain that may be involved in cellular localization. Statistical modeling of a ...


Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer Sep 2013

Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis we described inexpensive alternatives to fabricate nanostructures on planar substrates and provided example applications to discuss the efficiency of fabricated nanostructures.

The first method we described is forming large area systematically changing multi-shape nanoscale structures on a chip by laser interference lithography. We analyzed the fabricated structures at different substrate positions with respect to exposure time, exposure angle and associated light intensity profile. We presented experimental details related to the fabrication of symmetric and biaxial periodic nanostructures on photoresist, silicon surfaces, and ion-milled glass substrates. Behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the nanostructures was investigated. These results ...


Application Of Computational Molecular Biophysics To Problems In Bacterial Chemotaxis, Davi Ortega May 2013

Application Of Computational Molecular Biophysics To Problems In Bacterial Chemotaxis, Davi Ortega

Doctoral Dissertations

The combination of physics, biology, chemistry, and computer science constitutes the promising field of computational molecular biophysics. This field studies the molecular properties of DNA, protein lipids and biomolecules using computational methods. For this dissertation, I approached four problems involving the chemotaxis pathway, the set of proteins that function as the navigation system of bacteria and lower eukaryotes.

In the first chapter, I used a special-purpose machine for molecular dynamics simulations, Anton, to simulate the signaling domain of the chemoreceptor in different signaling states for a total of 6 microseconds. Among other findings, this study provides enough evidence to propose ...


Oligodeoxynucleotide Synthesis Using Protecting Groups And A Linker Cleavable Under Non-Nucleophilic Conditions, Xi Lin Jan 2013

Oligodeoxynucleotide Synthesis Using Protecting Groups And A Linker Cleavable Under Non-Nucleophilic Conditions, Xi Lin

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing latent electrophilic groups can be highly useful in antisense drug development and many other applications such as chemical biology and medicine, where covalent cross-linking of ODNs with mRNA, protein and ODN is required. However, such ODN analogues cannot be synthesized using traditional technologies due to the strongly nucleophilic conditions used in traditional deprotection/cleavage process.

To solve this long lasting and highly challenging problem in nucleic acid chemistry, I used the 1,3-dithian-2-yl-methoxycarbonyl (Dmoc) function to protect the exo-amino groups on the nucleobases dA, dC and dG, and to design the linker between the nascent ODN and ...


Amalgamation Of Nucleosides And Amino Acids In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Sandra H. Barnard Jan 2013

Amalgamation Of Nucleosides And Amino Acids In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Sandra H. Barnard

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The rapid increase in antibiotic resistance demands the identification of novel antibiotics with novel targets. One potential antibacterial target is the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall, which is both ubiquitous and necessary for bacterial survival. Both the caprazamycin-related compounds A-90289 and muraminomicin, as well as the capuramycin-related compounds A-503083 and A-102395 are potent inhibitors of the translocase I enzyme, one of the key enzymes required for cell wall biosynthesis. The caprazamycin-related compounds contain a core nonproteinogen b-hydroxy-a-amino acid referred to as 5’-C-glycyluridine (GlyU). Residing within the biosynthetic gene clusters of the aforementioned compounds is a shared open reading ...


Structural Motifs Of Novel Metallothionein Proteins, Duncan E K Sutherland Apr 2012

Structural Motifs Of Novel Metallothionein Proteins, Duncan E K Sutherland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metallothioneins (MT) are a family of small cysteine rich proteins, which have been implicated in toxic metal detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, and as a metallochaperone. The most well studied member of the family is the mammalian MT, which consists of two domains: a β-domain with 9 cysteine residues, which sequesters 3 Cd2+/Zn2+, and an α-domain with 11 cysteine residues, which sequesters 4 Cd2+/Zn2+. The exact functions of MT are unknown but must relate to its metalation status. Several areas that could lead to the assignment of function include 1) the determination of the ...


Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Human Apobec Family Of Proteins, Priyanga Wijesinghe Jan 2012

Genetic And Biochemical Studies Of Human Apobec Family Of Proteins, Priyanga Wijesinghe

Wayne State University Dissertations

The AID/APOBEC family of proteins in higher vertebrates converts cytosines in DNA or RNA into uracil. These proteins have essential roles in either innate immunity or adaptive immunity. Recently, AID has also been implicated in DNA demethylation in the context of early embryogenesis in mammals. This is partly based on the reported ability of AID to deaminate 5-methyl cytosine to thymine (5mC to T). I reexamined this proposed new role of AID (5mC deamination) with two members of the APOBEC family in a novel Escherichia coli based genetic system. My results confirmed that while all three enzymes are strong ...


A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li Aug 2011

A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrical propagation in excitable tissue, such as nerve fibers and heart muscle, is described by a nonlinear diffusion-reaction parabolic partial differential equation for the transmembrane voltage $V(x,t)$, known as the cable equation. This equation involves a highly nonlinear source term, representing the total ionic current across the membrane, governed by a Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic model, and requires the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations. Thus, the model consists of a PDE (in 1-, 2- or 3-dimensions) coupled to a system of ODEs, and it is very expensive to solve, especially in 2 and 3 dimensions.

In ...


Microbial Landscapes Of Corals And Ctenophores, Camille Arian Daniels Jan 2011

Microbial Landscapes Of Corals And Ctenophores, Camille Arian Daniels

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As technology and engineering allow mankind to survey nature at finer scales, the importance of bacteria has been elucidated in their metabolic diversity, ability to transfer genetic information, involvement in biogeochemical cycling, and sheer abundance. With an individual domain of life unto themselves, this diverse group of microorganisms plays an integral role in facilitating life on land and in the oceans, and is second only to viruses in abundance on Earth. They carve niches in a wide range of environments, including those inhospitable to other life forms, and reside in concert or to the detriment of other microbes and/or ...


Molecular Marker Development For The Discrimination Of Atlantic And Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans), Laurie Sorenson Jan 2011

Molecular Marker Development For The Discrimination Of Atlantic And Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira Nigricans), Laurie Sorenson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Human Decomposition Ecology At The University Of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility, Franklin Edward Damann Dec 2010

Human Decomposition Ecology At The University Of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility, Franklin Edward Damann

Doctoral Dissertations

The University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) is well known for its unique history as a site of human decomposition research in a natural environment. It has been integral to our understanding of the processes of human decomposition. Over the last 30 years 1,089 bodies have decomposed at this 1.28 acre facility, producing a density of 850 corpses per acre of land. This project evaluated the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil exposed to various levels of human decomposition in order to determine the effect on the physicochemical properties and the indigenous bacterial communities.

Specifically, 75 ...


A Synthetic Biological Engineering Approach To Secretion- Based Recovery Of Polyhydroxyalkanoates And Other Cellular Products, Elisabeth Linton May 2010

A Synthetic Biological Engineering Approach To Secretion- Based Recovery Of Polyhydroxyalkanoates And Other Cellular Products, Elisabeth Linton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The costs associated with cellular product recovery commonly account for as much as 80% of the total production expense. As a specific example, significant recovery costs limit commercial use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), which comprise a class of microbially-accumulated polyesters. PHAs are biodegradable compounds that are of interest as a sustainable alternative to petrochemically-derived plastics. Secretion-based recovery of PHAs was studied to decrease PHA production costs. Type I and II secretory pathways are commonly used for the translocation of recombinant proteins out of the cytoplasm of E. coli. Proteins were targeted for translocation using four signal peptides (HlyA, TorA, GeneIII, and ...


Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess May 2009

Identifying Biomarkers For Resistance To Novel Cisplatin Analogues In Human Lung, Breast And Prostate Cancers, Becky Michelle Hess

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cisplatin is a common therapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Unfortunately, resistance to cisplatin in addition to severe side effects limits its use in cancer treatment. Two novel cisplatin analogues, 4DB and 4TB were shown to have varying cytotoxicity in lung, breast and prostate cancer cells. The hypothesis for this study states that the differences in 4DB and 4TB cytotoxicity among different tissue types is due to the type and efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms involved in response to these drugs.

To test the hypothesis, proteins involved in the rate limiting step of nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair ...


Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae Isolated From Ships' Ballast And Other Environmental Sources, Frank Kornegay Thomson Iii Apr 2009

Characterization Of Antibiotic Resistance In Vibrio Cholerae Isolated From Ships' Ballast And Other Environmental Sources, Frank Kornegay Thomson Iii

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Ships' ballast has been implicated as a vector in the dispersal of invasive species into new environments. Numerous cases have been documented for the introduction of macroorganisms via ballasting operations, but what is less known is the role of ballast water and residuals in the spread of potentially harmful microbes, especially with reference to novel genotypes. Of particular interest are the genes encoding for various forms of antibiotic resistance, many of which are carried on mobile genetic elements. A four-year sampling effort has yielded over 300 putative isolates of Vibrio cholerae from ships' ballast tanks and various environmental sources, of ...


Assessing Genetic Variation Within And Among Native Populations And Hatchery Stocks Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Using Microsatellite Markers, Jie Xiao Jan 2009

Assessing Genetic Variation Within And Among Native Populations And Hatchery Stocks Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Using Microsatellite Markers, Jie Xiao

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Assessing genetic variation within and among native populations and hatchery stocks of Crassostrea ariakensis using microsatellite markers In response to the dramatic decline of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations in the Chesapeake Bay, introduction of the non-native Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis has been proposed. Currently several hatchery stocks of C. ariakensis, derived from a few wild populations along the coast of Japan and China, are being maintained in U.S. hatcheries in the Pacific northwest and on the east coast. In recent years, as the risks of the proposed introduction are being assessed, these hatchery animals have been widely used ...


The Development Of A "Genetic Eyewitness" Profiling System For Low Template Forensic Specimens: Identification Of Novel Protein, Rna, And Dna Biomarkers, Erin Hanson Jan 2008

The Development Of A "Genetic Eyewitness" Profiling System For Low Template Forensic Specimens: Identification Of Novel Protein, Rna, And Dna Biomarkers, Erin Hanson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In many criminal investigations, valuable information regarding the physical appearance of suspected perpetrators or the time and order of events that transpired are provided by eyewitness accounts. However, the information obtained from eyewitnesses is often constrained by human recollection or subjective accounts and provides a biased description of the perpetrator's appearance or an inaccurate time line of events. Additionally, in numerous situations eyewitness accounts may not be available. An increasing reliance therefore is placed on the biological evidence recovered during criminal investigations to act as a silent witness, providing unbiased and scientific information that may aid in the resolution ...


A Molecular Analysis Of Atlantic Menhaden (Brevoortia Tyrannus) Stock Structure, Abigail J. Lynch Jan 2008

A Molecular Analysis Of Atlantic Menhaden (Brevoortia Tyrannus) Stock Structure, Abigail J. Lynch

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Atlantic menhaden is an ecologically and economically important species along the U.S. east coast. As a filter-feeder and key prey fish, it provides a critical link between primary production, phytoplankton, and larger piscivorous predators, such as striped bass, bluefish, and weakfish. The species is also the target of one of the largest commercial fisheries in the country. Menhaden are assessed as a single, coastwide stock, and recent assessments indicate that it is not overfished. However, there is very limited population genetics data to support the assumption of a single stock. Additionally, the recent consolidation of the fishery and localization ...


Improved Constrained Global Optimization For Estimating Molecular Structure From Atomic Distances, Terri Marie Grant Jan 2008

Improved Constrained Global Optimization For Estimating Molecular Structure From Atomic Distances, Terri Marie Grant

Mathematics & Statistics Theses & Dissertations

Determination of molecular structure is commonly posed as a nonlinear optimization problem. The objective functions rely on a vast amount of structural data. As a result, the objective functions are most often nonconvex, nonsmooth, and possess many local minima. Furthermore, introduction of additional structural data into the objective function creates barriers in finding the global minimum, causes additional computational issues associated with evaluating the function, and makes physical constraint enforcement intractable. To combat the computational problems associated with standard nonlinear optimization formulations, Williams et al. (2001) proposed an atom-based optimization, referred to as GNOMAD, which complements a simple interatomic distance ...


Bayesian Recombination Detection Modeling And Application, Fang Fang Jan 2006

Bayesian Recombination Detection Modeling And Application, Fang Fang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As a key evolutionary process, recombination shapes the genetic structure of virus populations. The increased availability of virus sequences provides a chance to study virus recombination through molecular data. Many statistical methods have been developed, and a lot of the methods are phylogenetic-based. My research focuses on recombination modeling and data analysis;I first apply an existing phylogenetic-base method, Bayesian dual change-point model (DMCP), to investigate the role of representative data types for recombination study. We conclude that consensus sequences are an all-around robust representative of virus genotypes. Using consensus data we study recombination of all full-length hepatitis B virus ...