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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich Aug 2018

Effect Of Arsenic Exposure On Early Eye Development In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Remy S. Babich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid that contaminates drinking water supplies worldwide. Due to concerns for human health, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established a safe level in drinking water of ≤ 10 ppb. Arsenic has been shown to have carcinogenic effects in humans at high and low doses. Chronic exposure may result in dermal conditions such as hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. Recently, arsenic exposure has also been linked to lower IQ values in children. The effect of arsenic on neurogenesis, specifically eye development, has not been widely explored. This study aimed to examine the ...


Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle Aug 2018

Deciphering The Role Of Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 (Nat1) In Breast Cancer Cell Metabolism Using A Systems Biology Approach., Samantha Marie Carlisle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. NAT1 can additionally hydrolyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the absence of an arylamine substrate. NAT1 expression varies inter-individually and is elevated in several cancers including estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers. Additionally, multiple studies have shown the knockdown of NAT1, by both small molecule inhibition and siRNA methods, in breast cancer cells leads to decreased invasive ability and proliferation and decreased anchorage-independent colony formation. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. Additionally, consequences ...


Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria May 2018

Melatonin-Micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (Mots): A Translational Study Assessing The Effects Of Melatonin, Strontium Citrate, Vitamin D3 And Vitamin K2 On Bone Density, Bone Turnover Markers And Health-Related Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Osteopenic Women Following A One-Year Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial And On Osteoblast-Osteoclast Co-Cultures, Sifat Maria

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess if a novel combination of melatonin and three other natural bone-aiding micronutrients: strontium citrate, vitamins D3 and K2 (MSDK) could improve bone health by modulating the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in favor of balanced bone remodeling and by improving the overall health-related quality of life in postmenopausal osteopenic women.

Methods: The Melatonin-micronutrients Osteopenia Treatment Study (MOTS) is a translational research study that used both clinical and in vitro approaches to assess the efficacy of MSDK on bone health in women and to identify potential mechanisms for its effects ...


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark Jan 2018

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin (FXN) gene, resulting in decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein FXN. 2-3% of FRDA patients carry a GAA expansion on one FXN allele, and a missense mutation on the other. The mechanism behind the disease‐causing features remains elusive. The phenotype associated with patients carrying point mutations cannot be predicted with certainty; these patients can have a mild or severe clinical outcome, creating a unique platform to understand clinical heterogeneity. FXN is important for proper mitochondrial function, and is involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, metabolism ...


Design And Synthesis Of Toll-Like Receptor 8 Inhibitors: Optimizing The Potential Drugs For Autoimmune Diseases, Kyoin Koo Jan 2018

Design And Synthesis Of Toll-Like Receptor 8 Inhibitors: Optimizing The Potential Drugs For Autoimmune Diseases, Kyoin Koo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The first line of defense during infection relies on detecting the presence of pathogens and triggering pro-inflammatory responses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Among PRRs, Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) have been studied most extensively. TLRs are membrane receptors that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens and damaged cells to initiate immune responses. TLRs are good drug research targets because improper activation of TLRs has shown to be correlated with pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. TLR8 is an endogenous receptor that recognizes single-stranded RNA from viral infections. When TLR8 is improperly activated by self-RNAs, it can possibly lead to rheumatoid arthritis (RA ...


Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler Dec 2017

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani Oct 2017

Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Nanodiamonds (ND) are a carbon-based nanomaterial that are increasingly being proposed for developing novel imaging techniques, as carriers of biomolecules and therapeutic drugs, as coatings for implants, and for other biomedical applications. The exceptional chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of ND make this material suitable in a wide range of fields. The application of ND in the biomedical field is attractive but requires more in-depth investigation into the safety of ND and its interactions with different cells and systems. The effects of ND on the immune system are not fully understood or investigated and there are several controverting reports regarding ...


B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips May 2017

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


Therapeutic Modulation Of Cancer Metabolism With Dichloroacetate And Metformin, Nathan Patrick Ward Apr 2017

Therapeutic Modulation Of Cancer Metabolism With Dichloroacetate And Metformin, Nathan Patrick Ward

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The robust glycolytic metabolism of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has proven them susceptible to increases in oxidative metabolism induced by the pyruvate mimetic dichloroacetate (DCA). Recent reports demonstrate that the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhances the damaging oxidative stress associated with DCA treatment in cancer cells. We sought to elucidate the role of metformin’s reported activity as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor in the enhancement of DCA cytotoxicity in the VM-M3 model of GBM. We demonstrated that metformin potentiated DCA-induced superoxide production and that this was required for enhanced cytotoxicity towards VM-M3 cells with the combination. Similarly, rotenone enhanced oxidative stress ...


The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan Feb 2017

The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although cancer survival rates have significantly improved over the past few decades, the improvements are primarily due to early diagnosis and inhibiting cancer growth. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis, which contributes to 90% of cancer related deaths, and therapeutic agents targeting the various aspects of metastasis are lacking. One potential approach is to utilize small pharmacological compounds to inhibit tumour cell motility, as a strategy against tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The acetylenic tricyclic bis-(cyano enone), TBE-31, has been shown to be a promising chemopreventative compound. However, its effects on cell migration ...


Patholigical And Prognostic Role Of Mdig In Pancreatic Cancer, Srinivas Ashok Kumar Jan 2017

Patholigical And Prognostic Role Of Mdig In Pancreatic Cancer, Srinivas Ashok Kumar

Wayne State University Theses

Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignant disease having very limited therapeutic options that ultimately results in its poor prognosis. It is still elusive on the etiology and tumorigenic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer. In the present report, we provide evidence showing involvement of the mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) in the pathogenesis and prognosis of the pancreatic cancer. Using immunohistochemistry approach on human pancreatic cancer tissue microarray, we found differential expression of mdig in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and normal pancreas. Based on the staining intensities of mdig in these tissue samples, we found that 12% of the cancer tissues were strongly positive ...


Shedding Light On General Anesthesia: Uncovering The Molecular Mechanisms For Propofol And Volatile Anesthetics, Kellie Ann Woll Jan 2017

Shedding Light On General Anesthesia: Uncovering The Molecular Mechanisms For Propofol And Volatile Anesthetics, Kellie Ann Woll

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

General anesthetics have played a pivotal role in the history of medicine. Despite accounts of their use within the earliest of human records, our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms remains unclear. Understanding these molecular mechanisms would be a significant advance toward enhanced drug design and optimal the clinical use of these potentially hazardous agents. Recent advances in chemical and molecular biology, including photoaffinity labeling, have allowed enhanced appreciation of the complex interactions anesthetic’s have with their macromolecular substrates. This work is dedicated to further define the protein interactions of the frequently administered volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane, as well as ...


Defining Sites Of Replication Fork Collapse Caused By Atr Inhibition, Nishita Kalpendu Shastri Jan 2017

Defining Sites Of Replication Fork Collapse Caused By Atr Inhibition, Nishita Kalpendu Shastri

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

DEFINING SITES OF REPLICATION FORK COLLAPSE CAUSED BY ATR INHIBITION

Nishita K. Shastri

Eric J. Brown

Replication stress, characterized by stalling of DNA replication and the accumulation of abnormal replication intermediates, has been linked to the genomic instability observed in cancer. Previous studies have defined specific genomic sequences that are difficult to replicate to be more vulnerable to replication-associated breaks and rearrangements. However, many of these sequences have been identified through indirect and potentially biased approaches. To identify DNA sequences that contribute to replication-associated genomic instability, I will describe genome-wide screens I have performed to determine the location, sequence, and ...


Infusing Factor Viii-Expressing Platelets Or Megakaryocytes As A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For Hemophilia A, Randolph B. Lyde Jan 2017

Infusing Factor Viii-Expressing Platelets Or Megakaryocytes As A Novel Therapeutic Strategy For Hemophilia A, Randolph B. Lyde

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Approximately 1:5000 males have the most common inherited form of severe bleeding, hemophilia A, a deficiency of functional coagulation factor VIII. Patients with severe hemophilia A suffer from recurrent bleeding with significant morbidity and mortality with 20-30% of these patients developing antibodies to infused Factor (F) VIII therapy. One area of on-going research for treatments for these patients is ectopically expressing FVIII in megakaryocytes and platelets. This FVIII, termed pFVIII, is stored in alpha granules of platelets and is capable of restoring hemostasis in FVIIInull mice, even in the presence of circulating inhibitors. pFVIII has been proposed to be ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted Dec 2016

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Overcoming Toxicity From Transgene Overexpression Through Vector Design In Aav Gene Therapy For Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Diane L. Golebiowski Sep 2016

Overcoming Toxicity From Transgene Overexpression Through Vector Design In Aav Gene Therapy For Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Diane L. Golebiowski

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

GM2 gangliosidoses are a family of lysosomal storage disorders that include both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. These disorders result from deficiencies in the lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HexA). Impairment of HexA leads to accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside, in cells resulting in cellular dysfunction and death. There is currently no treatment for GM2 gangliosidoses. Patients primarily present with neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Here we developed a central nervous system gene therapy through direct injection that leads to long-term survival in the Sandhoff disease mouse model. We deliver an equal mixture of AAVrh8 vectors that encode for the two subunits (α ...


A Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Detect Developmental Teratogens With Adverse Reproductive And Metabolic Effects, Alexis Ann Killeen Jul 2016

A Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Detect Developmental Teratogens With Adverse Reproductive And Metabolic Effects, Alexis Ann Killeen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is a current epidemic in the United States. Greater than one third of adults and nearly one fifth of children are classified as obese (Ogden, 2014). Increased awareness of this problem has triggered interest into the potentially causal agents in our environment. These agents, termed obesogens, are a type of teratogen hypothesized to work during embryonic development by programming offspring to store excess fat. A type of teratogen, obesogens are also typically reprotoxic, affecting germline development and embryonic viability. These noxious teratogens span a variety of different chemical classes including estrogen mimics, metals and metalloids, biocides, and even voluntary ...


Investigation Of The Tailoring Steps In Pradimicin Biosynthesis, Kandy L. Napan May 2016

Investigation Of The Tailoring Steps In Pradimicin Biosynthesis, Kandy L. Napan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The actinobacteria Actinomadura hibisca synthesizes the natural products pradimicin A-C through a type II polyketide biosynthetic pathway. Eight tailoring enzymes in pradimicin biosynthesis have been investigated in this work, including PdmJ, PdmW, PdmN, PdmT, PdmO, PdmS, PdmQ and PdmF. PdmJ and PdmW were characterized as cytochrome P450 hydroxylases that catalyze the incorporation of two hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-6, respectively. These enzymes worked synergistically and their co-expression significantly improved the efficiency of the hydroxylation steps. PdmN is an amino acid ligase that accepts a variety of substrates and ligates a D-alanine moiety to C-16 to form the corresponding derivatives ...


Role Of Vav2 In Podocyte Inflammasome Activation And Glomerular Injury During Hyperhomocysteinemia, Sabena Conley Jan 2016

Role Of Vav2 In Podocyte Inflammasome Activation And Glomerular Injury During Hyperhomocysteinemia, Sabena Conley

Theses and Dissertations

Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) is a widely known pathogenic factor in the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and it is also associated with an increased risk for injurious cardiovascular pathologies during ESRD. HHcys is linked to the formation and activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, characterized as a critical early mechanism initiating the inflammatory response. NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in podocytes in response to elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcys) in vitro and in vivo. However, it remains unknown how NLRP3 inflammasome activation is triggered by NOX. The ...


Tamoxifen Mediated Metabolic Stress: Molecular Mechanism And Therapeutic Opportunities, Natalie Ann Daurio Jan 2016

Tamoxifen Mediated Metabolic Stress: Molecular Mechanism And Therapeutic Opportunities, Natalie Ann Daurio

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tamoxifen is the most widely used adjuvant chemotherapeutic for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, yet a large body of clinical and preclinical data indicates that tamoxifen can modulate multiple cellular processes independently of ER status. Here, we describe the ER-independent effects of tamoxifen on tumor metabolism. Using combined pharmacological and genetic knockout approaches, we demonstrate that tamoxifen inhibits oxygen consumption via inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, resulting in an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and activation of the AMPK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. We also show that tamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity is modulated by ...


With Or Without You: Studying The Requirement Of P53 For Anti-Cancer Responses To Nuclear Export Inhibitors, Andrea E. Doak Jan 2016

With Or Without You: Studying The Requirement Of P53 For Anti-Cancer Responses To Nuclear Export Inhibitors, Andrea E. Doak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Exportin-1 (XPO-1) is responsible for the movement of cargo proteins out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) bind XPO-1 at cysteine-528, which results in the sequestration of cargo proteins in the nucleus. SINE drugs are currently being developed and tested in the treatment of many types of cancers. One of the cargos, p53 may play an important role in the efficacy of SINE. To test the necessity of p53 in the action of SINE drugs, matched pairs of cell lines with wildtype or functionally disrupted p53 were analyzed for differences in their cell ...


Characterization Of P73 And Stat5b Genes That Are Susceptible To Manganese Exposure In Dopaminergic Neurons, Dongsuk Kim Jan 2016

Characterization Of P73 And Stat5b Genes That Are Susceptible To Manganese Exposure In Dopaminergic Neurons, Dongsuk Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element found in most living organisms. Chronic exposure to Mn has been linked to the pathogenesis of manganism, which displays neurological abnormalities somewhat similar to those associated with Parkinson's disease resulting from dysfunction of the extrapyramidal motor system within the basal ganglia. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying Mn induced neurotoxicity have not been defined. Oxidative stress mediated dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis is considered to be the prime mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity. Thus, we sought to identify the genes that are altered during Mn exposure and that lead us to elucidate the ...


The Effect Of Red Maple Leaf Toxicosis On Reduced Glutathione Levels In Equine Erythrocytes In Vitro, Madeline A. Rohl Apr 2015

The Effect Of Red Maple Leaf Toxicosis On Reduced Glutathione Levels In Equine Erythrocytes In Vitro, Madeline A. Rohl

Honors Thesis Projects

Red maple leaf toxicosis is an equine blood disorder resulting from the consumption of wilted red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves by horses. Compounds within the leaves of red maple have oxidative effects on equine erythrocytes and can cause hemolysis of erythrocytes, the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin, and the production of Heinz bodies. Reduced glutathione is important in the protection of equine erythrocytes from these oxidative events; however, in the presence of red maple toxin, glutathione is rapidly oxidized and is unavailable. The objective of this study is to determine whether the presence of vitamin C alters levels of ...


Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal Jan 2015

Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal

Theses and Dissertations

New drug discoveries and new approaches towards diagnosis and treatment have improved cancer therapeutics remarkably. One of the most influential and effective discoveries in the field of cancer therapeutics was antimetabolites, such as the antifolates. The interest in antifolates increased as some of the antifolates showed responses in cancers, such as mesothelioma, leukemia, and breast cancers. When pemetrexed (PTX) was discovered, our laboratory had established that the primary mechanism of action of pemetrexed is to inhibit thymidylate 22 synthase (TS) (E. Taylor et al., 1992). Preclinical studies have shown that PTX has a broad range of antitumor activity in human ...


The Therapeutic Targeting Of Folate Receptor Alpha Positive Tumors Via Folate Receptor Selective Novel 5- And 6- Substituted Pyrrolo [2,3-D]Pyrimidine Antifolates", Shermaine Kimberly Mitchell-Ryan Jan 2015

The Therapeutic Targeting Of Folate Receptor Alpha Positive Tumors Via Folate Receptor Selective Novel 5- And 6- Substituted Pyrrolo [2,3-D]Pyrimidine Antifolates", Shermaine Kimberly Mitchell-Ryan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Ovarian Cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death of women in the United States. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) constitutes 85-90% of malignancies within the ovary, with an alarming majority of these cases diagnosed at advanced stage. While most patients are initially highly responsive to the current treatment standard, there is a very high probability that they will recur with a drug resistant fatal disease. Currently there is no validated comprehensive model of disease progression for ovarian cancer, although tremendous progress has been made in understanding the origin of this disease and a putative precursor lesion has been identified ...


Therapeutic Targeting Of Bmp2 In Nf1-Deficient Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (Mpnsts), Sidra Ahsan Jan 2015

Therapeutic Targeting Of Bmp2 In Nf1-Deficient Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (Mpnsts), Sidra Ahsan

Wayne State University Dissertations

Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1)-deficient malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is an aggressive tumor for which the standard treatment is surgical removal with wide margins, often leaving behind cancer cells needing chemotherapy. RAS-GRD is the most widely studied functional target of NF1 implicated in tumorigenesis, however, therapeutic interventions targeting RAS activity have met with limited success. Using gene expression profiling, our lab identified BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathway as a therapeutic target in MPNSTs, independent of the NRAS and MEK1/2 regulation. The overall goal of my research was to validate the significance of BMP2 in MPNSTs in novel ...


Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai Jan 2015

Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

This work describes the fascinating interplay between two tumor suppressors Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) and p53. The guardian of the genome, p53, is frequently mutated in human cancers, and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. However, p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, and we observed that specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts could induce apoptosis selectively in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine apoptotic effect was executed by Par-4 secreted in response to p53 activation. Accordingly, activation of p53 in wild-type mice, but not in p53-/- or Par-4-/- mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient ...


Function Of Bromodomain And Extra-Terminal Motif Proteins (Bets) In Gata1-Mediated Transcription, Aaron James Stonestrom Jan 2015

Function Of Bromodomain And Extra-Terminal Motif Proteins (Bets) In Gata1-Mediated Transcription, Aaron James Stonestrom

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal motif proteins (BETs) associate with acetylated histones and transcription factors. While pharmacologic inhibition of this ubiquitous protein family is an emerging therapeutic approach for neoplastic and inflammatory disease, the mechanisms through which BETs act remain largely uncharacterized. Here we explore the role of BETs in the physiologically relevant context of erythropoiesis driven by the transcription factor GATA1. First, we characterize functions of the BET family as a whole using a pharmacologic approach. We find that BETs are broadly required for GATA1-mediated transcriptional activation, but that repression is largely BET-independent. BETs support activation by facilitating both GATA1 occupancy ...