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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Whole Tart Cherry Improves Disease Activity Index In Rat Model Of Dextran Sulfate Solution – Induced Ulcerative Colitis By Downregulating The Janus 1 And Janus 3 Kinases And Tnf - Alpha, Johana Alexandra Coronel Apr 2018

Whole Tart Cherry Improves Disease Activity Index In Rat Model Of Dextran Sulfate Solution – Induced Ulcerative Colitis By Downregulating The Janus 1 And Janus 3 Kinases And Tnf - Alpha, Johana Alexandra Coronel

LSU Master's Theses

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disabling inflammatory bowel disease. UC is characterized by chronic, relapsing inflammation of the colon and rectum. Current treatments such as monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12/p40, adhesion molecules, Janus kinases (JAK) inhibitors have side effects or lose their effects over time. Alternative approaches with fewer side effects for patients are needed. Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) are a good source of anti-inflammatory flavonoids. We hypothesized that regular consumption whole tart cherry (TC) standardized to its major anthocyanin content, namely cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside, would be effective in reducing inflammation in UC. The aim of this research was ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego Dec 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of all cancers with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.2%. This is because PDAC is diagnosed in its advanced stages and is characterized by radio and chemotherapy resistance. Aggressiveness of PDAC tumors is attributed to its high metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased glycolysis rate and lactate secretion, while oxidative metabolism is reduced. These metabolic features are required to fulfill the biosynthetic demands of proliferating PDAC cells. However, this increase in metabolic activity results in acidification of the extracellular space because the dense fibrotic stroma of PDAC tumors ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith Aug 2016

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...


Manipulating Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation To Reduce Fatness In Broiler Chickens, Tania Emmanuelle Torchon Aug 2015

Manipulating Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation To Reduce Fatness In Broiler Chickens, Tania Emmanuelle Torchon

Masters Theses

Compared to rodents, broiler chickens, those reared for meat, are an attractive model for studies of adipose biology, and obesity development in children. The broiler chicken lacks the gene for uncoupling protein 1, the hallmark for brown adipose tissue making them a useful model to study lipid metabolism in white adipocytes. Two studies were performed to investigate if white adipose tissue had the metabolic ability for fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on abdominal fat development of young broiler chickens as a model for childhood obesity. In study one, chickens were fasted for ...


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard Jul 2014

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard

Open Access Theses

Evidence suggests that high vitamin D status (marked by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)2 D) is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. It has been established that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) can alter glycolysis and the Krebs cycle of breast cancer cells (Jiang et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2013) but little information is available on 1,25(OH) 2 D's alterations of lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells. Thus, the current research investigates if there was an effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D on proteins that regulate lipid metabolism in ...


Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi Jul 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies have demonstrated that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring, faced with a nutritional mismatch postpartum, have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. The maternal protein restriction (MPR) rat model has been extensively studied to investigate the adverse effects of a nutritional mismatch in postnatal life of IUGR offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated that MPR leads to impaired function of the liver, an important metabolic organ. However the underlying mechanisms which predispose these offspring to the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. In the following studies, low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation led to IUGR offspring with decreased liver ...


Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li May 2013

Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The liver plays an important role in controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are often associated with profound changes in the expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dietary nutrients provide us with macronutrients for energy and micronutrients for maintenance of general health. However, the effects of individual micronutrients on the development of metabolic diseases are unknown. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is the master regulator of fatty acid synthesis, and glucokinase (GK) is the key enzyme in glucose metabolism. Based on the preliminary results from our laboratory ...


Effect Of Folate Deficiency And Aging On Mtor Signaling Network In The Liver Of Dna Polymerase B Haploinsufficient Mice, Amanda Lynn Arrabi Jan 2013

Effect Of Folate Deficiency And Aging On Mtor Signaling Network In The Liver Of Dna Polymerase B Haploinsufficient Mice, Amanda Lynn Arrabi

Wayne State University Theses

EFFECT OF FOLATE DEFICIENCY AND AGING ON mTOR SIGNALING NETWORK IN THE LIVER OF DNA POLYMERASE B HAPLOINSUFFICIENT MICE

by

AMANDA ARRABI

August 2013

Advisor: Dr. Ahmad R. Heydari

Major: Nutrition and Food Science

Degree: Masters of Science

The interaction between the dietary nutrients and the human genome causes some alterations in the molecular pathways that could significantly impact the development of cancer. The main approach to such concerns is to closely observe how the diet modifies the gene expressions that control several cellular processes in the human body. Folate deficiency (FD) has established an important role in modulating the ...


Green Tea Extract Protects Against Fibrogenesis Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Diet-Induced Obese Rats, Allyson M. Bower Aug 2012

Green Tea Extract Protects Against Fibrogenesis Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Diet-Induced Obese Rats, Allyson M. Bower

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll Aug 2012

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll

Masters Theses

Obesity is characterized by metabolic complications which are related to several life-threatening diseases. Dysregulated inflammatory adipokines secretion from adipose tissue is believed as the major contributor to obesity-associated local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and other metabolic dysfunctions.

Numerous studies in our lab and others pointed to the role of local adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocytes-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) played a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as adipose inflammation. To test, we established 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled sequence (Sc-shRNA). Transfected ...


Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight Jan 1999

Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

COS-1 cells were transfected transiently with expression vectors encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SACPD) from castor bean, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) from mice, and a control vector containing SACPD cDNA in reverse orientation. The hypothesis was that both exogenous desaturases would be active in COS-1 cells, thereby increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids produced by the cells. Messenger RNA and anti-myc immunoreactive proteins were detected at 12 and 24 hours post-transfection respectively and increased through 48 hours post-transfection. When acetate was used as the fatty acid precursor in cultures for a 24-hour period starting 24 hours post-transfection, the ratio of monounsaturated to ...


Characterization And Application Of A Novel Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobe, Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes Atcc 51222 , Ling Li Jan 1995

Characterization And Application Of A Novel Cholesterol-Reducing Anaerobe, Eubacterium Coprostanoligenes Atcc 51222 , Ling Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A novel cholesterol-reducing bacterium, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes ATCC 51222, was characterized and tested for its hypocholesterolemic effects in animal models. The bacterium did not require cholesterol for growth and synthesized cholesterol reductase constitutively. Lecithin was required for growth but excess lecithin in media did not improve bacterial growth and coprostanol production. Addition of pyruvate, lactose, and most reducing agents in media increased bacterial growth and coprostanol production. The bacterium was sensitive to most antibiotics but had strong resistance to tetracycline. A resting cell assay was established to evaluate the cholesterol reductase activity. E. coprostanoligenes reduced cholesterol through an indirect pathway. Intermediates ...


Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi Jan 1992

Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which codes for a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, were studied in bovine liver tissue. Induction of ketosis was attempted in cows by a protocol of restricting feed intake (FR) and supplementing with 1,3-butanediol (BD), a ketogenic precursor, beginning at 15 d postpartum (FRBD protocol). Twenty Holstein cows were distributed in equal numbers among four treatments: normal control, obese control, normal cows given FRBD, and obese cows given FRBD. Liver biopsies were obtained at nine different times during early lactation: 10 d prepartum, 5 and 14 d postpartum (just before ...