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Neuroscience and Neurobiology

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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini Jul 2019

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA molecules are diverse in form and function. They include messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are templates for proteins, splice products such as introns that can generate functional noncoding RNAs, and a slew of smaller RNAs such as transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that help decode mRNAs into proteins. RNAs can show distinct patterns of subcellular localization that play an important role in protein localization. However, RNA distribution in cells is incompletely understood, with prior studies focusing primarily on RNAs that are long (>200 nucleotides), fully processed, and polyadenylated. We examined the distribution of RNAs in neurons. Neuronal compartments can be separated by ...


Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle May 2019

Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the brain. About 40 different RGC types have been defined by differences in their visually evoked responses, morphology, and genetic makeup. These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al., 2017; Masland, 2012; Sanes & Masland, 2015; Werblin, 2011). Unlike most other areas of the central nervous system (CNS), the retina utilizes both GABA and glycine inhibitory neurotransmitters to refine glutamatergic excitatory signals (Franke & Baden, 2017; Werblin, 2011; C. Zhang, Nobles, & McCall, 2015). Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are heteromers composed of a single β subunit and one of four α subunits, with a stoichiometry of 3β:2α (Grudzinska et al., 2005; Heinze, Harvey, Haverkamp, & Wassle, 2007; Lynch ...


Investigating The Dysregulation And Therapeutic Potential Of Neuroprotective Stress Response Proteins In Huntington’S Disease, Julianne M. Rieders Jan 2019

Investigating The Dysregulation And Therapeutic Potential Of Neuroprotective Stress Response Proteins In Huntington’S Disease, Julianne M. Rieders

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic neurodegenerative disease that shares many features with other common neurological disorders, including early synapse loss. In both human HD brain and murine models, apoptotic pathways are dysregulated and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is reduced. These pathways are of particular interest because they regulate cell survival and metabolism, and enhancing mTORC1 is protective in HD models. RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is a stress response protein that promotes synaptic plasticity and cell survival, and is dysregulated in Alzheimer, prion and HD models. Hippocampal overexpression of RBM3 in Alzheimer ...


Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman Dec 2018

Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an idiopathic disorder with no known cure. With number of cases steadily rising around the world, it is imperative to turn to the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the disease manifestation and neurodegeneration to craft novel modes of therapy. VPS35 is one of the few genes that have identified and definitively linked to familial PD. The particular mutation that has been associated is known to cause dysfunction of a key cellular process known as autophagy. This process is primarily responsible for clearance of unwanted, damaged or misfolded proteins, among other things. Our study reveals ...


Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Motor Cortex Neuronal Morphology In Developmental Hyperserotonemia Rat Model, Colten Z. Dillinger

MSU Graduate Theses

Fetal serotonin levels are involved in the development of the serotonergic system in an autoregulatory manner as well as the organization and connectivity of non-serotonergic neurons. Insufficient serotonin levels during development result in improper neuronal maturation and decreased synaptogenesis. Conversely, excess developmental serotonin levels can alter the progression of serotonergic neurons, ultimately resulting in a chronic decrease of serotonin in the developed brain via a negative feedback mechanism. There is a known correlation between autistic patients and chronically decreased brain serotonin concentrations; this is potentially implicated in the impaired development of the autistic brain. Incomplete or delayed development of motor ...


Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger Aug 2018

Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Behavior in higher eukaryotes is a complex process which integrates signals in the environment, the genetic makeup of the organism, and connectivity in the nervous system to produce extremely diverse adaptations to the phenomenon of existence. Unraveling the subcellular components that contribute to behavioral output is important for both understanding how behavior occurs in an unperturbed state, as well as understanding how behavior changes when the underlying systems that generate it are altered. Of the numerous molecular species that make up a cell, the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the coding template of all proteins, is of key importance to ...


A Role Of Vitamin B2 In Reducing Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Caenorhabditis Elegans Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Muhammad Tukur Ameen May 2018

A Role Of Vitamin B2 In Reducing Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Caenorhabditis Elegans Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Muhammad Tukur Ameen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with amyloid-beta peptide deposition and loss of mitochondrial function. Using a transgenic C. elegans AD worm model expressing amyloid-beta in body wall muscle, we determined that supplementation with either of the forms of vitamin B2, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) protected against amyloid-beta mediated paralysis. FMN and FAD were then assayed to determine effects on ATP, oxygen consumption, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with these compounds not significantly improving any of these mitochondrial bioenergetic functions. Knockdown of the daf-16/FOXO transcriptional regulator or the FAD synthase enzyme completely abrogated the ...


Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol Mar 2018

Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol

All NMU Master's Theses

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...


The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest Jan 2018

The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Following injury, axons of the peripheral nervous system have retained the capacity for regeneration. While it is well established that injury signals require molecular motors for their transport from the injury site to the nucleus, whether kinesin and dynein motors play additional roles in peripheral nerve regeneration is not well understood. Here we use genetic mutants of motor proteins in a zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration model to visualize and define in vivo roles for kinesin and dynein. We find that both kinesin-1 and dynein are required for zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration. While loss of kinesin-1 reduced the overall robustness of ...


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark Jan 2018

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin (FXN) gene, resulting in decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein FXN. 2-3% of FRDA patients carry a GAA expansion on one FXN allele, and a missense mutation on the other. The mechanism behind the disease‐causing features remains elusive. The phenotype associated with patients carrying point mutations cannot be predicted with certainty; these patients can have a mild or severe clinical outcome, creating a unique platform to understand clinical heterogeneity. FXN is important for proper mitochondrial function, and is involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, metabolism ...


Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy Jan 2018

Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting millions worldwide. It has no known cure. Current pharmaceutical treatments have shown efficacy in only one of the three symptom clusters of schizophrenia, providing little or no benefit in the other two. Furthermore, the current standard-of-care drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics, carry risks of severe side effects affecting multiple body systems. Most patients opt to discontinue drug therapy within two years of initiation due to lack of efficacy and/or preponderance of adverse effects. Previous findings have shown that chronic usage of atypical antipsychotics causes a 5-HT2A-dependent upregulation of histone deacetylase ...


Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham Jan 2018

Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eusocial insect colonies divide behaviors among specialist groups called castes. In some species, caste identity is determined by the interaction of endogenous (e.g. genomic) and exogenous (e.g. juvenile hormone from nurses) signals during larval development, suggesting epigenetic mechanisms underlie plastic traits tied to caste identity. Previous work demonstrated a link between patterns of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and caste-specific gene expression in Major and Minor workers of the ant Camponotus floridanus, and we hypothesized caste-specific behaviors such as foraging may be similarly regulated by histone acetylation. To test this hypothesis, we fed mature (~30d old) Majors ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes Dec 2017

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer Oct 2017

Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na Sep 2017

Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mammals can detect and discriminate uncountable odors through their odorant receptors. To accommodate the countless and diverse odors, exceptionally large numbers of odorant receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mammals. In addition, the mammals utilize a combinatorial code, where an odorant molecule can activate multiple ORs; an OR also responds to a set of multiple odorants. In nature, an odor is often a complex mixture of multiple odorant molecules. The combination of the ORs activated by each constituent generates the unique olfactory code for the particular odor.

Some odorants can antagonize select ORs, as discussed in Chapter 1. An antagonist ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque Aug 2017

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Sex Differences In Differential Fear Conditioning During The Acquisition And Consolidation Of Learned Safety, David Sylvan Reis Aug 2017

Sex Differences In Differential Fear Conditioning During The Acquisition And Consolidation Of Learned Safety, David Sylvan Reis

Theses and Dissertations

The ability to distinguish between threatening and non-threatening situations requires careful regulation of behavioral and physiological responses to stress and fear. Deficits in fear regulation are maladaptive and can lead to the development of anxiety disorders such as PTSD. Women are nearly twice as likely to develop PTSD as are men and laboratory animal studies have shown facilitated fear acquisition, resistance to fear extinction, deficits in extinction retention and impaired discrimination between danger and safety cues in females. Taken together this suggests a propensity for reduced inhibitory control over fear responding in females. Here we investigate the mechanisms underlying fear ...


Pore-Lining Residues And Intracellular Magnesium Concentration Influence Connexin50 Gap Junction Unitary Channel Conductance, Mary Grace M. Tejada Jun 2017

Pore-Lining Residues And Intracellular Magnesium Concentration Influence Connexin50 Gap Junction Unitary Channel Conductance, Mary Grace M. Tejada

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gap junction (GJ) channels mediate direct intercellular communication. Each GJ channel consists of two hemichannels and each hemichannel is a hexamer of connexins. GJs formed by different connexins display different unitary channel conductance (γj) and intracellular magnesium modulation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. The present study investigates the effect of mutating putative pore-lining residues (G8, G46, and V53 individually or together) into glutamate in Cx50 on homotypic GJ channel properties. Expression of the triple and individual mutants in GJ-deficient N2A cells resulted in the formation of functional GJ channels similar to that of Cx50 GJs. However, the ...


Novel Mechanisms Regulating Dopamine Transporter Endocytic Trafficking: Ack1-Controlled Endocytosis And Retromer-Mediated Recycling, Sijia Wu Jan 2017

Novel Mechanisms Regulating Dopamine Transporter Endocytic Trafficking: Ack1-Controlled Endocytosis And Retromer-Mediated Recycling, Sijia Wu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Dopamine transporters (DAT) facilitate high-affinity presynaptic dopamine (DA) reuptake in the central nervous system, and are required to constrain extracellular DA levels and maintain presynaptic DAergic tone. DAT is the primary target for addictive and therapeutic psychostimulants, which require DAT binding to elicit reward. DAT availability at presynaptic terminals ensures its proper function, and is dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking. My thesis research focused on two fundamental questions: 1) what are the molecular mechanisms that control DAT endocytosis? and 2) what are the mechanism(s) that govern DAT’s post-endocytic fate? Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, I discovered that a ...


Sex Differences In Μ-Opioid Regulation Of The Rat Locus Coeruleus, Herminio Manuel Guajardo Jan 2017

Sex Differences In Μ-Opioid Regulation Of The Rat Locus Coeruleus, Herminio Manuel Guajardo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

There are sex differences in disease susceptibility, time of onset of symptoms, and drug responses. Notably, sex differences are particularly prominent in pain and opioid analgesic responses, with females being less sensitive to opioid analgesia. A major site of action of opioids in the brain is the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system. LC neurons express mu-opiate receptors (MOR), and MOR-agonists potently inhibit LC neuronal activity. Evidence suggests that endogenous opioids are released during stress, to restrain LC activation and to facilitate LC recovery when the stressor ends. On the basis of these observations, this dissertation tested the hypothesis that ...


Genetic Regulation Of Tmem106b In The Pathogenesis Of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration, Michael Gallagher Jan 2017

Genetic Regulation Of Tmem106b In The Pathogenesis Of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration, Michael Gallagher

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Neurodegenerative diseases are an emerging global health crisis, with the projected global cost of dementia alone expected to exceed $1 trillion, or >1% of world GDP, by 2018. However, there are no disease-modifying treatments for the major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying these diseases. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~200 genetic variants that are associated with risk of developing neurodegenerative disease, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown. This ...


Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Baggio A. Evangelista Jan 2017

Alpha-Synuclein: Insight Into The Hallmark Of Parkinson's Disease As A Target For Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics And Therapeutics, Baggio A. Evangelista

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. With 500,000 individuals currently living with Parkinson’s and nearly 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, this disease causes significant financial burden on the healthcare system - amassing to annual expenditures totaling 200 billion dollars; predicted to increase through 2050. The disease phenotype is characterized by a combination of a resting tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, and depression due to dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain. The cause of the neurotoxicity has been largely discussed, with strong evidence suggesting that the protein, alpha-Synuclein, is a key ...


Shedding Light On General Anesthesia: Uncovering The Molecular Mechanisms For Propofol And Volatile Anesthetics, Kellie Ann Woll Jan 2017

Shedding Light On General Anesthesia: Uncovering The Molecular Mechanisms For Propofol And Volatile Anesthetics, Kellie Ann Woll

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

General anesthetics have played a pivotal role in the history of medicine. Despite accounts of their use within the earliest of human records, our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms remains unclear. Understanding these molecular mechanisms would be a significant advance toward enhanced drug design and optimal the clinical use of these potentially hazardous agents. Recent advances in chemical and molecular biology, including photoaffinity labeling, have allowed enhanced appreciation of the complex interactions anesthetic’s have with their macromolecular substrates. This work is dedicated to further define the protein interactions of the frequently administered volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane, as well as ...


Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz Dec 2016

Mitogen And Morphogen Signaling Dysregulation: Pathophysiological Influence In Pancreatic Cancer And Alzheimer’S Disease, Eric Cruz

Theses & Dissertations

Although the etiology of a particular disease will vary, there are genetic and epigenetic bottlenecks that frequently converge resulting in dysregulation of mitogenic and morphogenetic signaling. This propensity is acutely experienced in malignancy and neurodegenerative disease.

Here, we have first investigated the role of dysregulated signaling in the context of pancreatic cancer (PC). Morphogenetic signaling has been regarded as a pleiotropic pathway with the potential to promote and inhibit metastatic features. Our investigation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), an archetypical member of the BMP superfamily, has revealed the presence of extracellular, intracellular, and long non-coding RNA products. Our findings ...


Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang Dec 2016

Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain. PD is also the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the second most common movement disorder. PD patients exhibit the cardinal symptoms, including tremor of the extremities, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability, after 70-80% of DA neurons degenerate. It is, therefore, imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the selective degeneration of DA neurons. Although increasing numbers of PD genes have been identified, why these largely widely expressed genes ...


Overcoming Toxicity From Transgene Overexpression Through Vector Design In Aav Gene Therapy For Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Diane L. Golebiowski Sep 2016

Overcoming Toxicity From Transgene Overexpression Through Vector Design In Aav Gene Therapy For Gm2 Gangliosidoses, Diane L. Golebiowski

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

GM2 gangliosidoses are a family of lysosomal storage disorders that include both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. These disorders result from deficiencies in the lysosomal enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (HexA). Impairment of HexA leads to accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside, in cells resulting in cellular dysfunction and death. There is currently no treatment for GM2 gangliosidoses. Patients primarily present with neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Here we developed a central nervous system gene therapy through direct injection that leads to long-term survival in the Sandhoff disease mouse model. We deliver an equal mixture of AAVrh8 vectors that encode for the two subunits (α ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad Aug 2016

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price Aug 2016

Exploring The Relationship Between Behaviour And Neurochemistry In The Polyphenic Spider, Anelosimus Studiosus (Araneae: Theridiidae), Jennifer B. Price

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The importance of social behaviour is evident in human society, but there are both costs and benefits associated with cooperation and sociality throughout the animal kingdom. At what point do the benefits outweigh the costs, and when do selective pressures favour sociality and colonization over solitude and independence? To investigate these questions, we have focused on an anomalous species of spider, Anelosimus studiosus, also known now as the northern social spider. Throughout its broad range, A. studiosus is solitary and aggressive, but recently, colonies of cooperative and social individuals have been observed at northern latitudes. This leads to two research ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder May 2016

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Masters Theses

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors. Accumulation of the transcription factors ΔFosB is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between ΔFosB and chronic alcohol consumption. There were four experimental groups in this study: Control (C), Sleep Deprivation only (SD), Alcohol Exposure only (AO), and both sleep deprivation and alcohol exposure (B). Levels of ΔFosB accumulation in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) revealed a significant main effect of sleep deprivation, but no ...


Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung Apr 2016

Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung

Open Access Dissertations

In neurons, normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are essential for preserving compartmentalized cellular function. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson’s disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal. However, it is not clear how Parkin plays a role in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, and whether the mature neurons possess a compartmentalized Parkin-dependent mitochondrial life cycle. Using the live Drosophila nervous system, here, I investigate the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics; organelle distribution, morphology and removal. Parkin deficient animals displayed less number of axonal mitochondria without disturbing organelle motility behaviors, morphology and metabolic ...