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Neuroscience and Neurobiology

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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil Aug 2020

The Role Of The Leucine-Rich (Leur) Domain Of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (Rgnef) In The Regulation Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als) Associated Protein Tar Dna-Binding Protein Of 43 Kda (Tdp-43), Hind Amzil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The presence of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) composed of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and neurofilaments is considered to be ALS’s neuropathological hallmark. RGNEF has been previously shown to interact with TDP-43 and to have a regulatory effect on the expression levels of NEFL mRNA and NFL protein in vitro. Here, I examined the mechanism of the RGNEF N-terminus, leucine-rich domain (LeuR) domain’s interaction with TDP-43. I observed that the minimal domain required is 110 amino acids (LeuR110), that the Ankyrin domain adjacent to LeuR110 does not participate, and that LeuR110 forms of a high molecular weight complex with TDP-43 ...


The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan May 2020

The Effects Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf-1) And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (Igfr) Regulation On Cognition And Structure Of Astrocytes, Sariya Khan

Honors Theses

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroendocrine signaling hormone that plays an integral role in bone and tissue growth and development. Inhibition of this hormone is known to disrupt the chemistry of the brain, resulting in cognitive impairments such as those seen in many common neurodegenerative diseases. While much research has been conducted on neurons and their relation with IGF-1, the role of astrocytes still needs to be explored. Our research investigates how astrocytes are affected as a result of IGF-1 regulation. Preliminary studies in our laboratory established a connection between IGF-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and in ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara Jan 2020

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini Jul 2019

Intron And Small Rna Localization In Mammalian Neurons, Harleen Saini

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

RNA molecules are diverse in form and function. They include messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are templates for proteins, splice products such as introns that can generate functional noncoding RNAs, and a slew of smaller RNAs such as transfer RNAs (tRNAs) that help decode mRNAs into proteins. RNAs can show distinct patterns of subcellular localization that play an important role in protein localization. However, RNA distribution in cells is incompletely understood, with prior studies focusing primarily on RNAs that are long (>200 nucleotides), fully processed, and polyadenylated. We examined the distribution of RNAs in neurons. Neuronal compartments can be separated by ...


Development Of A High-Throughput System For Screening Of Anti-Prion Molecules, Katherine Do May 2019

Development Of A High-Throughput System For Screening Of Anti-Prion Molecules, Katherine Do

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The misfolded prion protein causes and transmits disease in both humans and animals. As other infectious agents, prions display strain variation, which can generate different pathological outcomes in affected individuals. Unfortunately, there are no known therapies for these diseases, which at present are invariably fatal. In this work, the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification technology (PMCA, an in vitro test that replicates minimum quantities of infectious prions) has been modified to screen for small molecules inhibiting prion protein misfolding in a strain-specific manner. In order to approach a high-throughput PMCA system, technical aspects in PMCA has been optimized for application of ...


Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle May 2019

Glycine Receptor Expression Across Identified Retinal Ganglion Cell Types., Ian Scot Pyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) represent the culmination of all retinal signaling and their output forms the substrate for vision throughout the rest of the brain. About 40 different RGC types have been defined by differences in their visually evoked responses, morphology, and genetic makeup. These responses arise from interactions between inhibition and excitation throughout the retinal circuit (Franke et al., 2017; Masland, 2012; Sanes & Masland, 2015; Werblin, 2011). Unlike most other areas of the central nervous system (CNS), the retina utilizes both GABA and glycine inhibitory neurotransmitters to refine glutamatergic excitatory signals (Franke & Baden, 2017; Werblin, 2011; C. Zhang, Nobles, & McCall, 2015). Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are heteromers composed of a single β subunit and one of four α subunits, with a stoichiometry of 3β:2α (Grudzinska et al., 2005; Heinze, Harvey, Haverkamp, & Wassle, 2007; Lynch ...


The Drosophila Neuroblasts: A Model System For Human Ribosomopathies, Sonu Shrestha Baral Mar 2019

The Drosophila Neuroblasts: A Model System For Human Ribosomopathies, Sonu Shrestha Baral

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the use of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs) to model human ribosomopathies; the overall goal is to understand why specific stem cell and progenitor cell populations are the primary targets in nucleolar stress as seen in the ribosomopathies. Chapter 1 provides an overview of relevant literature. Chapter 2 describes nucleolar stress in Drosophila neuroblasts as a model for human ribosomopathies. For this, we induce nucleolar stress by using the UAS-GAL4 system to express RNAi that depletes Nopp140 transcripts, and we also employ homozygous, CRISPR-Cas9-generated Nopp140 gene disruptions with a systemic null phenotype (Nopp140-/-). Embryonic lethality was observed under RNAi ...


Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval Feb 2019

Ck2 Negatively Regulates 5-Ht4 Receptor Signaling In The Prefrontal Cortex And Mediates Depression-Like Behaviors, Julia Castello Saval

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The serotonergic system has been the major candidate in the pathophysiology of mood related disorders such as anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, current antidepressant drugs are ineffective in 50% of the population and require chronic administration for a period of 3-6 weeks before the onset of therapeutic response. 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) agonists have emerged as potential candidates for fast antidepressant action, since an antidepressant response can be achieved after 3 days of pharmacological administration in rodents.

This dissertation aims to investigate the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a regulator of 5-HT4R expression ...


The Role Of H3k4 Methyltransferases In Drosophila Memory, Nicholas Raun Jan 2019

The Role Of H3k4 Methyltransferases In Drosophila Memory, Nicholas Raun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Gene transcription required for long-term memory requires the modification of histones. However, there are still many uncertainties about the identity and spatial expression of genes regulated by histone modifications during memory related processes. In this project I examined the role of Drosophila melanogaster methyltransferases Set1 and trx in courtship memory. Genetic knockdown of Set1 and trx in the mushroom body (MB) revealed that Set1 was necessary for short- and long-term memory, while trx was only required for long-term memory. Transcriptional profiling of MBs following trx-knockdown revealed expression changes in MB-enriched genes and genes involved in RNA processing. Among the ...


Investigating The Dysregulation And Therapeutic Potential Of Neuroprotective Stress Response Proteins In Huntington’S Disease, Julianne M. Rieders Jan 2019

Investigating The Dysregulation And Therapeutic Potential Of Neuroprotective Stress Response Proteins In Huntington’S Disease, Julianne M. Rieders

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic neurodegenerative disease that shares many features with other common neurological disorders, including early synapse loss. In both human HD brain and murine models, apoptotic pathways are dysregulated and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is reduced. These pathways are of particular interest because they regulate cell survival and metabolism, and enhancing mTORC1 is protective in HD models. RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is a stress response protein that promotes synaptic plasticity and cell survival, and is dysregulated in Alzheimer, prion and HD models. Hippocampal overexpression of RBM3 in Alzheimer ...


Genetic And Epigenetic Modifiers Of C9orf72 Expression In Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Cali Jan 2019

Genetic And Epigenetic Modifiers Of C9orf72 Expression In Neurodegenerative Disease, Christopher Cali

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Repeat expansion mutations in the gene C9orf72 are the most common cause of the fatal neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). The molecular mechanisms that contribute to these diseases are still not fully understood. In this dissertation, we explore mechanisms associated with repeat expansions in C9orf72 that alter gene expression and contribute to disease. In chapter 2, we develop a novel method of targeted DNA methylation in order to study how epigenetic changes in C9orf72 expansion carriers contribute to disease pathways. We find that C9orf72 promoter hypermethylation is sufficient to reduce gene expression and induce heterochromatin ...


Biomarkers Of Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, And Nutrition And The Brain, Kelsey Elizabeth Mclimans Jan 2019

Biomarkers Of Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, And Nutrition And The Brain, Kelsey Elizabeth Mclimans

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that has been linked with nutrition and lifestyle choices throughout the lifespan. Although there is currently no cure, recent research supports dietary changes as a preventative measure for AD. However, it is not clear which nutritional markers underlie the structural and functional changes in the brain that are seen in AD, and subsequently what aspect of the diet should be targeted in AD prevention and treatment. The projects described in this dissertation provide four nutritional biomarkers that are associated with AD pathology: the metabolism-regulating enzyme autotaxin, the insulin transporter and modifier insulin-like ...


Mutations Of Fus Cause Aggregation Of Rna Binding Proteins, Disruptions In Protein Synthesis, And Dysregulation Of Nonsense Mediated Decay, Marisa Elizabeth Kamelgarn Jan 2019

Mutations Of Fus Cause Aggregation Of Rna Binding Proteins, Disruptions In Protein Synthesis, And Dysregulation Of Nonsense Mediated Decay, Marisa Elizabeth Kamelgarn

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death and subsequent muscle atrophy. Approximately 15% of ALS cases are inheritable, and mutations in the Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) gene contribute to approximately 5% of these cases, as well as about 2% of sporadic cases. FUS performs a diverse set of cellular functions, including being a major regulator of RNA metabolism. FUS undergoes liquid- liquid phase transition in vitro, allowing for its participation in stress granules and RNA transport granules. Phase transition also contributes to the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions found in the cell bodies of ...


Biochemical Approaches For The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lafora Disease, Mary Kathryn Brewer Jan 2019

Biochemical Approaches For The Diagnosis And Treatment Of Lafora Disease, Mary Kathryn Brewer

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Glycogen is the sole carbohydrate storage molecule found in mammalian cells and plays an important role in cellular metabolism in nearly all tissues, including the brain. Defects in glycogen metabolism underlie the glycogen storage diseases (GSDs), genetic disorders with variable clinical phenotypes depending on the mutation type and affected gene(s). Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy and a non-classical GSD. LD typically manifests in adolescence with tonic-clonic seizures, myoclonus, and a rapid, insidious progression. Patients experience increasingly severe and frequent epileptic episodes, loss of speech and muscular control, disinhibited dementia, and severe cognitive decline ...


Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman Dec 2018

Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an idiopathic disorder with no known cure. With number of cases steadily rising around the world, it is imperative to turn to the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the disease manifestation and neurodegeneration to craft novel modes of therapy. VPS35 is one of the few genes that have identified and definitively linked to familial PD. The particular mutation that has been associated is known to cause dysfunction of a key cellular process known as autophagy. This process is primarily responsible for clearance of unwanted, damaged or misfolded proteins, among other things. Our study reveals ...


Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger Aug 2018

Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Behavior in higher eukaryotes is a complex process which integrates signals in the environment, the genetic makeup of the organism, and connectivity in the nervous system to produce extremely diverse adaptations to the phenomenon of existence. Unraveling the subcellular components that contribute to behavioral output is important for both understanding how behavior occurs in an unperturbed state, as well as understanding how behavior changes when the underlying systems that generate it are altered. Of the numerous molecular species that make up a cell, the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the coding template of all proteins, is of key importance to ...


Novel Approaches To Studying The Effects Of Cis-Regulatory Variants In The Central Nervous System, Susan Shen May 2018

Novel Approaches To Studying The Effects Of Cis-Regulatory Variants In The Central Nervous System, Susan Shen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For decades, studies of the genetic basis of disease have focused on rare coding mutations that disrupt protein function, leading to the identification of hundreds of genes underlying Mendelian diseases. However, many complex diseases are non-Mendelian, and less than 2% of the genome is coding. It is now clear that non-coding variants contribute to disease susceptibility, but the precise underlying mechanisms are generally unknown. Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are transcription factor (TF)-bound genomic regions that regulate gene expression, and variants within CREs can therefore modify gene expression. The putative locations of CREs in a variety of cell types have been ...


A Role Of Vitamin B2 In Reducing Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Caenorhabditis Elegans Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Muhammad Tukur Ameen May 2018

A Role Of Vitamin B2 In Reducing Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Caenorhabditis Elegans Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Muhammad Tukur Ameen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with amyloid-beta peptide deposition and loss of mitochondrial function. Using a transgenic C. elegans AD worm model expressing amyloid-beta in body wall muscle, we determined that supplementation with either of the forms of vitamin B2, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) protected against amyloid-beta mediated paralysis. FMN and FAD were then assayed to determine effects on ATP, oxygen consumption, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with these compounds not significantly improving any of these mitochondrial bioenergetic functions. Knockdown of the daf-16/FOXO transcriptional regulator or the FAD synthase enzyme completely abrogated the ...


Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol Mar 2018

Characterization Of The Roles Of Muscle-Synthesized Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor And Presynaptic Tyrosine Receptor Kinase B In Motor Neuron Axonal Transport, Luke A. Vanosdol

All NMU Master's Theses

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small, diffusible protein essential for the development and function of neurons. It is synthesized by many types of tissue, including muscle. BDNF actions are mediated via binding to its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB). The BDNF-TrkB complex is endocytosed into a specialized vesicle, which induces downstream signaling cascades locally in the dendrites, or, more often, is delivered to the cell soma via retrograde axonal transport, where it modulates gene expression. BDNF activation of TrkB is critical for the initiation of axonal transport, and this cellular process relies on the interaction of numerous adaptor ...


The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest Jan 2018

The Role Of Molecular Motors In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Melissa D. Priest

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Following injury, axons of the peripheral nervous system have retained the capacity for regeneration. While it is well established that injury signals require molecular motors for their transport from the injury site to the nucleus, whether kinesin and dynein motors play additional roles in peripheral nerve regeneration is not well understood. Here we use genetic mutants of motor proteins in a zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration model to visualize and define in vivo roles for kinesin and dynein. We find that both kinesin-1 and dynein are required for zebrafish peripheral nerve regeneration. While loss of kinesin-1 reduced the overall robustness of ...


Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark Jan 2018

Investigating Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mild Phenotype In Friedreich Ataxia Patients With G130v Missense Mutation, Elisia Clark

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the frataxin (FXN) gene, resulting in decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein FXN. 2-3% of FRDA patients carry a GAA expansion on one FXN allele, and a missense mutation on the other. The mechanism behind the disease‐causing features remains elusive. The phenotype associated with patients carrying point mutations cannot be predicted with certainty; these patients can have a mild or severe clinical outcome, creating a unique platform to understand clinical heterogeneity. FXN is important for proper mitochondrial function, and is involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, metabolism ...


Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham Jan 2018

Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eusocial insect colonies divide behaviors among specialist groups called castes. In some species, caste identity is determined by the interaction of endogenous (e.g. genomic) and exogenous (e.g. juvenile hormone from nurses) signals during larval development, suggesting epigenetic mechanisms underlie plastic traits tied to caste identity. Previous work demonstrated a link between patterns of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and caste-specific gene expression in Major and Minor workers of the ant Camponotus floridanus, and we hypothesized caste-specific behaviors such as foraging may be similarly regulated by histone acetylation. To test this hypothesis, we fed mature (~30d old) Majors ...


Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy Jan 2018

Chronic Clozapine Treatment Impairs Functional Activation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2 Via An Hdac2-Depedent Mechanism, Travis M. Cuddy

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder affecting millions worldwide. It has no known cure. Current pharmaceutical treatments have shown efficacy in only one of the three symptom clusters of schizophrenia, providing little or no benefit in the other two. Furthermore, the current standard-of-care drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics, carry risks of severe side effects affecting multiple body systems. Most patients opt to discontinue drug therapy within two years of initiation due to lack of efficacy and/or preponderance of adverse effects. Previous findings have shown that chronic usage of atypical antipsychotics causes a 5-HT2A-dependent upregulation of histone deacetylase ...


The Regulation Of Extracellular Amyloid-Β Levels By Ionotropic Glutamatergic Transmission In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Jane Cecelia Hettinger Dec 2017

The Regulation Of Extracellular Amyloid-Β Levels By Ionotropic Glutamatergic Transmission In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Jane Cecelia Hettinger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Brain extracellular concentration of the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major contributor to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. High Aβ levels in the extracellular space precipitate aggregation of the peptide into soluble and insoluble toxic species. This process begins decades before cognitive impairment and triggers the cascade of pathology that eventually leads to AD. Synaptic activity is key to the regulation of extracellular Aβ levels. Presynaptic activity drives the production of Aβ, while postsynaptic receptor activation exhibits more nuanced regulation. For example, high levels of NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) activation have been shown to decrease Aβ production through the extracellular signal-regulated ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes Dec 2017

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer Oct 2017

Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na Sep 2017

Pharmacological Antagonism And The Olfactory Code, Mihwa Na

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mammals can detect and discriminate uncountable odors through their odorant receptors. To accommodate the countless and diverse odors, exceptionally large numbers of odorant receptor (OR) genes are expressed in mammals. In addition, the mammals utilize a combinatorial code, where an odorant molecule can activate multiple ORs; an OR also responds to a set of multiple odorants. In nature, an odor is often a complex mixture of multiple odorant molecules. The combination of the ORs activated by each constituent generates the unique olfactory code for the particular odor.

Some odorants can antagonize select ORs, as discussed in Chapter 1. An antagonist ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque Aug 2017

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


Sex Differences In Differential Fear Conditioning During The Acquisition And Consolidation Of Learned Safety, David Sylvan Reis Aug 2017

Sex Differences In Differential Fear Conditioning During The Acquisition And Consolidation Of Learned Safety, David Sylvan Reis

Theses and Dissertations

The ability to distinguish between threatening and non-threatening situations requires careful regulation of behavioral and physiological responses to stress and fear. Deficits in fear regulation are maladaptive and can lead to the development of anxiety disorders such as PTSD. Women are nearly twice as likely to develop PTSD as are men and laboratory animal studies have shown facilitated fear acquisition, resistance to fear extinction, deficits in extinction retention and impaired discrimination between danger and safety cues in females. Taken together this suggests a propensity for reduced inhibitory control over fear responding in females. Here we investigate the mechanisms underlying fear ...