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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Artificial Intron Technology To Generate Conditional Knock-Out Mice, Amber N. Thomas-Gordon Aug 2020

Artificial Intron Technology To Generate Conditional Knock-Out Mice, Amber N. Thomas-Gordon

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genetic engineering has been re-shaped by the invention of new tools in modern biotechnology in a way that offers precision and efficiency in modifying the genome at a single nucleotide level and/or allowing precise control of gene expression. Such gene manipulation brings about significant findings and revelations in comprehending more about embryonic development, cellular and physiological functions, and disease pathology. Current methods used to produce conditional knockouts have limitations on conditional allele placement and modification varies among genes in different organisms. Thus, a system for generating conditional alleles with fidelity remains a challenge. My goal was to examine an ...


Building The Interphase Nucleus: A Study On The Kinetics Of 3d Chromosome Formation, Temporal Relation To Active Transcription, And The Role Of Nuclear Rnas, Kristin N. Abramo Jul 2020

Building The Interphase Nucleus: A Study On The Kinetics Of 3d Chromosome Formation, Temporal Relation To Active Transcription, And The Role Of Nuclear Rnas, Kristin N. Abramo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Following the discovery of the one-dimensional sequence of human DNA, much focus has been directed on microscopy and molecular techniques to learn about the spatial organization of chromatin in a 3D cell. The development of these powerful tools has enabled high-resolution, genome-wide analysis of chromosome structure under many different conditions. In this thesis, I focus on how the organization of interphase chromatin is established and maintained following mitosis. Mitotic chromosomes are folded into helical loop arrays creating short and condensed chromosomes, while interphase chromosomes are decondensed and folded into a number of structures at different length scales ranging from loops ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh Jun 2020

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Investigating The Redox Sensitivity Of Mitf Splice Variants, Rachel Berryman May 2020

Investigating The Redox Sensitivity Of Mitf Splice Variants, Rachel Berryman

Senior Theses

Within pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes, the transcription factor MITF is intimately involved in regulating genes associated with cell cycle maintenance and melanocyte differentiation. Research, however, has provided conflicting results on the relationship between the expression levels of MITF and melanocyte cell fate. To complicate matters, two splice variants of MITF exist, differing by only 18 base pairs. These variants have been observed at variable levels of expression in melanocyte and melanoma cells, raising the question as to their functional purpose. Building upon previous research by the Leachman/Cassidy lab that identified the redox sensitivity of MITF while additionally establishing ...


Cloning, Expression, Purification And Characterization Of Heparin-Binding Pocket Of Recombinant Fgf1, Quratulayn Ashraf May 2020

Cloning, Expression, Purification And Characterization Of Heparin-Binding Pocket Of Recombinant Fgf1, Quratulayn Ashraf

Theses and Dissertations

Fibroblast growth factors are polypeptide members of the FGF family, which to date comprises of at least 22 members. They belong to a group of growth factors and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including wound healing, angiogenesis, differentiation and development (organogenesis). Amongst FGF members, human acidic FGF-1 and basic FGF-2 are the most characterized. FGF-1 and FGF-2 are known to share more than 80% sequence similarity and have an identical structural fold. However, their biological roles are quite different. FGFs bind to heparin and heparan sulfate ligands through their heparin-binding pockets. The interactions are primarily electrostatic in ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


A Putative Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Homolog Of Mycolicibacterium Smegmatis Is Involved In De Novo Cysteine Biosynthesis, Saroj Kumar Mahato May 2020

A Putative Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Homolog Of Mycolicibacterium Smegmatis Is Involved In De Novo Cysteine Biosynthesis, Saroj Kumar Mahato

Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacteria include serious pathogens of humans and animals. Mycolicibacterium smegmatis is a non-pathogenic model that is widely used to study core mycobacterial metabolism. This thesis explores mycobacterial pathways of cysteine biosynthesis by generating and study of genetic mutants of M. smegmatis. Published in vitro biochemical studies had revealed three independent routes to cysteine synthesis in mycobacteria involving separate homologs of cysteine synthase, namely CysK1, CysK2, and CysM. However, in vivo data were lacking. The M. smegmatis genome encodes only a CysM homolog and lacks orthologs for CysK1 or CysK2. The gene that codes for CysM is a part of an ...


Cloning, Protein Expression, And Characterization Of Interleukin 1 Alpha, Musaab Habeeb Ali Al Ameer May 2020

Cloning, Protein Expression, And Characterization Of Interleukin 1 Alpha, Musaab Habeeb Ali Al Ameer

Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant DNA technology and the ability to produce recombinant proteins have significantly changed the world of pharmaceutical market. Recombinant DNA technology using E. coli cells has successfully produced many therapeutic proteins. In this study, the designed tag Ark-RUBY-tag facilitates rapid, and reproducible purification of recombinant proteins expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. Purification of Ark-RUBY-fused recombinant protein(s) can be obtained by using imidazole fractions. Target protein can be easily removed from the Ark-RUBY-tag by enzymatic cleavage. Ark-RUBY-fused recombinant proteins can be quantitatively detected using polyclonal antibodies. Ark-RUBY-tag can be used to purify small peptides. By using Ark-RUBY-tag ...


To Mid-Cell And Beyond: Characterizing The Roles Of Gpsb And Ypsa In Cell Division Regulation In Gram-Positive Bacteria, Robert S. Brzozowski Mar 2020

To Mid-Cell And Beyond: Characterizing The Roles Of Gpsb And Ypsa In Cell Division Regulation In Gram-Positive Bacteria, Robert S. Brzozowski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is a tubulin homolog that forms a ring-like structure at the site of cell division in most bacterial species. There it acts as a scaffold, aiding in the recruitment of other divisome proteins to the site of cell division. Furthermore, studies focusing on the role of FtsZ treadmilling and septal peptidoglycan synthesis implicates that FtsZ plays a direct role in the ultimate closure of the division septum. Thus, many studies in the field of bacterial cell division have focused on FtsZ in terms of its spatial and temporal regulation as well as its ability ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine Jan 2020

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd Jan 2020

The Exploration Of Nanotoxicological Copper And Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids, Matthew Joseph Winans Phd

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Nanotechnology takes advantage of cellular biology’s natural nanoscale operations by interacting with biomolecules differently than soluble or bulk materials, often altering normal cellular processes such as metabolism or growth. To gain a better understanding of how copper nanoparticles hybridized on cellulose fibers called carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) affected growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mechanisms of toxicity were explored. Multiple methodologies covering genetics, proteomics, metallomics, and metabolomics were used during this investigation. The work that lead to this dissertation discovered that these cellulosic copper nanoparticles had a unique toxicity compared to copper. Further investigation suggested a possible ionic or molecular mimicry ...


Role Of Ciliary Proteins Adp Ribosylation Factor Like Gtpase 13b (Arl13b) And Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (Bbs8) In Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis, Maintenance, And Viability, Tanya L. Dilan Jan 2020

Role Of Ciliary Proteins Adp Ribosylation Factor Like Gtpase 13b (Arl13b) And Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (Bbs8) In Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis, Maintenance, And Viability, Tanya L. Dilan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Photoreceptor neurons are modified primary cilia with an extended ciliary compartment known as the outer segment (OS). The mechanisms behind the elaboration of photoreceptor cilia, OS morphogenesis, and maintenance remain poorly understood. In this work, we focused on dissecting the role of two ciliary proteins, the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor-like GTPase 13B (ARL13B) and Bardet-Biedl Syndrome-8 (BBS8) in the context of photoreceptor biology. Both BBS8 and ARL13B are linked to defects in ciliogenesis (cilia development) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (vision loss). ARL13B is implicated in regulating ciliary length, and BBS8 is part of the Bardet-Biedl Syndrome complex (BBSome); the BBSome is ...


Characterization Of The Influences Of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein O (Go) Expression On Gh/Gl Complexes Assembly And Its Polymorphisms On Cell-Free And Cell-To-Cell Spread, And Antibody Neutralization., Le Z. Day Jan 2020

Characterization Of The Influences Of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein O (Go) Expression On Gh/Gl Complexes Assembly And Its Polymorphisms On Cell-Free And Cell-To-Cell Spread, And Antibody Neutralization., Le Z. Day

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widely spread throughout the world and immunocompromised individuals can suffer severe diseases from HCMV infection. Once the infection is established, HCMV can spread through the body and infect many major somatic cell types. The glycoproteins H and L (gH/gL) on HCMV envelope can be bound by either gO or the UL128-131 proteins to form complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 that are critical for viral entry and spread, and these two complexes are important targets of neutralizing antibodies. Strains of HCMV vary considerably in the levels of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL ...


Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara Jan 2020

Non-Invasive Method For Leptin Supplementation In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Regan Mcnamara

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

I tested the hypothesis that recombinant leptin protein can be introduced to zebrafish in vivo through non-invasive soaking in a solution containing the protein. One way to study various molecules’ effects in vivo is through intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections during the embryonic or larval stage, which is invasive, difficult to administer, and can have a high mortality rate. 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish were soaked in a His-tagged recombinant leptin protein solution at 10 nM and 100 nM concentrations (produced by Genscript). After soaking, zebrafish larvae were washed extensively to remove all recombinant protein on their exterior before homogenization ...


A Noncanonical Function Of The Telomerase Rna Component In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Kirsten Ann Brenner Dec 2019

A Noncanonical Function Of The Telomerase Rna Component In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Kirsten Ann Brenner

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Telomeres are stretches of TTAGGG nucleotide repeats located at the ends of linear chromosomes that shorten with progressive cell division and prevent genomic instability at the cost of limiting a cell’s capacity to proliferate. This limitation can be overcome by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex that elongates telomeres via reverse-transcription of the template telomerase RNA component (TERC). Recent studies have reported potential functions of TERC outside of its role in telomere maintenance. These noncanonical functions of TERC are however poorly defined, and the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance behind such functions remain elusive. Here, we generated conditional TERC knock-out human ...


Toward Understanding The Mechanism Of Protein Targeting In The Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Pathway, Mercede Furr Dec 2019

Toward Understanding The Mechanism Of Protein Targeting In The Chloroplast Signal Recognition Particle Pathway, Mercede Furr

Theses and Dissertations

Protein targeting is a vital cellular function. The signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway is a universally conserved targeting system present in the cytosol and used to co-translationally target many proteins to the inner membrane of prokaryotes and the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes. The chloroplast has a homologous SRP system which post-translationally targets light harvesting chlorophyll binding proteins (LHCPs) to the thylakoid membrane for integration. The chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) is a heterodimer with a 54 kDa subunit equivalent to SRP54 in the canonical pathway. In addition, cpSRP contains a novel 43 kDa subunit which is a unique and irreplaceable component. cpSRP43 ...


Natural Variation In Yeast Stress Signaling Reveals Multiple Paths To Similar Phenotypes, Amanda N. Scholes Dec 2019

Natural Variation In Yeast Stress Signaling Reveals Multiple Paths To Similar Phenotypes, Amanda N. Scholes

Theses and Dissertations

Natural environments are dynamic, and organisms must sense and respond to changing conditions. One common way organisms deal with stressful environments is through gene expression changes, allowing for stress acclimation and resistance. Variation in stress sensing and signaling can potentially play a large role in how individuals with different genetic backgrounds are more or less resilient to stress. However, the mechanisms underlying how gene expression variation affects organismal fitness is often obscure.

To understand connections between gene expression variation and stress defense phenotypes, we have been exploiting natural variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress responses using a unique phenotype called acquired ...


The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang Aug 2019

The Gsk-3Β-Fbxl21 Axis Regulates Tcap Via Ubiquitin-Mediated Proteasomal Pathway In The Cytoplasm, Jiah Yang

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein turnover is one of the most essential mechanisms controlling circadian rhythms. F-Box and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein21 (FBXL21) is a circadian E3 ligase which shows oscillatory mRNA transcripts and protein levels. It was previously found to perform subcellular compartment-specific E3 ligase activities targeting the core clock proteins CRYPTOCHROME(CRY)1/2. Here we identified a new sarcomeric target substrate, Telethonin(TCAP), which also shows circadian oscillation in its mRNA transcript and protein expression and, importantly, interaction with FBXL21 in an anti-phasic manner. Via computational and pharmacological tests, we identified Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β(GSK-3β) as a regulator of FBXL21. Biochemical ...


Deubiquitinating Enzymes Promote Cancer Progression And Metastasis Via Regulating Protein Stability, Zhenna Xiao Aug 2019

Deubiquitinating Enzymes Promote Cancer Progression And Metastasis Via Regulating Protein Stability, Zhenna Xiao

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs, also called deubiquitinases) are enzymes that remove monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin chains from target proteins. DUBs have critical roles in cell homeostasis and signal transduction, as they regulate protein degradation, subcellular localization, and protein-protein interaction. Deregulation of DUBs contributes substantially to tumor formation and progression, and therefore targeting DUBs may be a promising cancer therapy strategy. My dissertation focuses on identifying the DUBs of EZH2 and SNAI1, two proteins critical for cancer progression and metastasis, and establishing these DUBs as promising anti-cancer targets.

EZH2, the catalytic component of the PRC2 complex, silences gene transcription by histone methylation. High ...


The Distinct Expressions Of Integrins Αdβ2 And Αmβ2 Differently Regulate Macrophage Migration In 3d Matrix In Vitro And In Tissue During Inflammation, Kui Cui Aug 2019

The Distinct Expressions Of Integrins Αdβ2 And Αmβ2 Differently Regulate Macrophage Migration In 3d Matrix In Vitro And In Tissue During Inflammation, Kui Cui

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic inflammation is an essential mechanism during the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The outcome of diseases depends on the balance between the migration and accumulation of macrophages in damaged tissues. Macrophage motility is highly regulated by adhesive receptors, integrins. Namely, intermediate expression of integrin supports macrophage migration, while a high integrin density inhibits it. Our studies are focused on evaluation of the contribution of related integrins αDβ2 and αMβ2 to macrophage migration and development of chronic inflammation.

We found that integrin αDβ2 is upregulated on M1-macrophages in vitro and ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali Aug 2019

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Targeting Pten For Therapy In Cancer And Ptenopathies, Emily Palumbo Jul 2019

Targeting Pten For Therapy In Cancer And Ptenopathies, Emily Palumbo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PTEN, a dual protein and lipid phosphatase, regulates a myriad of cellular functions including PI3K pathway signaling, cell migration, proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. PTEN mutations often lead to multiple malignancies, including prostate, breast, endometrial, skin and brain cancers, associated with hyperactive PI3K signaling. PTEN mutations have also been associated with a variety of other diseases, classified as PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes (PHTS). In addition, compromised function or reduced expression of PTEN due to non-genomic mechanisms are associated with many types of hyperproliferative diseases, such as restenosis and neoplastic diseases, including melanoma, lung, breast, prostate and colon cancers. Although PI3K pathway ...


The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller Jul 2019

The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TR) are an immunosuppressive subset of CD4+ T cells that maintain homeostasis of the immune system. They are sustained by the interaction between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules present on antigen presenting dendritic cells and the T Cell Receptor (TCR) expressed on TR cells that is specific for the MHC loaded with an antigenic peptide. Here, we show that in addition to MHC/TCR interaction, Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression by dendritic cells is required to maintain the TR cell population. CD11c+ dendritic cells represent a major subset of antigen presenting cells. Using flow cytometry ...


Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali Jul 2019

Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In epithelial tissues, epithelial cells adhere to each other as well as to the underlying extra-cellular matrix (ECM). E-cadherin-based intercellular junctions play an important role in tissue integrity. These junctions experience cell-generated mechanical forces via apparent adaptor proteins such as beta (β) catenin, alpha (α) catenin and vinculin. Abnormalities in these junctions may result in skin related diseases and cancers. Here, I devised methods to determine the endogenous intercellular force within cell pairs as well as in large epithelial islands. I further ascertained the factors that affect the level of inter-cellular tension.

Experiments with pairs of epithelial cells exogenously expressing ...


Functional Characterization Of The Ovarian Tumor Domain Deubiquitinating Enzyme 6b, Jasmin M. D'Andrea Jun 2019

Functional Characterization Of The Ovarian Tumor Domain Deubiquitinating Enzyme 6b, Jasmin M. D'Andrea

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The posttranslational modification ubiquitination is major regulatory mechanism used throughout cell signaling pathways such as cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response. As such, the E3 ligases and their deubiquitinating enzyme counterparts, which conjugate and deconjugate ubiquitin to and from protein substrates respectively, must be tightly regulated to prevent aberrant cellular behaviors that could lead to diseases such as cancer.

Of the five families of deubiquitinating enzymes, the Ovarian Tumor Domain (OTU) family is fairly unique and under-studied; many of its family members hold a linkage specificity to certain ubiquitin chains and a number of them have been implicated ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli May 2019

The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli

Student Honors Theses By Year

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and while it has a high remission rate, relapse with therapy resistance is common, indicating the need for more targeted and effective therapies. It is possible to reprogram AML cells in culture to undergo cell cycle arrest, differentiation into “normal” macrophage-like cells, and apoptosis using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacyl glycerol (DAG) mimic. While this is effective in “curing” leukemia in culture, PMA is too toxic to serve as a therapy in AML patients. During these PMA-induced changes, approximately 1250 genes change in expression. The goal ...


Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie Mcwoods May 2019

Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie Mcwoods

MSU Graduate Theses

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Absence of IDUA results in the accumulation of dermatan and heparin sulfate and ultimately causes multi-system dysfunction. The most severe form of MPS I is Hurlers syndrome, a rapidly progressive disorder that, if left untreated, is fatal. Current treatment options for diagnosed individuals includes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). These treatments are able to ameliorate the majority of symptoms with the exception of the bone phenotype. This investigation aimed to further characterize the bone ...


Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor May 2019

Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

Uncoating is a poorly understood yet required step of HIV-1 replication that is defined as the disassembly of the viral capsid structure. The goal of this project is to characterize uncoating in C20 microglial cells. These cells are a natural target of HIV-1 that are infected to establish latent viral reservoirs and HIV-associated neurological disorders. A stable C20 cell line that expresses TRIM-CypA was established to study the kinetics of uncoating with the CsA washout assay. The expression of TRIM-CypA was confirmed by western blot and the functionality of the protein was confirmed by a viral infectivity assay. Using this ...


The Role Of Ifrd1 In The Recruitment And Function Of Reserve Stem Cells In Regeneration And Cancer, Mark Anthony Lewis May 2019

The Role Of Ifrd1 In The Recruitment And Function Of Reserve Stem Cells In Regeneration And Cancer, Mark Anthony Lewis

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mature cells can reprogram into a proliferative, progenitor-like state to repair tissue following injury and inflammation. Differentiated cells in diverse tissues can become proliferative via a dedicated, evolutionarily conserved program we termed paligenosis. We detailed how paligenosis occurs, in both gastric chief and pancreatic acinar cells, in a step-wise manner that involves: 1) autodegradation of mature cell components; 2) re-expression of progenitor genes; 3) re-entry into the cell cycle. This process is governed by mTORC1, a fundamental cellular energy sensor and regulator of protein translation. Blocking mTORC1 permitted autophagy and metaplastic gene induction but blocked cell cycle re-entry at S-phase ...