Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Journal

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 100

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe Feb 2019

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner Jan 2019

Of Course, Humans Are Not Unique!, Bernard Wallner

Animal Sentience

This commentary focuses on the question of the uniqueness of humans in comparison to other species and on the false assumption that single arguments support logical conclusions. Comparative analysis of genetic data in humans and nonhuman primates regarding the dopaminergic system of the subcortical mesolimbic reward system highlights homologous traits shared and modified by the process of evolution. Such an analytical approach is more relevant than claims of uniqueness.


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Valued readers, it is with a heavy heart that I inform you that this is the last issue of Killi-Data News. The good news is that we will be back as Killifish Research Review. The dissolution of Killi-Data International created a prob- lem: how can the newsletter of a defunct organization live on without that organization? But other additional problems were building in the background. The first issue numbered 15 pages. The previous issue was 28 pages. The number of killifish related papers is increasing while time on our end (the editorial team) is running out. It takes a lot ...


Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Many interesting papers have been published over the last three months. The large volume of papers coupled with the start of the new college semester (and the workload it brings) delayed this issue of Killi-Data News. But better late than never—or so I hope! In this issue Richard van der Laan provides an insightful review of the recent Aphanius papers as to their taxonomic implications and questions. The systematic issues he raises show the importance of the Molecular project: we need to get more samples of the various cyprinodontiforme families to resolve unsettled systematic and taxonomic issues. In the ...


Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Over the last three months several interesting and exciting pa- pers have been published. By now most of you have heard the Nothobranchius fish poo news emanating from the Valenzano lab. That paper is reviewed and certainly has repercussions for the health of our captive fish. Polaçik et al have published interesting data with ramifications as to how we breed and incubate annual killifish. The big news in this issue is the paper from the Reznick lab which Jean Huber reviews. The contents of that paper goes to the heart of the question of just what a killifish is. The ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the fourth edition, and concluding issue of the first volume, of Killi-Data News and I am happy that it has been well received by readers. At 25 pages this issue is a bit thin- ner than the last but this is because we agreed to make the cut-off for submissions the 1 st of December so we could get this edition out by the New Year. This is an exciting edition full of new species descrip- tions and analyses that will keep taxonomists busy for years to come. Costa has given us two molecular phylogenies on Melanorivulus as ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade Mar 2018

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Approaching Undergraduate Research With Students Who Are Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Austin U. Gehret, Jessica W. Trussell, Lea V. Michel May 2017

Approaching Undergraduate Research With Students Who Are Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Austin U. Gehret, Jessica W. Trussell, Lea V. Michel

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

An undergraduate research experience can provide a unique opportunity for students to learn and grow as scientists; when positive, this experience is often transformative and motivates students to pursue science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate degrees or careers. Conversely, negative research experiences can sour a student’s opinion of research, propagate misconceptions of graduate school, and lead to attrition from STEM fields. Negative research experiences can be equally devastating for faculty mentors and may result in reluctance to mentor future research students. Using a mentoring approach that has traditionally translated to positive research experiences for hearing students may not ...


Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette Delatorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee May 2017

Optimizing Collection Of Trace Biological Samples From Vehicle Headrests, Kevin Tang, Jesse Ramirez, John Bond, Jocelyn Weart, Yvette Delatorre, Ian Fitch, Steven Lee

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Tape-lifting and swabbing are two methods commonly used for collecting biological samples in the United Kingdom and United States to investigate vehicle crimes. Determining the optimal collection method may lead to an increase in generating DNA profiles and crime-solving. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of adhesive tape and the double-swab collection methods for investigating vehicle crimes with possible touch DNA samples. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of tape-lifts and swabs on spiked common vehicle fabric materials. The efficiency of recovery between the two collection methods was performed using qPCR. The results from ...


Natural Killer (Nk) Cells And Their Involvement In Different Types Of Cancer. Current Status Of Clinical Research, Isadora Zaharescu, Adina D. Moldovan, Cristiana Tanase Mar 2017

Natural Killer (Nk) Cells And Their Involvement In Different Types Of Cancer. Current Status Of Clinical Research, Isadora Zaharescu, Adina D. Moldovan, Cristiana Tanase

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Natural killer cells are the main agents of innate immunity. Since 1970, various studies have repeatedly confirmed their involvement in decreasing local tumor growth and also decreasing the risk of metastasis, due to their cytotoxic effects and also through the release of immunostimulatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma. In the 1990s, several studies demonstrated the existence of certain inhibiting and stimulating receptors of these cells, leading to the concept of “induced self”, thus explaining why tumors with MHC-1 are destroyed and autologous cells without it are saved out. Recognition and destruction of tumor cells by the NK cells are the result ...


Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Nováková, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez Feb 2017

Diversity And Biocide Susceptibility Of Fungal Assemblages Dwelling In The Art Gallery Of Magura Cave, Bulgaria, Milena M. Mitova, Mihail Iliev, Alena Nováková, Anna A. Gorbushina, Veneta I. Groudeva, Pedro M. Martin-Sanchez

International Journal of Speleology

Magura Cave, north-western Bulgaria, possesses valuable rock-art paintings made with bat guano and dated from the period between the Eneolithic and Bronze Ages. Since 2008, the Art Gallery is closed to the general public in order to protect the paintings from vandalism, microclimatic changes caused by visitors and artificial illumination, and the consequent growth of fungi and phototrophs. Nevertheless, some tourist visits are allowed under the supervision of cave managers. This study provides the first scientific report on cultivable fungal assemblages dwelling different substrata in the Art Gallery. A total of 78 strains, belonging to 37 OTUs (Ascomycota 81%, Zygomycota ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert Oct 2016

Expression, Purification, And Crystallization Of An Endoxylanase From Bacteroides Vulgatus, Jesslyn Park, Jason Hurlbert

The Winthrop McNair Research Bulletin

Sustainable sources of energy are growing in demand as fossil fuels are rapidly expended. One such energy source is fuel ethanol generated from the fermentation of plant biomass by engineered bacterial biocatalysts. The creation of a biocatalyst capable of converting nearly any plant matter to fuel ethanol requires the identification of novel enzymes capable of degrading specific carbohydrate polymers and cloning these enzymes into a bacterial host. This study seeks to structurally characterize a novel xylanase of glycosyl hydrolase family 30 (GH30) from Bacteroides vulgatus, a bacterium found in the human gut microbiome, via x-ray crystallography. The gene for B ...


Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins Sep 2016

Sweating The Small Stuff: Linking Plankton To Climate Change, Brian Kim '18 Makes Conncetions, Stephen Collins

Colby Magazine

It takes an expansive mind to connect microscopic marine copepods (certain crustacean plankton) unwittingly chomping on floating microplastics with a bigger picture: the planet’s carbon pump and global climate change. But that’s what Brian Kim ’18 decided to investigate during Jan Plan, working with Bigelow Lab Senior Research Scientist David Fields.


Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager Aug 2016

Modeling And Analysis Of Germ Layer Formations Using Finite Dynamical Systems, Alexander Garza, Megan Eberle, Eric A. Eager

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The development of an embryo from a fertilised egg to a multicellular organism proceeds through numerous steps, with the formation of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) being one of the first. In this paper we study the mesendoderm (the tissue that collectively gives rise to both mesoderm and endoderm) gene regulatory network for two species, \textit{Xenopus laevis} and the axolotl (\textit{Ambystoma mexicanum}) using Boolean networks. We find that previously-established bistability found in these networks can be reproduced using this Boolean framework, provided that some assumptions used in previously-published differential equations models are relaxed. We conclude by ...


Analysis Of Alternative Storage Conditions For Dna Recovery From Field Samples, Alison Schutt, Emily Stricklin, Britta Ten Haken, Joseph Tolsma, Laurie Furlong, Sara S. Tolsma Jan 2016

Analysis Of Alternative Storage Conditions For Dna Recovery From Field Samples, Alison Schutt, Emily Stricklin, Britta Ten Haken, Joseph Tolsma, Laurie Furlong, Sara S. Tolsma

Northwestern Review

As ecologists increasingly employ molecular methods, they find that tried and true preservation solutions (e.g. ethanol or formalin) may not be optimal when samples are targeted for genetic analyses. Before traveling to remote sample sites, researchers need to consider which preservation methods are likely to yield the largest quantity and highest quality of DNA based on their travel times and field conditions. They also need to consider whether they will have access to preservatives at remote sites and whether those preservatives can be safely transported. To determine which preservation methods would most reliably preserve tissue for genetic analysis under ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2016

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey Mccurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers Jan 2016

The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey Mccurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers

Eukaryon

Werner Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability, accelerated telomere shortening, and premature aging. Also, Werner Syndrome patients experience increased cancer rates, believed to be directly related to the lack of interaction between the WRN gene and tumor suppressor gene p53. The WRN gene consists of three identical molecules and has both exonuclease and helicase activity, which work together in opposite directions. WRN has been shown to stimulate polymerase â, needed in DNA repair. WRN helicase activity can also bind and degrade G-quadruplexes, which inhibit transcription. Studies show that the tumor suppressor gene p53 co-localizes with WRN ...


The Generation, Exploitation And Future Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jacob Steenwyk Oct 2015

The Generation, Exploitation And Future Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jacob Steenwyk

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

The foundational advancements of John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka have improved understanding of dedifferen- tiation of cells to a pluripotent state. The seminal discovery established a novel system to study disease pathogenesis, drug screening, and toxicity, as well as sprouted the new field of regenerative medicine. In this article, the method- ology to obtain dedifferentiated cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, subsequent validation, and application of which are reviewed. The experiments investigated here aim to demonstrate the capacity of iPS cells to replace the ethically-gray human embryonic cells by developing human livers and viable, healthy animals. It is ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Neurodegeneration Is Independent Of The Ryanodine Receptor In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lyndsay E.A. Young, Daniel C. Williams Oct 2015

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Neurodegeneration Is Independent Of The Ryanodine Receptor In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lyndsay E.A. Young, Daniel C. Williams

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Despite the significant impacts on human health caused by neurodegeneration, our understanding of the degeneration process is incomplete. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as a genetic model organism well suited for identification of conserved cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways of neurodegeneration. Studies in the worm have identified factors that contribute to neurodegeneration, including excitotoxicity and stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of the gene unc-68, which encodes the ryanodine receptor, abolishes excitotoxic cell death, indicating a role for calcium (Ca2+) signaling in neurodegeneration. We tested the requirement for unc-68 in ROS-mediated neurodegeneration using the genetically encoded ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane May 2015

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Section Abstracts: Biology With Microbiology And Molecular Biology May 2015

Section Abstracts: Biology With Microbiology And Molecular Biology

Virginia Journal of Science

Abstracts of the Biology with Microbiology and Molecular Biology Section for the 93rd Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, May 21-23, 2015, James Madison University, Richmond, Virginia


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2015

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Some Effects Of The Human Genome Project On The Erdős Collaboration Graph, Chris Fields Jul 2014

Some Effects Of The Human Genome Project On The Erdős Collaboration Graph, Chris Fields

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

The Human Genome Project introduced large-scale collaborations involving dozens to hundreds of scientists into biology. It also created a pressing need to solve discrete mathematics problems involving tens of thousands of elements. In this paper, we use minimal path lengths in the Erdős Collaboration Graph between prominent individual researchers as a measure of the distance between disciplines, and we show that the Human Genome Project brought laboratory biology as a whole closer to mathematics. We also define a novel graph reduction method and a metric that emphasizes the robustness of collaborative connections between researchers; these can facilitate the analysis of ...


Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu Jun 2014

Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu

Symposium

Project Summary: The application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections is known as phage therapy, which takes advantage of bacteriophage’s natural ability to infect and lyse bacterial hosts. Phages have been shaped by billions of years of evolution to be highly specialized deliverers of bactericidal agents to the cytoplasm of their target bacteria. Ever since discovery of bacteriophages in 1915, phage therapy was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for eliminating bacterial infections. The effectiveness of phage therapy can be increased by creating a mixture of multiple phages to target a wider variety of bacterial strains. Furthermore, phage therapy ...


Molecular Analyses Of Microbial Abundance And Diversity In The Water Column Of Anchialine Caves In Mallorca, Spain, Damian Menning, Liana M. Boop, Elaina D. Graham, James R. Garey May 2014

Molecular Analyses Of Microbial Abundance And Diversity In The Water Column Of Anchialine Caves In Mallorca, Spain, Damian Menning, Liana M. Boop, Elaina D. Graham, James R. Garey

International Journal of Speleology

Water column samples from the island of Mallorca, Spain were collected from one site in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Vallgornera) and three sites (Llac Martel, Llac Negre, and Llac de les Delícies) in Coves del Drac (Drac). Vallgornera is located on the southern coast of Mallorca approximately 57 km southwest of Coves del Drac. Drac is Europe's most visited tourist cave, whereas Vallgornera is closed to the public. Water samples were analyzed for water chemistry using spectrophotometric methods, by quantitative PCR for estimated total abundance of microbial communities, and by length heterogeneity PCR for species richness and relative ...


Section Abstracts: Biology With Microbiology And Molecular Biology Apr 2014

Section Abstracts: Biology With Microbiology And Molecular Biology

Virginia Journal of Science

Abstracts of the Biology with Microbiology and Molecular Biology Section for the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, May 13-15, 2014, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2014

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.