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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Determining The Binding Between Saga Subunits And Spliceosomal Components, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel L. Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake Aug 2014

Determining The Binding Between Saga Subunits And Spliceosomal Components, Peyton J. Spreacker, Rachel L. Stegeman, Vikki M. Weake

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Proper gene regulation is vital to the health and development of an organism. Determining the relationship between splicing, transcription, and chromatin structure is vital for understanding gene regulation as a whole. There have been previous studies linking these elements pairwise; however, no evidence exists for a direct link between all three. Recent data shows that splicing components of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleic protein (snRNP) co-purify with Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA), a highly conserved transcriptional co-activator and chromatin modifier. We hypothesize that SAGA binds with splicing components through a multi-protein binding surface with certain core components based on preliminary yeast two-hybrid data ...


Development Of Novel Class Of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides Based On Small Molecule Screening, Julia Alterman, Hong Cao, Marie Didiot, Mehran Nikan, Matthew Hassler, Anastasia Khvorova May 2014

Development Of Novel Class Of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides Based On Small Molecule Screening, Julia Alterman, Hong Cao, Marie Didiot, Mehran Nikan, Matthew Hassler, Anastasia Khvorova

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Highly inefficient transit of oligonucleotides from outside cells to the intracellular compartments where functional activity of oligonucleotides takes place is the most serious limitation to the practical realization of a full potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies. Several classes of oligonucleotide therapeutics (ONT), including antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNA), GalNAc-conjugated siRNAs, and LNP-formulated siRNAs have validated biological efficacy and are in clinic. In all cases, the fraction of oligonucleotides reaching the intended place of biological function is surprisingly low, with the majority of molecules being trapped in wrong cellular compartments, resulting in low efficiency and clinically limiting toxicity. We have ...


Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang May 2014

Targeted Mutagenesis Of A Therapeutic Human Monoclonal Igg1 Antibody Prevents Gelation At High Concentrations, Paul Casaz, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Rachel Wollacott, Sadettin S. Ozturk, William D. Thomas Jr., Yan Wang

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

A common challenge encountered during development of high concentration monoclonal antibody formulations is preventing self-association. Depending on the antibody and its formulation, self-association can be seen as aggregation, precipitation, opalescence or phase separation. Here we report on an unusual manifestation of self-association, formation of a semi-solid gel or “gelation”. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody C4 was isolated from human B cells based on its strong potency in neutralizing bacterial toxin in animal models. The purified antibody possessed the unusual property of forming a firm, opaque white gel when it was formulated at concentrations >40 mg/mL and the temperature was <6oC. Gel formation was reversible and was affected by salt concentration or pH, suggesting a charge interaction between IgG monomers. However, formulation optimization could not completely prevent gelation at high concentrations so a protein engineering approach was sought to resolve the problem. A comparison of the heavy and light chain amino acid sequences to consensus germline sequences revealed 16 amino acid sequence differences in the framework regions that could be involved with gelation. Restoring the C4 framework sequence to consensus germline residues by targeted mutagenesis resulted in no gel formation at 50 mg/ml at temperatures as low as 0oC. Additional genetic analysis was used to identify the key residue(s) involved in the gelation. A single substitution in the native antibody, replacing heavy chain glutamate 23 with lysine, was found sufficient to prevent gelation, while a double mutation, replacing heavy chain serine 85 and threonine 87 with arginine, increased the temperature at which gel formation initiated. These results indicate that the temperature dependence of gelation may be related to conformational changes near the charged residues or the regions interact with. Our work provided a molecular strategy that can be applied to improve the solubility of other therapeutic antibodies.


Quorum Sensing Molecules For Unicellular Organisms: Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Conformational Behavior, Daniel Tollefson Apr 2014

Quorum Sensing Molecules For Unicellular Organisms: Spectroscopic And Computational Study Of Conformational Behavior, Daniel Tollefson

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Quorum sensing plays a vital role in unicellular communications. Until recently, it was thought that unicellular bacteria were non-cooperative; that they did not communicate among each other as a larger community. They do, in fact, communicate via small molecules that are created and released into the extracellular environment. Detailed knowledge regarding the interactions of these quorum sensing molecules (QSM) with the molecular and cellular-scale environments can lead to the manipulation of quorum sensing within a population. The function of these molecules requires that they can readily diffuse through the polar environment of aqueous solution and the nonpolar environment of cell ...


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold Apr 2014

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.