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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande Jan 2018

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande

Wayne State University Dissertations

Eukaryotic genomes are organized into large domains of coordinated regulation. The role of small RNAs in formation of these domains is largely unexplored. An extraordinary example of domain-wide regulation is X chromosome compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males. This process occurs by hypertranscription of genes on the single male X chromosome. Extensive research in this field has shown that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex binds X-linked genes and modifies chromatin to increase expression. The components of this complex, and their actions on chromatin, are well studied. In contrast, the mechanism that results in exclusive recruitment to the X chromosome is ...


Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki Jan 2017

Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki

Wayne State University Dissertations

The work of this project was to develop, test and characterize a potential novel mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Historically, MS has been identified as a primary autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). However, treatments based on this view have met with limited success, and in most cases, fail to prevent progression of MS from mild to moderate and severe forms. Original observations regarding axonal and neuronal pathology in the white and gray matter of the CNS were rediscovered in the 1990s. These observations indicated that even in the absence of the immune system ...


An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu Jan 2016

An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Chromatin modification and cellular metabolism are tightly connected. The mechanism for this cross-talk, however, remains incompletely understood. SIN3 controls histone acetylation through association with the histone deacetylase RPD3. In this study, my major goal is to explore the mechanism of how SIN3 regulates cellular metabolism.

Methionine metabolism generates the major methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for histone methylation. In collaboration with others, I report that reduced levels of some enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and histone demethylases lead to lethality, as well as wing development and cell proliferation defects in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, disruption of methionine metabolism can directly affect histone ...


A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi Jan 2016

A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans and fruit flies, males have one X chromosome while females have two. This imbalance in gene dosage is potentially lethal, and the process of dosage compensation corrects it. The MSL (Male Specific Lethal) complex, which is composed of five proteins and one of two functionally redundant long non-coding roX (RNA on the X) RNAs, brings about dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. In fruit fly dosage compensation, all the genes on the single male X chromosome are upregulated approximately twofold, via chromatin modifications, to equalize gene dosage with the two X chromosomes of females. This process calls for highly ...


Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu Jan 2016

Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Myo-inositol is the precursor of all inositol containing molecules, including inositol phosphates, phosphoinositides and glycosylphosphatidylinositols, which are signaling molecules involved in many critical cellular functions. Perturbation of inositol metabolism has been linked to neurological disorders. Although several widely-used anticonvulsants and mood-stabilizing drugs have been shown to exert inositol depletion effects, the mechanisms of action of the drugs and the role of inositol in these diseases are not understood. Elucidation of the molecular control of inositol synthesis will shed light on the pathologies of inositol related illnesses.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of the four glycogen synthase kinase-3 genes, MCK1, MRK1, MDS1 ...


Effective Drug Treatment Induces Drug Resistance Through Rapid Genome Alteration-Mediated Cancer Evolution, Steven Horne Jan 2016

Effective Drug Treatment Induces Drug Resistance Through Rapid Genome Alteration-Mediated Cancer Evolution, Steven Horne

Wayne State University Dissertations

The central paradox associated with current cancer therapeutic strategies is initially effective treatment, which eliminates a high tumor cell count, consistently results in successful drug resistance. Mathematical and evolutionary modeling have previously suggested that therapeutic intervention could provide selective pressure for the expansion of resistant variants. Drug-related stress has been associated with genome chaos, a common phenomenon in cancer characterized as rapid, stochastic genomic fragmentation and reorganization. Since cancer represents an evolutionary process, analysis within the context of genome-mediated cancer evolution can shed light on this key problem of therapeutics. We propose that genomic change is a general response to ...


Modeling The Mechanism Underlying Environmental And Genetic Determinants Of Gene Expression And Complex Traits, Gregory Alan Moyerbrailean Jan 2016

Modeling The Mechanism Underlying Environmental And Genetic Determinants Of Gene Expression And Complex Traits, Gregory Alan Moyerbrailean

Wayne State University Dissertations

Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and functional genomics strategies have allowed researchers to identify both common and rare genetic variation, to deeply profile gene expression, and even to determine regions of active gene transcription.

While these technologies and strategies have contributed greatly to our understanding of complex traits and diseases, there are many biological questions and analytical issues to be addressed.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified large numbers of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. However, in many cases the mechanistic link between the phenotype and associated variant remains unclear. This may be because most variants ...


The Role Of Crebh In Hepatic Energy Regulation Under Metabolic Stress, Roberto Mendez Jan 2015

The Role Of Crebh In Hepatic Energy Regulation Under Metabolic Stress, Roberto Mendez

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lipid metabolism is tightly regulated by nuclear receptors, transcription factors, and cellular enzymes in response to nutritional, hormonal, and stress signals. Hepatocyte specific, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREBH) is a transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in the liver and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. CREBH is known to be activated by ER stress, inflammatory stimuli, and metabolic signals to regulate hepatic acute-phase response, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In my thesis research, I have characterized the roles and mechanisms of CREBH in these functions, as well as the overall phenotype of CrebH-null mice. I demonstrated that ...


Functional Analysis Of A Highly Conserved Cyclin, Cyclin Y, In Drosophila Melanogaster, Nermin Gerges Jan 2015

Functional Analysis Of A Highly Conserved Cyclin, Cyclin Y, In Drosophila Melanogaster, Nermin Gerges

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cyclin Y is a highly conserved member of the Cyclin superfamily of proteins. In Drosophila the Cyclin Y gene (CycY) is required for progression through several stages of development but the specific pathways that Cyclin Y belongs to and that account for its requirement are not known. Studies in human and Drosophila cell lines have shown that membrane-localized Cyclin Y is required for phosphorylation of the wingless/Wnt co-receptor, arrow/LRP6, and for full activation of the canonical wingless/Wnt pathway. CycY null Drosophila, however, do not phenocopy loss-of-function mutations in canonical wingless pathway genes, suggesting that Cyclin Y may ...


A Protective Role Of Autophagy In A Drosophila Model Of Friedreich's Ataxia (Frda), Luan Wang Jan 2015

A Protective Role Of Autophagy In A Drosophila Model Of Friedreich's Ataxia (Frda), Luan Wang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. It affects 1 in every 50,000 people in central Europe and North America. FRDA is caused by deficiency of Frataxin, an essential mitochondrial iron chaperone protein, and the associated oxidative stress damages. Autophagy, a housekeeping process responsible for the bulk degradation and turnover of long half-life proteins and organelles, is featured by the formation of double-membrane vacuoles and lysosomal degradation. Previous researches indicate that Danon’s disease, the inherited neural disorder disease that shares similar symptoms with FRDA, is due to the malfunction of autophagy. Based on this ...


Drosophila Cyclin J And The Somatic Pirna Pathway Cooperate To Regulate Germline Stem Cells, Paul Michael Albosta Jan 2015

Drosophila Cyclin J And The Somatic Pirna Pathway Cooperate To Regulate Germline Stem Cells, Paul Michael Albosta

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cyclin J (CycJ) is a highly conserved cyclin that is uniquely expressed specifically in ovaries in Drosophila. Deletion of the genomic region containing CycJ and adjacent genes resulted in a genetic interaction with neighboring piRNA pathway gene, armitage (armi). Here I assessed oogenesis in CycJ null in the presence or absence of mutations in armi or other piRNA pathway genes. Although CycJ null flies had decreased egg laying and hatching rates, ovaries appeared normal indicating that CycJ is dispensable for oogenesis under normal conditions. Further double mutant analysis of CycJ and neighbor armi, as well as two other piRNA pathway ...


Crebh, A Novel Liver Clock Keeper For Energy Metabolism, Ze Zheng Jan 2015

Crebh, A Novel Liver Clock Keeper For Energy Metabolism, Ze Zheng

Wayne State University Dissertations

Circadian rhythms play crucial roles in orchestrating diverse physiological processes that are critical for health and disease. Cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3, also known as CREBH) is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-tethered transcription factor known to regulate hepatic acute-phase response and energy homeostasis under stress conditions. Here, we demonstrate that CREBH is regulated by the circadian clock and functions as a diurnal regulator of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. CREBH is required to maintain circadian profiles of blood triglycerides, fatty acids, and glucose as well as hepatic glycogen storage. CREBH rhythmically regulates expression levels and ...


Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla Jan 2014

Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of recurrent unprovoked seizures. It affects almost 1% of the world population. Although there is a wide range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) available, they only treat the seizure symptoms and do not cure the disease itself. The poor role of AEDs can be attributed to the lack of knowledge of exact mechanisms and networks that produce epileptic activities in the neocortex. At present, the best cure for epilepsy is surgical removal of electrically localized epileptic brain tissue. Surgically removed brain tissue presents an excellent opportunity to discover the molecular and cellular basis of human ...


Sex And Heterochromatin: An Investigation Of Sexual Dimorphism In Drosophila Melanogaster, Manasi S. Apte Jan 2014

Sex And Heterochromatin: An Investigation Of Sexual Dimorphism In Drosophila Melanogaster, Manasi S. Apte

Wayne State University Dissertations

Over 30% of Drosophila genome is assembled into heterochromatin. Heterochromatin is relatively gene poor, transcriptionally less active and remains condensed during interphase. Previous studies established that roX RNA and some of the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) proteins, all components of the dosage compensation complex, are required for full expression of autosomal heterochromatic genes in male flies but not in females. This was surprising since heterochromatin is generally not thought to be sexually dimorphic. The genetic basis for the regulation of sex-specific heterochromatin was completely unknown.

To determine if roX RNAs localize directly at the heterochromatic regions that they regulate, I ...


The Mechanism Of Regulation Of Autosomal Heterochromatic Genes In Drosophila Melanogaster Males By Rox Rna And Msl Proteins, Satya Kiran Koya Jan 2014

The Mechanism Of Regulation Of Autosomal Heterochromatic Genes In Drosophila Melanogaster Males By Rox Rna And Msl Proteins, Satya Kiran Koya

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans and flies, males and females have different set of sex chromosomes contributing to different levels of X-linked gene expression. To equalize X-linked gene dosage between sexes, both humans and flies developed independent strategies which are called dosage compensation. Human females randomly inactivate one of their X chromosome into barr body and Drosophila males up regulate their single X chromosome two fold. Both strategies equalize of X linked gene dose between sexes.

In Drosophila, dosage compensation is brought about by the ribonucleoprotein Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex that binds hundreds of sites along the X chromosome and modifies chromatin ...


Characterization And Identification Of Novel Regulators Of The Synthesis Of Phospholipids, Cunqi Ye Jan 2014

Characterization And Identification Of Novel Regulators Of The Synthesis Of Phospholipids, Cunqi Ye

Wayne State University Dissertations

Phospholipids are the most abundant lipids in cell membranes. The synthesis of phospholipids is crucial for cellular membrane biogenesis and nearly all aspects of cellular processes. Understanding the regulation of synthesis of phospholipids is beneficial to our fundamental knowledge of cell biology as well as human health.

Regulation of the synthesis of phospholipids is intensively studied in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Most notably, the synthesis of phospholipids is coordinated with the synthesis of inositol, a precursor of inositol-containing lipids, by controlling expression of the genes encoding phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes. In addition to this well-characterized regulatory circuit controlled by the trans-acting ...


The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali Jan 2013

The Drosophila Interactions Database: Integrating The Interactome And Transcriptome, Thilakam Murali

Wayne State University Dissertations

In this thesis I describe the integration of heterogeneous interaction data for Drosophila into DroID, the Drosophilainteractions database, making it a one-stop public resource for interaction data. I have also made it possible to filter the interaction data using gene expression data to generate context-relevant networks making DroID a one-of-a kind resource for biologists. In the two years since the upgraded DroID has been available, several studies have used the heterogeneous interaction data in DroID to advance our understanding of Drosophila biology thus validating the need for such a resource for biologists. In addition to this, I have identified ...


Investigation Of X Chromosome Recognition: The Role Of Small Rna In Drosophila Dosage Compensation, Debashish Unnikrishnan Menon Jan 2013

Investigation Of X Chromosome Recognition: The Role Of Small Rna In Drosophila Dosage Compensation, Debashish Unnikrishnan Menon

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans and flies, females have two X chromosomes but males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. This leads to a fatal imbalance in X-linked gene expression in one sex. In mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila, modulation of X chromosome expression is critical for survival. This process is termed dosage compensation. Flies increase expression from the male X chromosome two-fold. This is achieved by the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex, which consists of two large, non-coding RNA on the X transcripts (roX1 and roX2) and five proteins. The roX RNAs have a critical role in complex ...


The Role Of Cardiolipin In Iron Homeostasis And Glutathione Metabolism, Vinay A. Patil Jan 2013

The Role Of Cardiolipin In Iron Homeostasis And Glutathione Metabolism, Vinay A. Patil

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cardiolipin (CL) is the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, where it is synthesized locally and plays a critical role in mitochondrial bioenergetic functions. Inside the mitochondria, CL is a critical target of mitochondrial generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulates signaling events related to apoptosis and aging. CL deficiency causes perturbation of signaling pathways outside the mitochondria, including the PKC-Slt2 cell integrity pathway and the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, and is a key player in the cross-talk between the mitochondria and the vacuole. The importance of CL in human health is underscored by the observation that perturbation of CL ...


Mechanistic Studies Of A Novel Ppar-Gamma Mutant That Causes Lipodystrophy And Diabetes, Olga Astapova Jan 2012

Mechanistic Studies Of A Novel Ppar-Gamma Mutant That Causes Lipodystrophy And Diabetes, Olga Astapova

Wayne State University Dissertations

PPAR-gamma is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in metabolic regulation by regulating extensive gene expression networks in adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and many other tissues. Human PPAR-gamma mutations are rare and cause a monogenetic form of severe type II diabetes with metabolic syndrome, known as familiar partial lypodystrophy. The E157D PPAR-gamma mutant causes atypical lipodystrophy in a large Canadian kindred, presenting with multiple musculoskeletal, neurological and hematological abnormalities in addition to the classic lipodystrophy features of insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This mutation is localized to the p-box of PPAR-gamma, a small region that interacts directly with ...


Identification Of Cellular Functions Of Cardiolipin As Physiological Modifiers Of Barth Syndrome, Amit Shridhar Joshi Jan 2012

Identification Of Cellular Functions Of Cardiolipin As Physiological Modifiers Of Barth Syndrome, Amit Shridhar Joshi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid synthesized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Perturbation of CL metabolism leads to Barth syndrome (BTHS), a life threatening genetic disorder. I utilized genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches in yeast to elucidate the cellular functions of CL. Understanding the functions of CL is expected to shed light on the pathology and possible treatments for BTHS.

BTHS is caused by mutations in TAZ1, which encodes a CL remodeling enzyme called tafazzin. BTHS patients exhibit a wide range of clinical presentations, indicating that physiological modifiers influence the BTHS phenotype. A targeted synthetic lethality screen was performed ...


Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong Jan 2011

Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong

Wayne State University Dissertations

roX1 is a long non-coding RNA involved in the chromosome-wide gene regulation that occurs during dosage compensation in Drosophila. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster occurs by a global two-fold increase of transcription from the single male X chromosome. This essential process compensates for X chromosome monosomy. The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, containing five proteins, localizes to the male X chromosome and alters chromatin to modify gene expression. roX1 and roX2 RNAs are redundant components of MSL complex that are required for its exclusive X-localization. Recent studies in our lab have revealed a second role of roX RNAs in heterochromatic gene ...


Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis Jan 2010

Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis

Wayne State University Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease for which mechanisms of formation are still not well understood. Despite a strong genetic component to AAA risk, specific risk alleles are still largely unidentified. AAA is also a localized disease with a majority occurring in the infrarenal abdominal aorta and is six times more common than aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. To determine whether risk alleles are present in functional positional candidate genes. we: 1. performed a genetic association study using DNA from AAA cases and controls in ten candidate genes and 2. performed exon sequencing on three genes with evidence ...


Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson Jan 2010

Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson

Wayne State University Dissertations

The dominant paradigm for cancer research focuses on the identification of specific genes for cancer causation and for the discovery of therapeutic targets. Alternatively, the current data emphasize the significance of karyotype heterogeneity in cancer progression over specific gene-based causes of cancer. Variability of a magnitude significant to shift cell populations from homogeneous diploid cells to a mosaic of structural and numerical chromosome alterations reflects the characteristic low-fidelity genome transfer of cancer cell populations. This transition marks the departure from micro-evolutionary gene-level change to macro-evolutionary change that facilitates the generation of many unique karyotypes within a cell population. Considering cancer ...


Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor Jan 2010

Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor

Wayne State University Dissertations

Progression through meiosis occurs through a strict sequence of events, so that one round of DNA replication precedes programmed recombination and two nuclear divisions. Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for meiosis, and any disruption in its activity leads to meiotic defects. The Cdk1 inhibitor, Sic1, regulates the G1-S transition in the mitotic cell cycle and the analogous transition in meiosis. We have employed a form of Sic1, Sic1deltaPHA, that is mutated at multiple phosphorylation sites and resistant to degradation. Meiosis specific expression of Sic1deltaPHA disrupts Cdk1 activity and leads to significant accumulation of over replicated DNA ...