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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue Dec 2018

Role Of P300 Zz Domain In Chromatin Association And Histone Acetylation, Yongming Xue

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transcription is strictly regulated by numerous factors including transcription coactivators. The p300 protein and its close paralogue CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, aka CBP) are well-known transcriptional coactivators that have intrinsic lysine acetyltransferase activity. The functions of p300/CBP largely rely on their capabilities to bind to chromatin and to acetylate the histone substrates. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these processes are not fully understood.

Through combination of various biochemical, biophysical and molecular approaches, we show that the ZZ-type zinc finger (ZZ) domain of p300 functions as a histone reader that specifically binds the N-terminal tail of histone H3 ...


The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland May 2018

The Regulation Of Dna Methylation In Mammalian Development And Cancer, Nicolas Veland

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification in mammals, as it plays important regulatory roles in multiple biological processes, such as gene transcription, maintenance of chromosomal structure and genomic stability, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon silencing, and X-chromosome inactivation. Dysregulation of DNA methylation is associated with various human diseases. For example, cancer cells usually show global hypomethylation and regional hypermenthylation, which have been implicated in genomic instability and tumor suppressor silencing, respectively. Although great progress has been made in elucidating the biological functions of DNA methylation over the last several decades, how DNA methylation patterns and levels are regulated and dysregulated is ...


Nanoscale Organization Of The Small Gtpase Rac1, Kelsey Maxwell May 2018

Nanoscale Organization Of The Small Gtpase Rac1, Kelsey Maxwell

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Rac1 is a small, guanine-nucleotide binding protein that cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound state to regulate actin-mediated motility, migration, and adhesion. Plasma membrane (PM) localization is essential for its biological activity. Rac1 PM targeting is directed by a C-terminal membrane anchor that encompasses a geranylgeranyl-cysteine-methyl-ester, palmitoyl, and a polybasic domain (PBD) of contiguous lysine and arginine residues. Using high-resolution imaging combined with spatial mapping analysis, I found that Rac1 forms nanoclusters on the PM. Cycling between the GTP- and GDP-bound states, Rac1 forms nanoclusters that are non-overlapping, consequently undergoing guanine nucleotide-dependent spatial segregation. I further found that ...


Investigating The Impact Of Intragenic Dna Methylation On Gene Expression, And The Clinical Implications On Tumor Cells And Associated Stroma, Michael Mcguire May 2018

Investigating The Impact Of Intragenic Dna Methylation On Gene Expression, And The Clinical Implications On Tumor Cells And Associated Stroma, Michael Mcguire

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Investigations into the function of non-promoter DNA methylation have yielded new insights into epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of distinguishing between DNA methylation in discrete functional regions; however, integrated non-promoter DNA methylation and gene expression analyses across a wide number of tumor types and corresponding normal tissues have not been performed. Through integrated analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation profiles, we uncovered an enrichment of DNA methylation sites within the gene body and 3’UTR in which DNA methylation is strongly positively correlated with gene expression. We examined 32 tumor types and identified ...


Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor May 2018

Functional Similarity Of Prd-Containing Virulence Regulators In Bacillus Anthracis, Malik Raynor

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Bacillus anthracis produces three regulators, AtxA, AcpA, and AcpB, that control virulence gene expression and are members of an emerging class of regulators termed “PCVRs” (Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase regulation Domain-Containing Virulence Regulators). AtxA controls expression of the toxin genes; lef, cya, and pag, and is the master virulence regulator and archetype PCVR. AcpA and AcpB are less well studied. AcpA and AcpB independently positively control transcription of the capsule biosynthetic operon capBCADE, and culture conditions that enhance AtxA activity result in capBCADE transcription in strains lacking acpA and acpB. RNA-Seq was used to assess the regulons of the paralogs in strains ...


The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen Dec 2017

The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a widely used model system to study cellular differentiation because of their pluripotent characteristics, and ESC differentiation is an epigenetic process. In an effort to identify a new epigenetic factor that is required for ESC differentiation, the function of SETD5 in ESCs was studied for this thesis. Results show that SETD5 is essential for retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of mouse ESCs and for RA-induced expression of critical developmental genes (e.g., Hoxa1 and Hoxa2) and neuron-related genes (e.g., Nestin and Pax6). SETD5 was upregulated during ESC differentiation. Additional results demonstrated that SETD5 bound ...


Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry Dec 2017

Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects various mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the nasal and oral cavities, the nasopharynx, and the oropharynx. More than five hundred thousand new cases of HNSCC occurred in 2011 alone, with 50,000 reported cases in the United States. This trend made HNSCC the seventh most common non-skin cancer worldwide (Ferlay et al., 2015). Although significant epidemiological and pathological advancements have been made, survival rates have not improved much over the last 40 years, leaving a mortality rate that remains at approximately 50%. An unbiased drug screen demonstrated that HNSCC ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes Dec 2017

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno Aug 2017

Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Triple-negative (TNBC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer are the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, accounting for 20% and 10% of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Among IBC cases, 30% are additionally classified with TNBC molecular pathology, a diagnosis that significantly worsens patient’s prognosis. The current lack of TNBC and IBC molecular understanding prevents the development of effective therapeutic strategies. To identify effective treatments, we explored aberrant apoptosis pathways and cell membrane fluidity as novel therapeutic targets.

We first identified an effective therapeutic strategy against TNBC and IBC by pro-apoptotic protein NOXA-mediated inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 following inhibition of ...


Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang Aug 2017

Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors, signaling pathways and co-regulators, with complex cross-regulatory events often occurring. Growing evidence has identified chromatin modifiers as important regulators for development as well, yet how particular chromatin modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes remains largely unclear. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent, and have the abilities to generate almost all cell types in adult tissues. The dual capacity of ESCs to self-renew and differentiate offers unlimited potential for studying gene regulation events at specific developmental stages in vitro that parallel developmental events during embryogenesis in vivo.

In ...


Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino May 2017

Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is one member of a class of proteins known as the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system, with the NMDA receptor standing out among these receptors for its requirement of a co-agonist, its magnesium-block-based coincidence detection, its slow kinetics, its calcium permeability, its allosteric modulation, and its especially important functional roles in synaptic plasticity, excitotoxicity, and more. In recent years, a wealth of structural information has come about describing endpoint structures to high resolution, but such structures are unable to fully resolve the movements ...


Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa May 2017

Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

NON-CODING RNAS IDENTIFY THE INTRINSIC MOLECULAR SUBTYPES OF MUSCLE-INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

Andrea Elizabeth Ochoa, B.S.

Advisory Professors: David J. McConkey, Ph.D. and Joya Chandra, Ph.D.

There has been a recent explosion of genomics data in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) to better understand the underlying biology of the disease that leads to the high amount of heterogeneity that is seen clinically. These studies have identified relatively stable intrinsic molecular subtypes of MIBC that show similarities to the basal and luminal subtypes of breast cancer. However, previous studies have primarily focused on protein-coding genes or DNA mutations/alterations.

There ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal May 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aging brings a gradual decline in molecular fidelity and biological functionality, resulting in age related phenotypes and diseases. Despite continued efforts to uncover the conserved aging pathways among eukaryotes, exact molecular causes of aging are still poorly understood. One of the most important hallmarks of aging is increased genomic instability. However, there remains much ambiguity as to the cause. I am studying the replicative life span (RLS) of the genetically tractable model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast using the innovative “mother enrichment program” as the method to isolate unparalleled numbers of aged yeast cells to investigate the molecular changes ...


Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia May 2017

Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones ensure protein quality during protein synthesis, delivery, damage repair, and degradation. The ubiquitous and highly conserved molecular chaperone 70-kDa heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) are essential in maintaining protein homeostasis by cycling through high and low affinity binding of unfolded protein clients to facilitate folding. The Hsp110 class of chaperones are divergent relatives of Hsp70 that are extremely effective in preventing protein aggregation but lack the hallmark folding activity seen in Hsp70s. Hsp110s serve as Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factors (NEF) that facilitate the Hsp70 folding cycle by inducing release of protein substrate from Hsp70, thus recycling the chaperone for a ...


The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu May 2017

The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adenosine is a ubiquitous nucleoside in almost all the cells throughout our bodies. It is highly induced particularly under hypoxia or energy depletion conditions. Adenosine functions as a critical ligand, after binding to membrane-associated adenosine receptors, adenosine initiates a downstream signaling cascade and subsequently contributes to functions of nervous system, immune response, vascular function and even metabolism.

Hypoxia is a condition with limited O2 availability in the whole body or a region of the body. It is a major consequence of many respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for people living and working at high altitudes or other ...


Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang Dec 2016

Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain. PD is also the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the second most common movement disorder. PD patients exhibit the cardinal symptoms, including tremor of the extremities, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability, after 70-80% of DA neurons degenerate. It is, therefore, imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the selective degeneration of DA neurons. Although increasing numbers of PD genes have been identified, why these largely widely expressed genes ...


The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang Dec 2016

The Role Of Phosphorylation In Pam2 Motif-Containing Proteins Mediated Messenger Rna Deadenylation, Kai-Lieh Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. However, its role in mRNA deadenylation, a process to remove poly adenosines from the mature mRNA 3’ end tail, is unclear. The length of poly(A) tail determines mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which binds to newly synthesized poly(A) tails homogeneously and is known as a scaffold protein for PAM2 motif-containing proteins, plays a pivotal role in the shortening of poly (A) tails. This study is to examine the role of phosphorylation of PAM2 motif–containing proteins in regulating their interactions with PABP and mRNA deadenylation function.

The PAM2 ...


Role Of Phosphorylation In The Regulation Of Prmt5, Alexsandra B. Espejo Sep 2016

Role Of Phosphorylation In The Regulation Of Prmt5, Alexsandra B. Espejo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PRMT5 is a member of a group of proteins that mediate arginine methylation. It is involved in diverse cellular processes, including cell differentiation, splicing, transcription elongation and epigenetic silencing, and its expression is dysregulated in many cancers. Due to its pleiotropic functions, PRMT5 is subject to multi-level regulation. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins can modulate an array of cellular processes by regulating both protein interactions and protein structural changes. PRMT5 is commonly found associated with other proteins; these interactions seem to control both its catalytic activity and its substrate specificity. Recently, it became clear that PRMT5 is phosphorylated at a ...


¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li Aug 2016

¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular profiling has identified 5 distinct subtypes of breast cancer, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low breast cancer. These 5 subtypes correlate with hormone response, patient prognosis, and response to therapy. Although steady state gene expression patterns have been explored using expression microarrays, very little is known about the initial, disease-driving transcriptional changes in these cancers or epigenetic changes associated with the differential gene expression signatures. Defining these changes may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which these subtypes arise, as well as new avenues for breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing and ...


Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan Aug 2016

Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aberrant levels of histone ubiquitination are involved in various human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Particularly, Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is highly associated with gene regulation in both normal cells and diseases. Many deubiquitinases (mainly USPs) are defined to regulate global H2Bub1 levels. However, how these USPs are regulated and how they contribute to diseases are not well understood.

USP22, part of the deubiquitination module (DUBm) in the SAGA complex, is a well-defined regulator of H2Bub1 levels. ATXN7, another crucial subunit of the SAGA DUBm, is involved in a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), due to a ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez Aug 2016

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera Aug 2016

Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Abstract

CIRCUMVENTING CISPLATIN RESISTANCE IN OVARIAN CANCERS THROUGH REACTIVATION OF P53 BY NON-CROSS-RESISTANT PLATINUM ANALOGS

Michelle Martinez-Rivera, B.S.

Advisory Professor: Zahid H. Siddik, Ph.D.

Cisplatin (cis-Pt), an anticancer platinum (Pt) drug, is used widely in the treatment of several malignancies, such as ovarian cancer. This Pt compound induces DNA damage, which results in p53 activation through post-translational modifications, mainly phosphorylation, culminating in execution of programmed cell-death. However, despite initial therapeutic response to cis-Pt, clinical resistance to this drug emerges leading to disease progression. Pt-resistance phenotypes have been associated with dysfunction in the p53 signaling pathway. Therefore, an effort ...


The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan May 2016

The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in many aspects of biological processes and diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Although it has been suggested thatNF-κB is critical in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, the molecular mechanism by which NF-κB is activated in solid tumor remains largely unknown. In the current work, we focus on growth factor receptor-induced NF-κB activation and tumor progression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced NF-κB in lung cancer and heregulin receptor (HER2)-induced NF-κB in breast cancer. We found that Mucosa-associated lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), also known as paracaspase, is required for EGFR-induced ...


Developing And Using Methyl-Specific Antibodies To Study The Biological Roles Of Arginine Methylation, Vidyasiri Vemulapalli May 2016

Developing And Using Methyl-Specific Antibodies To Study The Biological Roles Of Arginine Methylation, Vidyasiri Vemulapalli

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Arginine residues can be modified in three different ways to produce asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and monomethylarginine (MMA). These modifications are catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT1-9), which are of three types (I, II, and III). The majority of Type I enzymes asymmetrically dimethylate Glycine- and Arginine-rich (GAR) motifs, except for PRMT4, which methylates Proline-, Glycine-, and Methionine-rich (PGM) motifs. The same substrates (GAR or PGM motifs) can also be dimethylated by PRMT5 in a symmetric fashion. However, it is not clear whether there are dedicated residues within these motifs for ADMA and SDMA ...


Cll Metabolism Is Regulated By Prognostic Factors, Modulated By Stroma And Abrogated By Pi3k Inhibition, Hima Vangapandu May 2016

Cll Metabolism Is Regulated By Prognostic Factors, Modulated By Stroma And Abrogated By Pi3k Inhibition, Hima Vangapandu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metabolism of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease characterized by the relentless accumulation of mature B cells has been little explored. Bone marrow stromal cells provide a survival benefit to CLL cells, in part through PI3K/AKT pathway. Compared with proliferative B-cell lines, metabolic fluxes of oxygen and lactate were low in quiescent malignant B lymphocytes from CLL patients. Glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate, ECAR) was consistently low in CLL samples, but oxygen consumption (OCR) varied considerably. Higher OCR was associated with poor prognostic factors such as ZAP 70 positivity, unmutated IgVH, high β2M levels, and higher Rai stage. Co-culture with ...


Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim May 2016

Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe, acute disease of pregnancy affecting approximately 8% of pregnant women after week 20 of gestation. PE is characterized by hypertension and renal damage reflected by proteinuria and has significant morbidity to both mother and fetus. Maternal symptoms range from headaches, nausea, edema, to visual changes, but once maternal symptoms present, damage to the fetus has begun. Mothers who progress untreated through the disease can also experience a condition called eclampsia characterized by seizure, coma, and, ultimately, death. PE-affected newborns experience features similar to prematurity—abnormal lung and renal development, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and, possibly ...


Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul May 2016

Mechanisms Of Regulation Of Tau Ires Mediated Translation, Niza Nemkul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs occurs in a cap-dependent manner. However, a subset of mRNAs are capable of initiating translation in a cap-independent manner by utilizing sequences in their 5’ UTR called IRES. It was previously shown that the 5’ UTR of the tau mRNA contains an IRES. In this study I show that IRES dependent translation of tau IRES is regulated at multiple levels in order to regulate the expression of the tau protein.

Tau protein is ubiquitously expressed but is concentrated in the brain. In this study, I utilized neural and non-neural cell lines to show that ...


Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner Dec 2015

Preventing Thymus Involution In K5.Cyclin D1 Transgenic Mice Sustains The Naïve T Cell Compartment With Age, Michelle L. Bolner

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The thymus maintains T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity through perpetual release of self-MHC restricted naive T cells. However, thymus involution during the aging process reduces naïve T cell output, leading to defective immune responsiveness to newly encountered antigens. We have found that early thymus involution precipitates the age-associated shift favoring memory T cell dominancy in young control mice. Furthermore, we have shown that age-related thymus involution is prevented in mice expressing a keratin 5 promoter-driven Cyclin D1 (K5.D1) transgene in thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Thymopoiesis occurs normally in K5.D1 transgenic thymi and sustains T cell output to ...


Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao Dec 2015

Molecular Regulation Of Vascular Calcification In Murine Models Of Atherosclerosis, Shanshan Gao

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Calcification occurs often in the atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease and animals with hypercholesterolemia, such as apolipoprotein-E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the development of calcification in atherosclerosis remains unclear. ApoE acts as a lipid transporter, but also has been recognized as a potential regulator of osteogenesis. Little information is available as to whether ApoE has any direct impact on osteogenesis and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several signal transduction pathways play a role in regulation of calcification, including the Wnt/β-catenin system and potentially GTAP, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme responsible for ...