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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Induction Of Antibodies To Hiv-1 Envelope Using Simian Adenovirus Vaccines, Kristel Lucie Emmer Jan 2018

Induction Of Antibodies To Hiv-1 Envelope Using Simian Adenovirus Vaccines, Kristel Lucie Emmer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has infected 76 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. The first evidence that an HIV-1 vaccine could prevent infection in humans was provided in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. RV144 demonstrated 31.2% efficacy and immune correlate analyses indicated that antibodies targeting the variable 2 (V2) region of HIV-1 envelope (Env) correlated with decreased risk of infection. However, significant improvements are needed to develop a globally effective vaccine against HIV-1.

Several approaches can be employed to improve upon vaccination strategies: heterologous prime-boost regimens, immunogen design, and alternative adjuvants. To enhance Env-specific antibodies ...


A Role For Cell Cycle Protein E2f1 In Hiv-Induced Neurotoxicity, Jacob Zyskind Jan 2015

A Role For Cell Cycle Protein E2f1 In Hiv-Induced Neurotoxicity, Jacob Zyskind

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a spectrum of HIV-related conditions affecting the central nervous system that range from mild memory impairments to severe dementia. HAND results from the release of inflammatory factors and excitotoxins by HIV-infected macrophages in the brain. These factors alter the extracellular environment and provoke a neuronal response, ultimately causing dendritic damage, synaptic loss, and neuronal death. Our previous data indicate that components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery are elevated in neurons from post-mortem brain tissue of HAND patients. One of these upregulated proteins, the transcription factor E2F1, is known to activate gene targets required for ...


A Novel Ccr5 Mutation In Sooty Mangabeys Reveals Sivsmm Infection Of Ccr5-Null Natural Hosts: Examining The Potential Roles Of Alternative Entry Pathways In Hiv And Siv Infection, Nadeene E. Riddick Jan 2012

A Novel Ccr5 Mutation In Sooty Mangabeys Reveals Sivsmm Infection Of Ccr5-Null Natural Hosts: Examining The Potential Roles Of Alternative Entry Pathways In Hiv And Siv Infection, Nadeene E. Riddick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natural hosts of SIV, such as sooty mangabeys (SM), maintain high levels of virus replication, but do not typically develop CD4+ T cell loss and immunodeficiency. Understanding the virus/host relationship in natural hosts will enable better understanding of pathogenic HIV infection of humans. Host cell targeting in vivo is an important determinant of pathogenesis, and is defined mainly by expression of coreceptors used by the virus for entry, in conjunction with CD4. Established dogma holds that, with rare exceptions, SIV uses CCR5 for entry. However, SM and other natural hosts express extremely low CCR5 levels on CD4+ T cells ...