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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Iron-Induced Complement Dysregulation In The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Implications For Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Yafeng Li Jan 2015

Iron-Induced Complement Dysregulation In The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Implications For Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Yafeng Li

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), typically manifesting as a loss of central vision in elderly persons, is a leading cause of blindness in highly developed nations. AMD is a multifactorial disease associated with aging, oxidative stress, complement dysregulation, dsRNA toxicity, among many other possible factors. The formation of extracellular deposits, termed drusen, below the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer in the outer retina is a pathognomonic hallmark of AMD. The composition of drusen is complex, but identified elements include iron, complement components, and amyloid protein derivatives. This suggests that iron may be involved in the pathophysiology of AMD. Further support ...


Change And Impact Of Microrna Modification With Age In Drosophila Melanogaster, Masashi Abe Jan 2013

Change And Impact Of Microrna Modification With Age In Drosophila Melanogaster, Masashi Abe

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20~24nt small RNAs that are critical for many biological aspects, from development to age-associated processes. Starting from the identification of the first miRNA, lin-4, hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered across species. To reveal the role of miRNAs in aging, studies have profiled changes in miRNA levels with age. However, increasing evidence suggests that miRNAs show heterogeneity in length and sequence in different biological contexts. Despite the observation of such heterogeneity, it is largely unknown how such heterogeneity is generated, and whether it is biologically regulated or important. Here we report the characterization of a novel ...


Regulation And Dynamic Behavior Of The Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf-1 In C. Elegans, Elizabeth A. Morton Jan 2013

Regulation And Dynamic Behavior Of The Heat Shock Transcription Factor Hsf-1 In C. Elegans, Elizabeth A. Morton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eukaryotic cells respond to heat stress by activating the transcription factor HSF1. In addition to its role in stress response, HSF1 also functions in protein homeostasis, aging, innate immunity, and cancer. Despite prominent HSF1 involvement in processes pertinent to human health and disease, there are still gaps in our understanding of HSF1. For example, controversy exists regarding the localization of HSF1, the identity of HSF1 regulators, and the function and conservation of heat-induced HSF1 stress granules. Many of the physiological roles for HSF1 have been defined using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, yet little is known about how the molecular ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Sleep/Wake Regulation And Memory Formation In Young And Aged Mice, Mathieu E. Wimmer Jan 2012

Molecular Mechanisms Of Sleep/Wake Regulation And Memory Formation In Young And Aged Mice, Mathieu E. Wimmer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Advancements in healthcare and medicine have greatly increased lifespan. Normal aging is accompanied by deterioration of key physiological processes, including sleep and cognition. Understanding the mechanisms by which these functions go awry with age is a critical step in identifying novel therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life for the elderly. One of the most prevalent complaints in the elderly is the deterioration of sleep/wake patterns, difficulties staying awake and reduced vigilance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling these states in the brain. Mouse models are ideally suited to address this question because they share many similarities ...