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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Structural Protein Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, The Replicase Nonstructural Protein 2, Matthew Allan Kappes Jan 2014

Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Structural Protein Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, The Replicase Nonstructural Protein 2, Matthew Allan Kappes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly mutating pathogen eliciting respiratory and reproductive disease of high economic consequence. The PRRSV non-structural protein 2 (nsp2) is a large multifunctional protein encoded by the most genetically diverse region of the genome - the selective pressure potentiating mutation within this region is unknown. Here we report the identification of a unique function of nsp2 as a structural component of the PRRSV virion; the first PRRSV structural protein identified which is not expressed from a sub-genomic RNA or regulated via the discontinuous transcription pathway. Through the use of a set of custom ...


Modification Of The Bt Toxin Cry4aa For Improved Toxin Processing In The Gut Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Michael Allen Rausch Jan 2014

Modification Of The Bt Toxin Cry4aa For Improved Toxin Processing In The Gut Of The Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon Pisum), Michael Allen Rausch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal is to produce a "designer" toxin based on naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa protoxin could be a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation and generation of the active toxin in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified ...


Studies Of Integrins' Lateral Dynamics At A Single Particle Level, Dipak Mainali Jan 2014

Studies Of Integrins' Lateral Dynamics At A Single Particle Level, Dipak Mainali

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the important factors in controlling the dynamics, structure, and functioning of the cell membrane is the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins and lipids. Integrins are one of the ubiquitous transmembrane proteins that are vital for numerous cellular functions. Integrins' lateral mobility and rearrangement is essential for integrins primary function of cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, cell-cell adhesion, and signaling. Lateral movement allows integrins to associate with extracellular ligand and other cytoplasmic and membrane proteins to incite biological activity such as signaling and downstream effects. This thesis describes the role of both downstream and upstream effectors, such as extracellular ligand, selected ...


Epigenetic Interplay Between Histone H3k9me2 And Jil-1 Mediated Histone H3s10ph, Chao Wang Jan 2014

Epigenetic Interplay Between Histone H3k9me2 And Jil-1 Mediated Histone H3s10ph, Chao Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Drosophila, JIL-1 Kinase specifically localizes to euchromatic interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is responsible for histone H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase. Previous genetic interaction assays have demonstrated that the JIL-1 protein can counterbalance the effect of the major heterochromatin components Su(var)3-7 on position-effect variegation (PEV). In this study, we show that the haplo-enhancer effect of JIL-1 has the ability to counterbalance the haplo-suppressor effect of two other major heterochromatin components, Su(var)3-9 and Su(var)2-5, on position-effect variegation, providing evidence that a finely tuned balance between the levels of JIL-1 and the major heterochromatin components ...


Aphid Small Rnas And Viruses, Diveena Vijayendran Jan 2014

Aphid Small Rnas And Viruses, Diveena Vijayendran

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aphids are important agricultural pests with about 250 species known to cause damage by feeding on plant phloem and transmitting plant viruses. Current management relies primarily on the application of chemical insecticides, which can be deleterious to the environment, and the use of aphid resistant cultivars hampered by the presence of resistant aphid biotypes. We aim to develop novel biotechnology based approaches to better manage pestiferous aphids. To this end, we (i) identified and characterized aphid viruses, and (ii) analyzed a class of small RNA, microRNAs specific to aphids. We used transcriptome and small RNA sequencing datasets to identify viruses ...


Development Of An In Vitro Model And Fluorescent Protein Expression System For The Study Of Highly Abortigenic Campylobacter Jejuni, Moria Ann Borys Jan 2014

Development Of An In Vitro Model And Fluorescent Protein Expression System For The Study Of Highly Abortigenic Campylobacter Jejuni, Moria Ann Borys

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of sheep abortions worldwide; Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus has historically been the major culprit. Increasingly, however, C. jejuni has been isolated from cases of sheep abortion, and it has now replaced C. fetus ssp. fetus as the predominant cause of Campylobacter-related ovine abortion in the United States. Emergence of a single tetracycline resistant clone (clone SA) has been implicated as the primary reason for this shift. Virulence factors for clone SA have still not been completely elucidated, and it is not known how this bacterium reaches the uterine and placental tissue from the ...


Mobile Mrna: A Long Distance Signaling System In Potato, Tian Lin Jan 2014

Mobile Mrna: A Long Distance Signaling System In Potato, Tian Lin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mobile mRNA is one of the most important long-distance signals in plant vascular system. They play important roles in responding to environmental cues, such as photoperiod. There are numerous studies on mobile mRNAs in plants and thousand of mRNAs have been detected in phloem sap. One of the BEL1-like genes, designated StBEL5, has transcripts that move long distance from leaf to stolon tips and enhance tuberization. However, not many mobile mRNAs have been characterized. The mechanism of the long-distance movement of mRNAs is not clear. In this dissertation, we conducted research on different levels to characterize known mobile mRNA and ...


A Single Molecular Study Of The Regulation Of Snare-Mediated Membrane Fusion, Jaekyun Song Jan 2014

A Single Molecular Study Of The Regulation Of Snare-Mediated Membrane Fusion, Jaekyun Song

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The presynaptic membrane fusion is mediated by a protein set called SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptor) proteins. SNARE proteins form a ternary SNARE-complex that comprises minimal machinery for membrane fusion; the complex consists of three SNARE proteins: Syntaxin 1, SNAP-25 and Vamp 2, also called Synaptobrevin 2. The SNARE complex is a four-helix coiled coil with four SNARE motifs; two come from SNARE-25 and one each from Syntaxin 1 and Vamp 2. It is believed that a regulatory protein Complexin binds tightly to the SNARE complex and stabilizes the complex, preventing it from driving toward fusion. However, the detailed ...