Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Faculty Publications

Articles 1 - 30 of 36

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jan 2018

Sumo Targeting Of A Stress-Tolerant Ulp1 Sumo Protease, Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Oliver Kerscher, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1. We find that the catalytic UD domains of both ScUlp1 and ...


Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley Aug 2016

Epstein-Barr Viral Micrornas Target Caspase 3, Cecelia Harold, Diana Cox, Kasandra J. Riley

Faculty Publications

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that transforms B cells and causes several malignancies including Burkitt’s lymphoma. EBV differentially expresses at least 49 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in various infected epithelial and B cells. Recent high-throughput studies and functional assays have begun to reveal the function of the EBV miRNAs suggesting roles in latency, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. In particular, the central executioner of apoptosis, Caspase 3 (CASP3), was proposed as a target of select EBV miRNAs. However, whether CASP3 is truly a target of EBV miRNAs, and if so, which specific miRNAs target CASP3 ...


Virulence Factors Of Aeromonas Hydrophila: In The Wake Of Reclassification, Cody R. Rasmussen-Ivey, Maria J. Figueras, Donald Mcgarey, Mark R. Liles Aug 2016

Virulence Factors Of Aeromonas Hydrophila: In The Wake Of Reclassification, Cody R. Rasmussen-Ivey, Maria J. Figueras, Donald Mcgarey, Mark R. Liles

Faculty Publications

The ubiquitous “jack-of-all-trades,” Aeromonas hydrophila, is a freshwater, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen under revision in regard to its phylogenetic and functional affiliation with other aeromonads. While virulence factors are expectedly diverse across A. hydrophila strains and closely related species, our mechanistic knowledge of the vast majority of these factors is based on the molecular characterization of the strains A. hydrophila AH-3 and SSU, which were reclassified as A. piscicola AH-3 in 2009 and A. dhakensis SSU in 2013. Individually, these reclassifications raise important questions involving the applicability of previous research on A. hydrophila virulence mechanisms; however, this issue is exacerbated by ...


The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al. May 2016

The Sh3 Domain Of Unc-89 (Obscurin) Interacts With Paramyosin, A Coiled-Coil Protein, In Caenorhabditis Elegans Muscle, Hiroshi Qadota, Jonathan Mcmurry, Verra M. Ngwa, Et Al.

Faculty Publications

UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with paramyosin. Paramyosin is an invertebrate-specific coiled-coil dimer protein that is homologous to the rod portion of myosin heavy chains and resides in thick filament cores. Minimally, this interaction requires UNC-89’s SH3 domain and residues 294–376 of paramyosin and has a KD of ∼1.1 μM. In unc-89 loss-of-function mutants that lack the SH3 domain ...


Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans Apr 2016

Localisation And Protein-Protein Interactions Of The Helicobacter Pylori Taxis Sensor T1pd And Their Connection To Metabolic Functions, Wiebke Behrens, Tobias Schweinitzer, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Christine Josenhans

Faculty Publications

The Helicobacter pylori energy sensor TlpD determines tactic behaviour under low energy conditions and is important in vivo. We explored protein-protein interactions of TlpD and their impact on TlpD localisation and function. Pull-down of tagged TlpD identified protein interaction partners of TlpD, which included the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheAY2, the central metabolic enzyme aconitase (AcnB) and the detoxifying enzyme catalase (KatA). We confirmed that KatA and AcnB physically interact with TlpD. While the TlpD-dependent behavioural response appeared not influenced in the interactor mutants katA and acnB in steady-state behavioural assays, acetone carboxylase subunit (acxC) mutant behaviour was altered. TlpD was ...


Hoxd Expression In The Fin-Fold Compartment Of Basal Gnathostomes And Implications For Paired Appendage Evolution, Frank J. Tulenko, Gaius J. Augustus, James L. Massey, Seth E. Sims Mar 2016

Hoxd Expression In The Fin-Fold Compartment Of Basal Gnathostomes And Implications For Paired Appendage Evolution, Frank J. Tulenko, Gaius J. Augustus, James L. Massey, Seth E. Sims

Faculty Publications

The role of Homeobox transcription factors during fin and limb development have been the focus of recent work investigating the evolutionary origin of limb-specific morphologies. Here we characterize the expression of HoxD genes, as well as the cluster-associated genes Evx2 and LNP, in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula, a basal ray-finned fish. Our results demonstrate a collinear pattern of nesting in early fin buds that includes HoxD14, a gene previously thought to be isolated from global Hoxregulation. We also show that in both Polyodon and the catsharkScyliorhinus canicula (a representative chondrichthyan) late phaseHoxD transcripts are present in cells of the fin-fold ...


Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson Feb 2016

Efn-4 Functions In Lad-2-Mediated Axon Guidance In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Alicia A. Schwieterman, Cory J. Donelson, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Martin L. Hudson

Faculty Publications

During development of the nervous system, growing axons rely on guidance molecules to direct axon pathfinding. A well-characterized family of guidance molecules are the membrane-associated ephrins, which together with their cognate Eph receptors, direct axon navigation in a contact-mediated fashion. InC. elegans, the ephrin-Eph signaling system is conserved and is best characterized for their roles in neuroblast migration during early embryogenesis. This study demonstrates a role for theC. elegansephrin EFN-4 in axon guidance. We provide both genetic and biochemical evidence that is consistent with theC. elegansdivergent L1 cell adhesion molecule LAD-2 acting as a non-canonical ephrin receptor to EFN-4 to ...


Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Uncovers Substrate Promiscuity Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase From Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora, Hassan Rana, Patricia Moussatche, Lis Souza Rocha, Ellen W. Moomaw Feb 2016

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Uncovers Substrate Promiscuity Of Bicupin Oxalate Oxidase From Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora, Hassan Rana, Patricia Moussatche, Lis Souza Rocha, Ellen W. Moomaw

Faculty Publications

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) may be used to determine the kinetic parameters of enzymecatalyzed reactions when neither products nor reactants are spectrophotometrically visible and when the reaction products are unknown. We report here the use of the multiple injection method of ITC to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase (OxOx) from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx), a manganese dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. The multiple injection ITC method of measuring OxOx activity involves ...


Bioinformatics Resources For Microrna Discovery, Alyssa C. Moore, Jonathan S. Winkjer, Tsai-Tien Tseng Jan 2016

Bioinformatics Resources For Microrna Discovery, Alyssa C. Moore, Jonathan S. Winkjer, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Faculty Publications

Biomarker identification is often associated with the diagnosis and evaluation of various diseases. Recently, the role of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in the development of diseases, particularly cancer. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the amount of data on miRNA has increased tremendously in the last decade, requiring new bioinformatics approaches for processing and storing new information. New strategies have been developed in mining these sequencing datasets to allow better understanding toward the actions of miRNAs. As a result, many databases have also been established to disseminate these findings. This review focuses on several curated databases of miRNAs and ...


Micrornas Expressed During Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential And Therapeutic Considerations, Jennifer Louten, Michael Beach, Kristina Palermino, Maria Weeks, Gabrielle Holenstein Jan 2016

Micrornas Expressed During Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential And Therapeutic Considerations, Jennifer Louten, Michael Beach, Kristina Palermino, Maria Weeks, Gabrielle Holenstein

Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus.


Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Jan 2016

Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Faculty Publications

The use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as biomolecular delivery vehicles holds great promise for therapeutic and other applications, but development has been stymied by poor delivery and lack of endosomal escape. We have developed a CPP-adaptor system capable of efficient intracellular delivery and endosomal escape of user-defined protein cargos. The cell penetrating sequence of HIV transactivator of transcription was fused to calmodulin, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to proteins containing a calmodulin binding site. Our strategy has tremendous advantage over prior CPP technologies because it utilizes high affinity noncovalent, but reversible coupling between CPP and cargo. Three different cargo ...


Tryptophan 207 Is Crucial To The Unique Properties Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel, Hhv1, Vladimir V. Cherny, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Susan M. E. Smith Oct 2015

Tryptophan 207 Is Crucial To The Unique Properties Of The Human Voltage-Gated Proton Channel, Hhv1, Vladimir V. Cherny, Deri Morgan, Boris Musset, Susan M. E. Smith

Faculty Publications

Part of the “signature sequence” that defines the voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) is a tryptophan residue adjacent to the second Arg in the S4 transmembrane helix: RxWRxxR, which is perfectly conserved in all high confidence HV1 genes. Replacing Trp207 in human HV1 (hHV1) with Ala, Ser, or Phe facilitated gating, accelerating channel opening by 100-fold, and closing by 30-fold. Mutant channels opened at more negative voltages than wild-type (WT) channels, indicating that in WT channels, Trp favors a closed state. The Arrhenius activation energy, Ea, for channel opening decreased to 22 kcal/mol from 30–38 kcal/mol for WT ...


Precise Repair Of Mping Excision Sites Is Facilitated By Target Site Duplication Derived Microhomology, David M. Gilbert, M. Catherine Bridges, Ashley E. Strother, Courtney E. Burckhalter, James M. Burnette Iii, C. Nathan Hancock Sep 2015

Precise Repair Of Mping Excision Sites Is Facilitated By Target Site Duplication Derived Microhomology, David M. Gilbert, M. Catherine Bridges, Ashley E. Strother, Courtney E. Burckhalter, James M. Burnette Iii, C. Nathan Hancock

Faculty Publications

A key difference between the Tourist and Stowaway families of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) is the manner in which their excision alters the genome. Upon excision, Stowaway-like MITEs and the associated Mariner elements usually leave behind a small duplication and short sequences from the end of the element. These small insertions or deletions known as “footprints” can potentially disrupt coding or regulatory sequences. In contrast, Tourist-like MITEs and the associated PIF/Pong/Harbinger elements generally excise precisely, returning the genome to its original state. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying these ...


Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Bacteriophage Φ241 Isolated From An Industrial Cucumber Fermentation At High Acidity And Salinity, Zhongjing Lu, Fred Breidt Feb 2015

Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Bacteriophage Φ241 Isolated From An Industrial Cucumber Fermentation At High Acidity And Salinity, Zhongjing Lu, Fred Breidt

Faculty Publications

A novel phage, Φ241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH ≤ 3.7) and salinity (≥5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min and average burst size was 53 phage particles per infected cell. The phage was able to lyse 48 E. coli O157:H7 strains, but none of the 18 non-O157 strains (including E. coli O104:H7) or the 2 O antigen-negative mutants of O157:H7 strain, 43895Δper (also lacking H7 antigen) and F12 (still expressing H7 antigen). However, the ...


Discovery And Characterization Of A Potent And Selective Inhibitory Of Aedes Aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels, Matthew F. Rouhier, Rene Raphemot, Daniel R. Swale, Emily Days, C. David Weaver, Kimberly M. Lovell, Leah C. Konkel, Darren W. Engers, Sean F. Bollinger, Corey Hopkins, Peter M. Piermarini, Jerod S. Denton Nov 2014

Discovery And Characterization Of A Potent And Selective Inhibitory Of Aedes Aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels, Matthew F. Rouhier, Rene Raphemot, Daniel R. Swale, Emily Days, C. David Weaver, Kimberly M. Lovell, Leah C. Konkel, Darren W. Engers, Sean F. Bollinger, Corey Hopkins, Peter M. Piermarini, Jerod S. Denton

Faculty Publications

Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors ...


Characterization Of Myxococcus Xanthus Mazf And Implications For A New Point Of Regulation, Tye O. Boynton, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Lawrence J. Shimkets Mar 2013

Characterization Of Myxococcus Xanthus Mazf And Implications For A New Point Of Regulation, Tye O. Boynton, Jonathan L. Mcmurry, Lawrence J. Shimkets

Faculty Publications

During development, Myxococcus xanthus cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) whereby 80% of vegetative cells die. Previously, the MazF RNA interferase has been implicated in this role. Recently, it was shown that deletion of the mazF gene does not eliminate PCD in wild-type strain DK1622 as originally seen in DZF1. To clarify the role of MazF, recombinant enzyme was characterized using a highly sensitive assay in the presence and absence of the proposed antitoxin MrpC. In contrast to previous reports that MrpC inhibits MazF activity, the hydrolysis rate was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner with MrpC or MrpC2, an N-terminally ...


An Acid Catalyzed Reversible Ring-Opening/Ring-Closure Reaction Involving A Cyano-Rhodamine Spirolactam, H. Li, H. Guan, X. Duan, J. Hu, Guiren Wang, Qian Wang Jan 2013

An Acid Catalyzed Reversible Ring-Opening/Ring-Closure Reaction Involving A Cyano-Rhodamine Spirolactam, H. Li, H. Guan, X. Duan, J. Hu, Guiren Wang, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cyanamide was introduced into the rhodamine spirolactam framework to produce a colorless and non-fluorescent compound RBCN. It shows a reversible ring-opening/ring-closure process in response to the solution pH, which exhibits an “ON/OFF” switching in its fluorescence. Different from other rhodamine-type dyes, the ring-open form of RBCN is stable in protic solvents under neutral, near neutral and basic conditions, showing a pink color and very strong fluorescence. We also demonstrated the potential of RBCN in live cell imaging.


Expansion Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells With Fibrous Scaffolds, Sheng Feng, Pang-Kuo Lo, Shou Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2013

Expansion Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells With Fibrous Scaffolds, Sheng Feng, Pang-Kuo Lo, Shou Liu, Xinfeng Liu, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are hypothesized as tumor-initiating cells within tumors and main contributors of tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. Mammary cancer cells, MCF-7 cells, were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, showing an increased proportion of CSCs. The expression of stem cell markers, including OCT3/4 and SOX2, and breast CSC-specific markers, SOX4 and CD49f, was significantly upregulated, and the mammosphere-forming capability in cells cultured on PCL fibrous scaffolds increased. The fibrous scaffolds also induced the elongation of MCF-7 cells and extended cell proliferation. The increase of CSC properties after being cultured on fibrous scaffolds was further confirmed ...


A Plant Virus Substrate Induces Early Upregulation Of Bmp2 For Rapid Bone Formation, P. Sitasuwan, L. A. Lee, P. Bo, E. N. Davis, Y. Lin, Qian Wang Jan 2012

A Plant Virus Substrate Induces Early Upregulation Of Bmp2 For Rapid Bone Formation, P. Sitasuwan, L. A. Lee, P. Bo, E. N. Davis, Y. Lin, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Many nanoscale materials have been developed to investigate the effects on stem cell differentiations via topographical and chemical cues for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of plant viruses as cell supporting substrates has been of particular interest due to the rapid induction of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) towards osteogenic cells. In this study, the role of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and its early effects on osteoinduction with particular emphasis on the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) was examined. We observed that the cells on the virus substrate immediately aggregated and formed bone-like ...


Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Breast Tumour Initiating Cell Fate Is Regulated By Microenvironmental Cues From An Extracellular Matrix, S. Saha, Pang-Kuo Lo, X. Duan, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells, also known as tumour-initiating cells (TICs), are identified as highly tumorigenic population within tumours and hypothesized to be main regulators in tumour growth, metastasis and relapse. Evidence also suggests that a tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancer, by constantly modulating cell–matrix interactions. Scientists have tried to characterize and identify the TIC population but the actual combination of extracellular components in deciphering the fate of TICs has not been explored. The basic unanswered question is the phenotypic stability of this TIC population in a tissue extracellular matrix setting. The in ...


Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang Jan 2012

Discrimination Of Colon Cancer Stem Cells Using Noncanonical Amino Acid, X. Duan, H. Li, Hexin Chen, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumor recurrence. Metabolic labelling of newly synthesized proteins with non-canonical amino acids allows us to discriminate CSCs in mixed populations due to the quiescent nature of these cells.


Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker Oct 2011

Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker

Faculty Publications

Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by 'hair cells' in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular ...


A Microrna Imparts Robustness Against Environmental Fluctuation During Development, Xin Li, Justin J. Cassidy, Catherine A. Reinke, Stephen Fischboeck, Richard W. Carthew Jan 2009

A Microrna Imparts Robustness Against Environmental Fluctuation During Development, Xin Li, Justin J. Cassidy, Catherine A. Reinke, Stephen Fischboeck, Richard W. Carthew

Faculty Publications

The microRNA miR-7 is perfectly conserved from annelids to humans, and yet some of the genes that it regulates in Drosophila are not regulated in mammals. We have explored the role of lineage restricted targets, using Drosophila , in order to better understand the evolutionary significance of microRNA-target relationships. From studies of two well characterized developmental regulatory networks, we find that miR-7 functions in several interlocking feedback and feedforward loops, and propose that its role in these networks is to buffer them against perturbation. To directly demonstrate this function for miR-7, we subjected the networks to temperature fluctuation and found that ...


Bmp Signaling Goes Posttranscriptional In A Microrna Sort Of Way, Catherine A. Reinke, Richard W. Carthew Jan 2008

Bmp Signaling Goes Posttranscriptional In A Microrna Sort Of Way, Catherine A. Reinke, Richard W. Carthew

Faculty Publications

Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression correlates with human diseases such as cardiac disorders and cancer. Treatment of such disorders using miRNA-targeted therapeutics requires a thorough understanding of miRNA regulation in vivo. A recent paper in Nature by Davis et al. expands our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and maturation, elucidating a mechanism by which extracellular signaling directs cell differentiation via posttranscriptional regulation of miRNA expression.


Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2008

Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is overexpressed in many cancers and is a substrate for both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin has been observed to increase cell motility and invasion in vivo, although it has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on actin polymerization in vitro. In contrast, serine phosphorylation of cortactin has been shown to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. Currently, the effects of cortactin serine phosphorylation on cell migration are unclear, and furthermore, how the distinct phospho-forms of cortactin may differentially contribute to cell migration has not been directly compared ...


Oriented Cell Growth On Self-Assembled Bacteriophage M13 Thin Films, J. Rong, L. A. Lee, K. Li, B. Harp, C. M. Mello, Z. Niu, Qian Wang Jan 2008

Oriented Cell Growth On Self-Assembled Bacteriophage M13 Thin Films, J. Rong, L. A. Lee, K. Li, B. Harp, C. M. Mello, Z. Niu, Qian Wang

Faculty Publications

Fibrillar M13 bacteriophages were used as basic building blocks to generate thin films with aligned nanogrooves, which, upon chemical grafting with RGD peptides, guide cell alignment and orient the cell outgrowth along defined directions.


The Role Of A Conserved Serine Residue Within Hydrogen Bonding Distance Of Fad In Redox Properties And The Modulation Of Catalysis By Ca2+/Calmodulin Of Constitutive Nitric-Oxide Synthases, Satya Prakash Panda, Ying Tong Gao, Linda J. Roman, Pavel Marta´Sek, John C. Salerno, Bettie Masters Nov 2006

The Role Of A Conserved Serine Residue Within Hydrogen Bonding Distance Of Fad In Redox Properties And The Modulation Of Catalysis By Ca2+/Calmodulin Of Constitutive Nitric-Oxide Synthases, Satya Prakash Panda, Ying Tong Gao, Linda J. Roman, Pavel Marta´Sek, John C. Salerno, Bettie Masters

Faculty Publications

The crystal structure of the neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) NADPH/FAD binding domain indicated that Ser-1176 is within hydrogen bonding distance of Asp-1393 and the O4 atom of FAD and is also near the N5 atom of FAD (3.7Å). This serine residue is conserved in most of the ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase family of proteins and is important in electron transfer. In the present study, the homologous serines of both nNOS (Ser-1176) and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) (Ser-942) were mutated to threonine and alanine. Both substitutions yielded proteins that exhibited decreased rates of electron transfer through the flavin domains, in the ...


Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou Jan 2006

Dna Damage Responses In Progeroid Syndromes Arise From Defective Maturation Of Prelamin A, Michael Sinensky, Y. Liu, A. Rusinol, Y. Wang, Y. Zou

Faculty Publications

The genetic diseases Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) arise from accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A because of defects in the lamin A maturation pathway. Both of these diseases exhibit symptoms that can be viewed as accelerated aging. The mechanism by which accumulation of farnesylated prelamin A leads to these accelerated aging phenotypes is not understood. Here we present evidence that in HGPS and RD fibroblasts, DNA damage checkpoints are persistently activated because of the compromise in genomic integrity. Inactivation of checkpoint kinases Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) in these patient cells can partially overcome their ...


Farnesylated Lamins, Progeroid Syndromes And Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors, Michael Sinensky, A. E. Rusinol Jan 2006

Farnesylated Lamins, Progeroid Syndromes And Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors, Michael Sinensky, A. E. Rusinol

Faculty Publications

Three mammalian nuclear lamin proteins, lamin B1, lamin B2 and the lamin A precursor, prelamin A, undergo canonical farnesylation and processing at CAAX motifs. In the case of prelamin A, there is an additional farnesylation-dependent endoproteolysis, which is defective in two congenital diseases: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD). These two diseases arise respectively from defects in the prelamin A substrate and the enzyme (ZmpSte24) that processes it. Recent work has shed light on the roles of the lamin proteins and the enzymes involved in their farnesylation-dependent maturation. Other experimental work, including mouse model studies, have examined the possibility ...


Reduced Macrophage Apoptosis Is Associated With Accelerated Atherosclerosis In Low-Denstiy Lipoprotein Receptor-Null Mice, Michael Sinensky, J. Liu, D. P. Thweke, Y. R. Su, M. F. Linton, S. Fazio Jan 2005

Reduced Macrophage Apoptosis Is Associated With Accelerated Atherosclerosis In Low-Denstiy Lipoprotein Receptor-Null Mice, Michael Sinensky, J. Liu, D. P. Thweke, Y. R. Su, M. F. Linton, S. Fazio

Faculty Publications

Objective— The majority of apoptotic cells in atherosclerotic lesions are macrophages. However, the pathogenic role of macrophage apoptosis in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Elevated expression of Bax, one of the pivotal proapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family, has been found in human atherosclerotic plaques. Activation of Bax also occurs in free cholesterol-loaded and oxysterol-treated mouse macrophages. In this study, we examined the effect of Bax deficiency in bone marrow-derived leukocytes on the development of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (LDLR−/−) mice. Methods and Results— Fourteen 8-week-old male LDLR−/− mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with either wild-type (WT ...