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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson Sep 2010

The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The miR-15/107 group of microRNA (miRNA) gene is increasingly appreciated to serve key functions in humans. These miRNAs regulate gene expression involved in cell division, metabolism, stress response, and angiogenesis in vertebrate species. The miR-15/107 group has also been implicated in human cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide an overview of the following: (1) the evolution of miR-15/107 group member genes; (2) the expression levels of miRNAs in mammalian tissues; (3) evidence for overlapping gene-regulatory functions by different miRNAs; (4) the normal biochemical pathways regulated by miR-15/107 group miRNAs ...


Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery May 2009

Human Cerebral Neuropathology Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Peter T. Nelson, Charles D. Smith, Erin L. Abner, Frederick A. Schmitt, Stephen W. Scheff, Gregory J. Davis, Jeffrey N. Keller, Gregory A. Jicha, Daron Davis, Wang-Xia Wang, Adria Hartman, Douglas G. Katz, William R. Markesbery

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The cerebral neuropathology of Type 2 diabetes (CNDM2) has not been positively defined. This review includes a description of CNDM2 research from before the ‘Pubmed Era’. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular and white matter pathology. These and prior studies about cerebrovascular histopathology in diabetes are reviewed. Evidence is also described for and against the link between CNDM2 and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. To study this matter directly, we evaluated data from University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center (UK ADC) patients recruited while non-demented and followed longitudinally. Of patients who had come to autopsy (N = 234), 139 met ...