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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen Jan 2019

Automatic 13C Chemical Shift Reference Correction Of Protein Nmr Spectral Data Using Data Mining And Bayesian Statistical Modeling, Xi Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a highly versatile analytical technique for studying molecular configuration, conformation, and dynamics, especially of biomacromolecules such as proteins. However, due to the intrinsic properties of NMR experiments, results from the NMR instruments require a refencing step before the down-the-line analysis. Poor chemical shift referencing, especially for 13C in protein Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, fundamentally limits and even prevents effective study of biomacromolecules via NMR. There is no available method that can rereference carbon chemical shifts from protein NMR without secondary experimental information such as structure or resonance assignment.

To solve this problem, we ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim Jan 2018

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Biosynthetic Mechanism Of The Antibiotic Capuramycin, Erfu Yan Jan 2018

Biosynthetic Mechanism Of The Antibiotic Capuramycin, Erfu Yan

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

A-102395 is a member of the capuramycin family of antibiotics which was isolated from the culture broth of Amycolatopsis sp. SANK 60206. A-102339 is structurally classified as a nucleoside antibiotic, which like all members of the capuramycin family, inhibits bacterial MraY (translocase I) with IC50 of 11 nM which is the lowest among the capuramycin family. A semisynthetic derivative of capuramycin is currently in clinical trials as an antituberculosis antibiotic, suggesting high potential for using A-102395 as a starting point for new antibiotic discovery. In contrast to other capuramycins, A-102395 has a unique arylamine-containing polyamide side chain. The biosynthetic ...


Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Action For Mithramycin And The Biosynthesis Of L-Rednose In Saquayamycins, Stevi Weidenbach Jan 2017

Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Action For Mithramycin And The Biosynthesis Of L-Rednose In Saquayamycins, Stevi Weidenbach

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products continue to be a major chemical lead matter for drug discovery due to their diverse chemical structures and bioactivities. Clinically significant natural products include anti-cancer and anti-infective compounds and while many more of these compounds show promising bioactivity, their clinical relevance is often limited by toxicity or poor solubility. Combinatorial biosynthesis can be employed to modify existing chemical scaffolds towards reducing these limitations. To fully take advantage of these biochemical tools, it is important to understand the biosynthesis and mechanism of action of the molecules.

Saccharides in glycosylated natural products provide specific interactions with cellular targets and are ...


Rad Gtpase: Identification Of Novel Regulatory Mechanisms And A New Function In Modulation Of Bone Density And Marrow Adiposity, Catherine Nicole Kaminski Withers Jan 2017

Rad Gtpase: Identification Of Novel Regulatory Mechanisms And A New Function In Modulation Of Bone Density And Marrow Adiposity, Catherine Nicole Kaminski Withers

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates voltage-dependent calcium channel function. Given its expression in both excitable and non-excitable cell types, the control mechanisms for Rad regulation and the potential for novel functions for Rad beyond calcium channel modulation are open questions. Here we report a novel interaction between Rad and Enigma, a scaffolding protein that also binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1). Overexpression of Smurf1, but not of a ...


Investigation Of The Physiological Role Of Rin Gtpase In Cell Death, Axonal Injury, And Inflammation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Megan Pannell Jan 2017

Investigation Of The Physiological Role Of Rin Gtpase In Cell Death, Axonal Injury, And Inflammation Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Megan Pannell

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a progressive disorder, in which the primary injury results in the initiation of a complex cascade of secondary biochemical and metabolic changes resulting in lasting neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. The heterogeneous nature of the disease has complicated the development of pharmacological agents to improve the outcomes of TBI; to date, no therapeutic treatment has been shown to be effective in clinical trials. Treatments targeting multiple secondary outcomes (cell death, axonal degeneration, and inflammation) may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy following TBI.

Small Ras family GTP-binding proteins govern diverse cellular processes by directing the relay of ...


The Role Of Alternative Polyadenylation Mediated By Cpsf30 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Guijie Hao Jan 2017

The Role Of Alternative Polyadenylation Mediated By Cpsf30 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Guijie Hao

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Drought stress is considered one of the most devastating abiotic stress factors that limit crop productivity for modern agriculture worldwide. There is a large range of physiological and biochemical responses induced by drought stress. The responses range from physiological and biochemical to regulation at transcription and posttranscriptional levels. Post-transcription, the products encoded by eukaryotic genes must undergo a series of modifications to become a mature mRNA. Polyadenylation is an important one in terms of regulation. Polyadenylation impacts gene expression through determining the coding and regulation potential of the mRNA, especially when different mRNAs from the same gene may be polyadenylated ...


Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui Jan 2017

Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), is a well-known medicinal plant that produces a vast array of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including two anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Industrial scale production of TIAs is hampered by the difficulties of total chemical synthesis of these compounds and the fragmented knowledge on TIA pathway. Transcriptional regulation of the TIA biosynthetic pathway has not been thoroughly investigated in Catharanthus and only a few structural genes have been identified as the targets of two master regulators: the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) CrMYC2 and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF), ORCA3. Next generation sequencing (NGS ...


Illuminate The Pathway Of Membrane Protein Association And Degradation, Zhaoshuai Wang Jan 2017

Illuminate The Pathway Of Membrane Protein Association And Degradation, Zhaoshuai Wang

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Escherichia coli transporter protein AcrB and its homologues are the inner membrane components of the Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. It is well accepted that soluble proteins are only marginally stable, but such insight is missing for membrane proteins. The lack of stability data, including thermodynamic stability and oligomer association affinity is a result of intrinsic difficulties in working with membrane proteins. In addition, the degradation of soluble proteins in E. coli has been extensively studied whereas the degradation process of membrane proteins remains unclear. A focus of my thesis is the validation and development of methods ...


Molecular And Biochemical Signaling Underlying Arabidopsis-Bacterial/Virus/Fungal Interactions, Mohamed H. El-Shetehy Jan 2016

Molecular And Biochemical Signaling Underlying Arabidopsis-Bacterial/Virus/Fungal Interactions, Mohamed H. El-Shetehy

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible defense response triggered upon localized infection that confers broad-spectrum disease resistance against secondary infections. Several factors are known to regulate SAR and these include phenolic phytohormone salicylic acid (SA), phosphorylated sugar glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA). This study evaluated a role for free radicals nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SAR. Normal accumulation of both NO and ROS was required for normal SAR and mutations preventing NO/ROS accumulation and/or biosynthesis compromised SAR. A role for NO and ROS was further established using pharmacological ...


Functional Roles For Post-Translational Modifications Of T-Snares In Platelets, Jinchao Zhang Jan 2016

Functional Roles For Post-Translational Modifications Of T-Snares In Platelets, Jinchao Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Platelets affect vascular integrity by secreting a host of molecules that promote hemostasis and its sequela. Given its importance, it is critical to understand how platelet exocytosis is controlled. Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and acylation, have been shown to affect signaling pathways and platelet function. In this dissertation, I focus on how these modifications affect the t-SNARE proteins, SNAP-23 and syntaxin-11, which are both required for platelet secretion. SNAP-23 is regulated by phosphorylation. Using a proteoliposome fusion assay, I demonstrate that purified IκB Kinase (IKK) phosphorylated SNAP-23, which increased the initial rates of SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. SNAP-23 mutants containing ...


Integrin Α6Β4 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Invasion By Altering Dna Repair-Mediated Epigenetics, Brittany L. Carpenter Jan 2016

Integrin Α6Β4 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Invasion By Altering Dna Repair-Mediated Epigenetics, Brittany L. Carpenter

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Integrin α6β4 is upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma, where signaling promotes metastatic properties, in part by altering the transcriptome. Such alterations can be accomplished through DNA demethylation of specific promoters, as seen with the pro-metastatic gene S100A4. I found that signaling from integrin α6β4 dramatically upregulates expression of amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and that these ligands promote pancreatic carcinoma invasion. To determine if AREG and EREG are regulated by DNA methylation, pancreatic cancer cells with low AREG and EREG expression were treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), resulting in ...


Towards Elucidation Of The Mechanism Of Biological Nanomotors, Zhengyi Zhao Jan 2016

Towards Elucidation Of The Mechanism Of Biological Nanomotors, Zhengyi Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Biological functions such as cell mitosis, bacterial binary fission, DNA replication or repair, homologous recombination, Holliday junction resolution, viral genome packaging, and cell entry all involve biomotor-driven DNA translocation. In the past, the ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, we discovered a third type of biomotor, revolving motor without rotation. The revolving motion is further found to be widespread among many biological systems. In addition, the detailed sequential action mechanism of the ATPase ring in the phi29 dsDNA packaging motor has been elucidated: ATP binding induces a conformational entropy alternation of ATPase ...


Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony Jan 2016

Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA-approved anticancer agents that have contributed to significant improvements in treatment outcomes. However, the eventual onset of acquired resistance continues to limit their clinical utility, yet a clear consensus regarding the underlying mechanisms has not been reached.

Bortezomib and carfilzomib are known to target both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome, two conventional proteasome subtypes comprising distinctive sets of catalytic subunits. While it has become increasingly evident that additional, ‘intermediate’ proteasome subtypes, which harbor non-standard mixtures of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits, represent a considerable proportion of the proteasome population in many cell ...


Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai Jan 2015

Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

This work describes the fascinating interplay between two tumor suppressors Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) and p53. The guardian of the genome, p53, is frequently mutated in human cancers, and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. However, p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, and we observed that specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts could induce apoptosis selectively in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine apoptotic effect was executed by Par-4 secreted in response to p53 activation. Accordingly, activation of p53 in wild-type mice, but not in p53-/- or Par-4-/- mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient ...


Physical Interactions Between Neuropilin And Vegfrs, Integrins In Regulating Endothelial Cell Functions, Xiaobo Li Jan 2015

Physical Interactions Between Neuropilin And Vegfrs, Integrins In Regulating Endothelial Cell Functions, Xiaobo Li

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The neuropilin (Nrp) family consists of multifunctional cell surface receptors with critical roles in a number of different cell and tissue types. A core aspect of Nrp function is ligand-dependent cellular adhesion and migration, where it controls the multistep process of cellular motility through integration of ligand binding, receptor coupling and signaling via the coordinated action of its extracellular and intracellular domains. While Nrp regulates cellular adhesion and motility in the cardiovascular and nervous systems under physiological conditions, the emerging pathological role of Nrp in tumor cell migration and metastasis has been identified and provides motivation for continued efforts toward ...


Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos Jan 2015

Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Fabrication of effective algae cultivation systems adjacent to coal-fired power plants to fixate waste CO2 would represent a sizable step towards achieving a carbon neutral energy cycle. However, emission gas would elevate the algal cultivation system temperature and decreases its pH without expensive preprocessing. Increased temperature and acidity constitutes a profound stress on the algae. Although stressed algae produce heat shock proteins (HSPs) that promote protein folding and protect against stress, the ordinary biological response is insufficient to protect against coal flue gas. Experimental upregulation of HSPs could make algae respond to the stress caused by high temperatures and ...


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen Jan 2015

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most ...


Beryllium Nitrate Supports Fibroblast Migration As An Essential Component Of Skin And Limb Regeneration In Axolotls, Adam Boyd Cook Jan 2015

Beryllium Nitrate Supports Fibroblast Migration As An Essential Component Of Skin And Limb Regeneration In Axolotls, Adam Boyd Cook

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Tissue regeneration in salamanders is a robust process that is not easily interrupted or altered. Therefore, inhibiting regeneration provides a means to interrogate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating this complex event. Here we show that application of a relatively low concentration of beryllium nitrate solution (100mM) causes a delay in skin regeneration and severely alters normal limb regeneration. We provide evidence showing a beryllium-induced reduction in dermal fibroblast migration in vivo and in vitro. We link this phenomenon to delayed regeneration of the skin and abnormal blastema formation resulting in limb patterning defects during regeneration. Though our results ...


Nuclear Import And Interactions Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus Nucleocapsid, Matrix, And Phosphoprotein, Gavin Lloyd Franklin Anderson Jan 2014

Nuclear Import And Interactions Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus Nucleocapsid, Matrix, And Phosphoprotein, Gavin Lloyd Franklin Anderson

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus and, like all members of this genus, replication and morphogenesis occurs inside the nuclei of infected cells. Protein localization prediction algorithms failed to identify a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in PYDV nucleocapsid (N) protein, although PYDV-N has been shown to localize exclusively to the nucleus when expressed as a green fluorescent protein (GFP):N fusion in plant cells. Deletion analysis and alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified two amino acid motifs, 419QKR421 and 432KR433, that were shown to be essential for nuclear import and interaction with ...


Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan Jan 2014

Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Loline alkaloids, found in many grass-Epichloë symbiota, are toxic or feeding deterrent to invertebrates. The loline alkaloids all share a saturated pyrrolizidine ring with a 1-amine group and an ether bridge linking C2 and C7. The steps in biosynthesis of loline alkaloids are catalyzed by enzymes encoded by a gene cluster, designated LOL, in the Epichloë genome. This dissertation addresses the enzymatic, genetic and evolutionary basis for diversification of these alkaloids, focusing on ether bridge formation and the subsequent modifications of the 1-amine to form different loline alkaloids.

Through gene complementation of a natural lolO mutant and comparison of ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Human Mismatch Repair Initiation, Sanghee Lee Jan 2014

Molecular Mechanism Of Human Mismatch Repair Initiation, Sanghee Lee

Theses and Dissertations--Nutritional Sciences

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved pathway that maintains genomic stability primarily by correcting mismatches generated during DNA replication. MMR deficiency leads to microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of HNPCC (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer). Human mismatch repair is initiated by MutSα, a heterodimer of MSH2 and MSH6 subunits. Mismatch binding by MutSα triggers a series of downstream MMR events including interacting and communicating with other MMR proteins. The ATPase domain of MutSα is situated in the C-termini of its both subunits, and ATP binding is required for dissociation of MutSα from a mismatch. In eukaryotic cells ...


Stability Studies Of Membrane Proteins, Cui Ye Jan 2014

Stability Studies Of Membrane Proteins, Cui Ye

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three threats to human health. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli are intrinsically more resistant to antimicrobials. There are very few drugs either on the market or in the pharmaceutical pipeline targeting Gram-negative pathogens. Two mechanisms, the protection of the outer membrane and the active efflux by the multidrug transporters, play important roles in conferring multidrug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. My work focuses on two main directions, each aligning with one of the known multidrug resistance mechanisms.

The first direction of my research is in the area ...


Characterization Of Jabba, A Ricin-Resistant Mutant Of Leishmania Donovani, Megan Rhea Phillips Jan 2014

Characterization Of Jabba, A Ricin-Resistant Mutant Of Leishmania Donovani, Megan Rhea Phillips

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The abundant cell-surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania parasites plays a central role throughout the eukaryote’s life cycle. A number of LPG-defective mutants and their complementing genes have been isolated and have proven invaluable in assessing the importance of LPG and related glycoconjugates in parasite virulence. While ricin agglutination selection protocols frequently result in lpg- mutants, one L. donovani variant we isolated, named JABBA, was found to be lpg+. Procyclic (logarithmic) JABBA expresses significant amounts of a large-sized LPG, larger than observed from procyclic wild-type but similar in size to LPG from wild-type from metacyclic (stationary) phase.

Structural analysis of ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropilin-Ligand Binding, Matthew W. Parker Jan 2014

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropilin-Ligand Binding, Matthew W. Parker

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Neuropilin (Nrp) is an essential cell surface receptor with dual functionality in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The first identified Nrp-ligand family was the Semaphorin-3 (Sema3) family of axon repulsion molecules. Subsequently, Nrp was found to serve as a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. In addition to its physiological role, VEGF signaling via Nrp directly contributes to cancer stemness, growth, and metastasis. Thus, the Nrp/VEGF signaling axis is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic target. Interestingly, it has recently been shown that Sema3 and VEGF are functionally opposed to one another, with Sema3 possessing ...


Use Of Genomic Tools To Discover The Cause Of Champagne Dilution Coat Color In Horses And To Map The Genetic Cause Of Extreme Lordosis In American Saddlebred Horses, Deborah G. Cook Jan 2014

Use Of Genomic Tools To Discover The Cause Of Champagne Dilution Coat Color In Horses And To Map The Genetic Cause Of Extreme Lordosis In American Saddlebred Horses, Deborah G. Cook

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Champagne dilution of coat color in horses is caused by dominant gene action. Three sire families were identified as segregating for this trait. Genome wide linkage analysis using 104 microsatellite DNA markers was used to map the gene to ECA14 (LOD > 11.0). Four genes, namely SPARC, SLC36A1, SLC36A2 and SLC36A3, were selected from the region implicated by linkage and their exons sequenced. DNA sequences were compared for two homozygotes for Champagne dilution, two heterozygotes and two horses without dilution. A single base change in exon 2 of SLC36A1 was found unique to horses exhibiting Champagne dilution. This change in ...


The Interactions Between Jak/Stat Signaling Ligands In Drosophila Melanogaster, Qian Chen Jan 2014

The Interactions Between Jak/Stat Signaling Ligands In Drosophila Melanogaster, Qian Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The development of multi-cellular organisms requires extensive cell-cell communication to coordinate cell functions. However, only a handful of signaling pathways have emerged to mediate all the intercellular communications; therefore, each of them is under an array of regulations to achieve signaling specificity and diversity. One such signaling pathway is the Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, which is the primary signaling cascade responding to a variety of cytokines and growth factors in mammals and involved in many developmental processes. This signaling pathway is highly conserved between mammals and Drosophila ...


Structural Mechanisms Of Glucan Phosphatase Activity In Starch Metabolism, David A. Meekins Jan 2014

Structural Mechanisms Of Glucan Phosphatase Activity In Starch Metabolism, David A. Meekins

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Starch is a water-insoluble glucose biopolymer used as an energy cache in plants and is synthesized and degraded in a diurnal cycle. Reversible phosphorylation of starch granules regulates the solubility and, consequentially, the bioavailability of starch glucans to degradative enzymes. Glucan phosphatases release phosphate from starch glucans and their activity is essential to the proper diurnal metabolism of starch. Previously, the structural basis of glucan phosphatase activity was entirely unknown. The work in this dissertation outlines the structural mechanism of activity of two plant glucan phosphatases called Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2). The crystal structures of SEX4 ...


Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell Jan 2014

Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Squalene synthase (SS) is an essential enzyme in eukaryotic systems responsible for an important branch point in isoprenoid metabolism that leads to sterol formation. The mechanistic complexity of SS has made it a difficult enzyme to study. The green alga Botryococcus braunii race B possesses several squalene synthase-like (SSL) enzymes that afford a unique opportunity to study the complex mechanism of triterpene biosynthesis. SSL-1 catalyzes presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) formation, which can either be converted to squalene by SSL-2 or botryococcene by SSL-3. A rationally designed mutant study of B. braunii squalene synthase (BbSS) and SSL-3 was conducted to understand structure-function ...


Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak Jan 2013

Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Plant diseases remain a major obstruction to meeting the world’s increased demand for soybean oil and protein. Reducing the losses caused by diseases in order to improve crop production is a high priority for agricultural research. The need for novel strategies for plant disease control cannot be overstated. In the present study, selected defense-related genes were silenced and/or overexpressed in soybean using a virus-based vector and the resultant plants were tested for their responses to pathogens. The first part of the study focused on Rps1k (Resistance to Phytophthora sojae) gene. The two conserved domains encoding ‘P-Loop NTPase’ and ...