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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo Oct 2016

An Arginine Finger Regulates The Sequential Action Of Asymmetrical Hexameric Atpase In The Double-Stranded Dna Translocation Motor, Zhengyi Zhao, Gian Marco De-Donatis, Chad T. Schwartz, Huaming Fang, Jingyuan Li, Peixuan Guo

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Biological motors are ubiquitous in living systems. Currently, how the motor components coordinate the unidirectional motion is elusive in most cases. Here, we report that the sequential action of the ATPase ring in the DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ϕ29 is regulated by an arginine finger that extends from one ATPase subunit to the adjacent unit to promote noncovalent dimer formation. Mutation of the arginine finger resulted in the interruption of ATPase oligomerization, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and DNA translocation. Dimer formation reappeared when arginine mutants were mixed with other ATPase subunits that can offer the arginine to promote their interaction ...


Biological Nanomotors With A Revolution, Linear, Or Rotation Motion Mechanism, Peixuan Guo, Hiroyuki Noji, Christopher M. Yengo, Zhengyi Zhao, Ian Grainge Mar 2016

Biological Nanomotors With A Revolution, Linear, Or Rotation Motion Mechanism, Peixuan Guo, Hiroyuki Noji, Christopher M. Yengo, Zhengyi Zhao, Ian Grainge

Nanobiotechnology Center Faculty Publications

The ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories in the past: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, a third type of biomotor, revolution without rotation (http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html), was discovered and found to be widespread among bacteria, eukaryotic viruses, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages. This review focuses on recent findings about various aspects of motors, including chirality, stoichiometry, channel size, entropy, conformational change, and energy usage rate, in a variety of well-studied motors, including FoF1 ATPase, helicases, viral dsDNA-packaging motors, bacterial chromosome translocases, myosin, kinesin, and dynein. In particular, dsDNA translocases are used ...


Structures Of Eccb1 And Eccd1 From The Core Complex Of The Mycobacterial Esx-1 Type Vii Secretion System, Jonathan Mark Wagner, Sum Chan, Timothy J. Evans, Sara Kahng, Jennifer Kim, Mark A. Arbing, David Eisenberg, Konstantin V. Korotkov Feb 2016

Structures Of Eccb1 And Eccd1 From The Core Complex Of The Mycobacterial Esx-1 Type Vii Secretion System, Jonathan Mark Wagner, Sum Chan, Timothy J. Evans, Sara Kahng, Jennifer Kim, Mark A. Arbing, David Eisenberg, Konstantin V. Korotkov

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Background: The ESX-1 type VII secretion system is an important determinant of virulence in pathogenic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This complicated molecular machine secretes folded proteins through the mycobacterial cell envelope to subvert the host immune response. Despite its important role in disease very little is known about the molecular architecture of the ESX-1 secretion system.

Results: This study characterizes the structures of the soluble domains of two conserved core ESX-1 components – EccB1 and EccD1. The periplasmic domain of EccB1 consists of 4 repeat domains and a central domain, which together form a quasi 2-fold symmetrical structure ...


Towards Elucidation Of The Mechanism Of Biological Nanomotors, Zhengyi Zhao Jan 2016

Towards Elucidation Of The Mechanism Of Biological Nanomotors, Zhengyi Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Biological functions such as cell mitosis, bacterial binary fission, DNA replication or repair, homologous recombination, Holliday junction resolution, viral genome packaging, and cell entry all involve biomotor-driven DNA translocation. In the past, the ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, we discovered a third type of biomotor, revolving motor without rotation. The revolving motion is further found to be widespread among many biological systems. In addition, the detailed sequential action mechanism of the ATPase ring in the phi29 dsDNA packaging motor has been elucidated: ATP binding induces a conformational entropy alternation of ATPase ...


Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony Jan 2016

Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA-approved anticancer agents that have contributed to significant improvements in treatment outcomes. However, the eventual onset of acquired resistance continues to limit their clinical utility, yet a clear consensus regarding the underlying mechanisms has not been reached.

Bortezomib and carfilzomib are known to target both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome, two conventional proteasome subtypes comprising distinctive sets of catalytic subunits. While it has become increasingly evident that additional, ‘intermediate’ proteasome subtypes, which harbor non-standard mixtures of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits, represent a considerable proportion of the proteasome population in many cell ...