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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


The Mirnaome Of Catharanthus Roseus: Identification, Expression Analysis, And Potential Roles Of Micrornas In Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Ethan M. Shen, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Jayadri S. Ghosh, Barunava Patra, Priyanka Paul, Ling Yuan, Sitakanta Pattanaik Feb 2017

The Mirnaome Of Catharanthus Roseus: Identification, Expression Analysis, And Potential Roles Of Micrornas In Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Ethan M. Shen, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Jayadri S. Ghosh, Barunava Patra, Priyanka Paul, Ling Yuan, Sitakanta Pattanaik

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous crucial biological processes in plants. However, information is limited on their involvement in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in plants, including Catharanthus roseus that produces a number of pharmaceutically valuable, bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Using small RNA-sequencing, we identified 181 conserved and 173 novel miRNAs (cro-miRNAs) in C. roseus seedlings. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that a set of cro-miRNAs are differentially regulated in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In silico target prediction identified 519 potential cro-miRNA targets that include several auxin response factors (ARFs). The presence of cleaved transcripts of miRNA-targeted ARFs in C. roseus ...


Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui Jan 2017

Transcriptomic Analyses Of Cathatranthus Roseus Hairy Roots Overexpressing Crmyc2 And Orca3 And Roles Of Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interaction In Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Xueyi Sui

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), is a well-known medicinal plant that produces a vast array of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including two anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Industrial scale production of TIAs is hampered by the difficulties of total chemical synthesis of these compounds and the fragmented knowledge on TIA pathway. Transcriptional regulation of the TIA biosynthetic pathway has not been thoroughly investigated in Catharanthus and only a few structural genes have been identified as the targets of two master regulators: the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) CrMYC2 and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF), ORCA3. Next generation sequencing (NGS ...


Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos Jan 2015

Up Regulation Of Heat Shock Protein 70b (Hsp70b) And Ssa1 In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Via Hsp70a-Rbcs2 And Psad Promoter, B. Kirtley Amos

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Fabrication of effective algae cultivation systems adjacent to coal-fired power plants to fixate waste CO2 would represent a sizable step towards achieving a carbon neutral energy cycle. However, emission gas would elevate the algal cultivation system temperature and decreases its pH without expensive preprocessing. Increased temperature and acidity constitutes a profound stress on the algae. Although stressed algae produce heat shock proteins (HSPs) that promote protein folding and protect against stress, the ordinary biological response is insufficient to protect against coal flue gas. Experimental upregulation of HSPs could make algae respond to the stress caused by high temperatures and ...


Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan Jan 2014

Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Loline alkaloids, found in many grass-Epichloë symbiota, are toxic or feeding deterrent to invertebrates. The loline alkaloids all share a saturated pyrrolizidine ring with a 1-amine group and an ether bridge linking C2 and C7. The steps in biosynthesis of loline alkaloids are catalyzed by enzymes encoded by a gene cluster, designated LOL, in the Epichloë genome. This dissertation addresses the enzymatic, genetic and evolutionary basis for diversification of these alkaloids, focusing on ether bridge formation and the subsequent modifications of the 1-amine to form different loline alkaloids.

Through gene complementation of a natural lolO mutant and comparison of ...


Use Of Genomic Tools To Discover The Cause Of Champagne Dilution Coat Color In Horses And To Map The Genetic Cause Of Extreme Lordosis In American Saddlebred Horses, Deborah G. Cook Jan 2014

Use Of Genomic Tools To Discover The Cause Of Champagne Dilution Coat Color In Horses And To Map The Genetic Cause Of Extreme Lordosis In American Saddlebred Horses, Deborah G. Cook

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Champagne dilution of coat color in horses is caused by dominant gene action. Three sire families were identified as segregating for this trait. Genome wide linkage analysis using 104 microsatellite DNA markers was used to map the gene to ECA14 (LOD > 11.0). Four genes, namely SPARC, SLC36A1, SLC36A2 and SLC36A3, were selected from the region implicated by linkage and their exons sequenced. DNA sequences were compared for two homozygotes for Champagne dilution, two heterozygotes and two horses without dilution. A single base change in exon 2 of SLC36A1 was found unique to horses exhibiting Champagne dilution. This change in ...


Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell Jan 2014

Understanding The Chemical Gymnastics Of Enzyme-Catalyzed 1’-1 And 1’-3 Triterpene Linkages, Stephen A. Bell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Squalene synthase (SS) is an essential enzyme in eukaryotic systems responsible for an important branch point in isoprenoid metabolism that leads to sterol formation. The mechanistic complexity of SS has made it a difficult enzyme to study. The green alga Botryococcus braunii race B possesses several squalene synthase-like (SSL) enzymes that afford a unique opportunity to study the complex mechanism of triterpene biosynthesis. SSL-1 catalyzes presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) formation, which can either be converted to squalene by SSL-2 or botryococcene by SSL-3. A rationally designed mutant study of B. braunii squalene synthase (BbSS) and SSL-3 was conducted to understand structure-function ...


Bed Bugs Evolved Unique Adaptive Strategy To Resist Pyrethroid Insecticides, Fang Zhu, Hemant Gujar, Jennifer R. Gordon, Kenneth F. Haynes, Michael F. Potter, Subba R. Palli Mar 2013

Bed Bugs Evolved Unique Adaptive Strategy To Resist Pyrethroid Insecticides, Fang Zhu, Hemant Gujar, Jennifer R. Gordon, Kenneth F. Haynes, Michael F. Potter, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has ...


Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak Jan 2013

Overexpression/Silencing Of Selected Soybean Genes Alters Resistance To Pathogens, Mohamed H. El-Habbak

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Plant diseases remain a major obstruction to meeting the world’s increased demand for soybean oil and protein. Reducing the losses caused by diseases in order to improve crop production is a high priority for agricultural research. The need for novel strategies for plant disease control cannot be overstated. In the present study, selected defense-related genes were silenced and/or overexpressed in soybean using a virus-based vector and the resultant plants were tested for their responses to pathogens. The first part of the study focused on Rps1k (Resistance to Phytophthora sojae) gene. The two conserved domains encoding ‘P-Loop NTPase’ and ...


Dna-Binding Site Recognition By Bhlh And Mads-Domain Transcription Factors, Joshua R. Werkman Jan 2013

Dna-Binding Site Recognition By Bhlh And Mads-Domain Transcription Factors, Joshua R. Werkman

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Herewithin, two transcription factor (TF) regulatory complexes were investigated. A bHLH–MYB–WDR (BMW) DNA-binding complex from maize was the first complex to be studied. R, a maize bHLH involved in the activation of genes in the anthocyanin pathway, had been characterized to indirectly bind DNA despite the presence of a functional DNA-binding domain. Findings presented here reveal that this is only partially correct. Direct DNA-binding by R was found to be dependent upon two distinct dimerization domains that function as a switch. This switch-like mechanism allows R to be repurposed for the activation of promoters of differing cis-element ...


The Role Of Polyadenylation In Seed Germination, Liuyin Ma Jan 2013

The Role Of Polyadenylation In Seed Germination, Liuyin Ma

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Seed germination has many impacts on the uses of seeds, and is an important subject for study. Seed germination is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Therefore, it is important to study how polyadenylation regulates gene expression during seed germination. To this end, a modified Illumina GAIIx sequencing protocol (described in Chapter Two) was developed that allows deep coverage of poly(A) site position and distribution.

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) regulates gene expression by choosing one potential poly(A) site on a precursor RNA consequentially shortening/lengthening the mRNA relative to other possible sites. To further explore this phenomenon, genes ...


Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee Jan 2013

Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The DExD/H-box protein Prp43 is essential for two biological processes: nucleoplasmic pre-mRNA splicing and nucleolar rRNA maturation. The biological basis for the temporal and spatial regulation of Prp43 remains elusive. The Spp382/Ntr1, Sqs1/Pfa1 and Pxr1/Gno1 G-patch proteins bind to and activate the Prp43 DExD/H box-helicase in pre-mRNA splicing (Spp382) and rRNA processing (Sqs1, Pxr1). These Prp43-interacting proteins each contain the G-patch domain, a conserved sequence of ~48 amino acids that includes 6 highly conserved glycine (G) residues. Five annotated G-patch proteins in baker’s yeast (i.e., Spp382, Pxr1, Spp2, Sqs1 and Ylr271) and with ...


Cooperative And Antagonistic Roles For Heterochromatin Proteins In Transcriptional Regulation Of The Drosophila Sex Determination Masterswitch Gene, Hui Li Jan 2011

Cooperative And Antagonistic Roles For Heterochromatin Proteins In Transcriptional Regulation Of The Drosophila Sex Determination Masterswitch Gene, Hui Li

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

HOAP was originally identified as a component of an ORC-containing multi-protein complex of Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) from early Drosophila embryos. HOAP immunostaining showed prominent association of it with telomeres, and mutants for HOAP (cav1) showed it functions along with HP1 in forming a telomere capping complex that prevents telomeric fusions.

Weaker HOAP immunostaining is also observed in regions of pericentric heterochromatin and euchromatin. To examine the role of HOAP at these non-telomeric sites, we applied Affymetric Drosophila Genome Arrays to undertake a microarray expression profiling study of genes that are mis-expressed in cav1 mutant larvae. The data ...


Circadian And Homeostatic Regulation Of Sleep In Cast/Eij And C57bl/6j Mice, Peng Jiang Jan 2011

Circadian And Homeostatic Regulation Of Sleep In Cast/Eij And C57bl/6j Mice, Peng Jiang

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Sleep is essential for mammals and possibly for all animals. Advancing our knowledge of sleep regulation is crucial for the development of interventions in sleep-related health and social problems. With this aim, this study utilizes laboratory mice to explore sleep regulatory mechanisms at behavioral, molecular, and genetic levels.

Sleep is regulated by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian clock facilitates sleep to occur at a favorable time of the day. Normal mice, such as the C57BL/6J (B6) strain, sleep mostly during the day and initiate activities at dark onset. Here, I show mice of the CAST ...


Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel Jan 2010

Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Gilvocarcin V (GV) and ravidomycin (RMV) exhibit excellent antitumor activities in the presence of near-UV light at low concentration maintaining a low in vivo cytotoxicity. Although, the exact molecular mechanism for in vivo actions of these antibiotics has yet to be determined, a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of the vinyl side chain with DNA thymidine residues in addition to the inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNAhistone H3 cross-linking are reported for the GV’s mechanism of action. Such activities have made these molecules interesting candidates for the biosynthetic investigation to generate analogues with improved activity/solubility. Previous biosynthetic studies have ...