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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony Jan 2016

Elucidating Proteasome Catalytic Subunit Composition And Its Role In Proteasome Inhibitor Resistance, Kimberly C. Carmony

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA-approved anticancer agents that have contributed to significant improvements in treatment outcomes. However, the eventual onset of acquired resistance continues to limit their clinical utility, yet a clear consensus regarding the underlying mechanisms has not been reached.

Bortezomib and carfilzomib are known to target both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome, two conventional proteasome subtypes comprising distinctive sets of catalytic subunits. While it has become increasingly evident that additional, ‘intermediate’ proteasome subtypes, which harbor non-standard mixtures of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits, represent a considerable proportion of the proteasome population in many cell ...


Integrin Α6Β4 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Invasion By Altering Dna Repair-Mediated Epigenetics, Brittany L. Carpenter Jan 2016

Integrin Α6Β4 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Invasion By Altering Dna Repair-Mediated Epigenetics, Brittany L. Carpenter

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Integrin α6β4 is upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma, where signaling promotes metastatic properties, in part by altering the transcriptome. Such alterations can be accomplished through DNA demethylation of specific promoters, as seen with the pro-metastatic gene S100A4. I found that signaling from integrin α6β4 dramatically upregulates expression of amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), ligands for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and that these ligands promote pancreatic carcinoma invasion. To determine if AREG and EREG are regulated by DNA methylation, pancreatic cancer cells with low AREG and EREG expression were treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), resulting in ...