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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Analogous Cellular Contribution And Healing Mechanisms Following Digit Amputation And Phalangeal Fracture In Mice, Lindsay A. Dawson, Jennifer Simkin, Michelle Sauque, Maegan Pela, Teresa Palkowski, Ken Muneoka Feb 2016

Analogous Cellular Contribution And Healing Mechanisms Following Digit Amputation And Phalangeal Fracture In Mice, Lindsay A. Dawson, Jennifer Simkin, Michelle Sauque, Maegan Pela, Teresa Palkowski, Ken Muneoka

Biology Faculty Publications

Regeneration of amputated structures is severely limited in humans and mice, with complete regeneration restricted to the distal portion of the terminal phalanx (P3). Here, we investigate the dynamic tissue repair response of the second phalangeal element (P2) post amputation in the adult mouse, and show that the repair response of the amputated bone is similar to the proximal P2 bone fragment in fracture healing. The regeneration-incompetent P2 amputation response is characterized by periosteal endochondral ossification resulting in the deposition of new trabecular bone, corresponding to a significant increase in bone volume; however, this response is not associated with bone ...


Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai Jan 2015

Cross-Talk Between The Tumor Suppressors Par-4 And P53, Tripti Shrestha Bhattarai

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

This work describes the fascinating interplay between two tumor suppressors Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) and p53. The guardian of the genome, p53, is frequently mutated in human cancers, and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. However, p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, and we observed that specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts could induce apoptosis selectively in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine apoptotic effect was executed by Par-4 secreted in response to p53 activation. Accordingly, activation of p53 in wild-type mice, but not in p53-/- or Par-4-/- mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient ...


Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan Jan 2014

Ether Bridge Formation And Chemical Diversification In Loline Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Juan Pan

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Loline alkaloids, found in many grass-Epichloë symbiota, are toxic or feeding deterrent to invertebrates. The loline alkaloids all share a saturated pyrrolizidine ring with a 1-amine group and an ether bridge linking C2 and C7. The steps in biosynthesis of loline alkaloids are catalyzed by enzymes encoded by a gene cluster, designated LOL, in the Epichloë genome. This dissertation addresses the enzymatic, genetic and evolutionary basis for diversification of these alkaloids, focusing on ether bridge formation and the subsequent modifications of the 1-amine to form different loline alkaloids.

Through gene complementation of a natural lolO mutant and comparison of ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropilin-Ligand Binding, Matthew W. Parker Jan 2014

Molecular Mechanisms Of Neuropilin-Ligand Binding, Matthew W. Parker

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Neuropilin (Nrp) is an essential cell surface receptor with dual functionality in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The first identified Nrp-ligand family was the Semaphorin-3 (Sema3) family of axon repulsion molecules. Subsequently, Nrp was found to serve as a receptor for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of pro-angiogenic cytokines. In addition to its physiological role, VEGF signaling via Nrp directly contributes to cancer stemness, growth, and metastasis. Thus, the Nrp/VEGF signaling axis is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic target. Interestingly, it has recently been shown that Sema3 and VEGF are functionally opposed to one another, with Sema3 possessing ...


Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee Jan 2013

Characterization Of G-Patch Motif Contribution To Prp43 Function In The Pre-Messenger Rna Splicing And Ribosomal Rna Biogenesis Pathways, Daipayan Banerjee

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The DExD/H-box protein Prp43 is essential for two biological processes: nucleoplasmic pre-mRNA splicing and nucleolar rRNA maturation. The biological basis for the temporal and spatial regulation of Prp43 remains elusive. The Spp382/Ntr1, Sqs1/Pfa1 and Pxr1/Gno1 G-patch proteins bind to and activate the Prp43 DExD/H box-helicase in pre-mRNA splicing (Spp382) and rRNA processing (Sqs1, Pxr1). These Prp43-interacting proteins each contain the G-patch domain, a conserved sequence of ~48 amino acids that includes 6 highly conserved glycine (G) residues. Five annotated G-patch proteins in baker’s yeast (i.e., Spp382, Pxr1, Spp2, Sqs1 and Ylr271) and with ...


Analysis Of The Crmp Gene In Drosophila: Determining The Regulatory Role Of Crmp In Signaling And Behavior, Deanna Hardt Morris Jan 2010

Analysis Of The Crmp Gene In Drosophila: Determining The Regulatory Role Of Crmp In Signaling And Behavior, Deanna Hardt Morris

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The mammalian genome encodes five collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) isoforms. Cell culture studies have shown that the CRMPs mediate growth cone dynamics and neuron polarity through associations with a variety of signal transduction components and cytoskeletal elements. CRMP is also a member of a protein family including the presumably ancestral dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) protein that catalyzes the second step in pyrimidine degradation. In Drosophila, CRMP and DHP proteins are produced by alternatively spliced transcripts of the CRMP gene. The alternative protein forms have a 91% sequence identity, but unique expression patterns. CRMP is found exclusively in neuronal tissues and DHP ...