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Articles 1 - 30 of 114

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Ph-Induced Folding Of The Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside Of The Coiled Coil Domain, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Meghan S. Warden, Emily M. Raitt, Andrea C. Yawn, Stephen M. Pascal Dec 2018

Ph-Induced Folding Of The Caspase-Cleaved Par-4 Tumor Suppressor: Evidence Of Structure Outside Of The Coiled Coil Domain, Andrea M. Clark, Komala Ponniah, Meghan S. Warden, Emily M. Raitt, Andrea C. Yawn, Stephen M. Pascal

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a 38 kDa largely intrinsically disordered tumor suppressor protein that functions in cancer cell apoptosis. Par-4 down-regulation is often observed in cancer while up-regulation is characteristic of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Cleavage of Par-4 by caspase-3 activates tumor suppression via formation of an approximately 25 kDa fragment (cl-Par-4) that enters the nucleus and inhibits Bcl-2 and NF-ƙB, which function in pro-survival pathways. Here, we have investigated the structure of cl-Par-4 using biophysical techniques including circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence. The results demonstrate pH-dependent folding of ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov Nov 2018

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

New derivatives of phaeosphaeride A (PPA) were synthesized and characterized. Anti-tumor activity studies were carried out on the HCT-116, PC3, MCF-7, A549, К562, NCI-Н929, Jurkat, THP-1, RPMI8228 tumor cell lines, and on the HEF cell line. All of the compounds synthesized were found to have better efficacy than PPA towards the tumor cell lines mentioned. Compound 6 was potent against six cancer cell lines, HCT-116, PC-3, K562, NCI-H929, Jurkat, and RPMI8226, showing a 47, 13.5, 16, 4, 1.5, and 7-fold increase in anticancer activity comparative to those of etoposide, respectively. Compound 1 possessed selectivity toward the NCI-H929 cell ...


Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers Sep 2018

Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Dramatic progress has recently been made in cryo-electron microscopy technologies, which now make possible the reconstruction of a growing number of biomolecular structures to near-atomic resolution. However, the need persists for fitting and refinement approaches that address those cases that require modeling assistance.

Methods: In this paper, we describe algorithms to optimize the performance of such medium-resolution refinement methods. These algorithms aim to automatically optimize the parameters that define the density shape of the flexibly fitted model, as well as the time-dependent damper cutoff distance. Atomic distance constraints can be prescribed for cases where extra containment of parts of ...


Tracing Actin Filament Bundles In Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography Density Maps Of Hair Cell Stereocilia, Salim Sazzed, Junha Song, Julio Kovacs, Willi Wriggers, Manfred Auer, Jing He Apr 2018

Tracing Actin Filament Bundles In Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography Density Maps Of Hair Cell Stereocilia, Salim Sazzed, Junha Song, Julio Kovacs, Willi Wriggers, Manfred Auer, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful method of visualizing the three-dimensional organization of supramolecular complexes, such as the cytoskeleton, in their native cell and tissue contexts. Due to its minimal electron dose and reconstruction artifacts arising from the missing wedge during data collection, cryo-ET typically results in noisy density maps that display anisotropic XY versus Z resolution. Molecular crowding further exacerbates the challenge of automatically detecting supramolecular complexes, such as the actin bundle in hair cell stereocilia. Stereocilia are pivotal to the mechanoelectrical transduction process in inner ear sensory epithelial hair cells. Given the complexity and dense arrangement of actin ...


Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2018

Coordination Of Different Ligands To Copper(Ii) And Cobalt(Iii) Metal Centers Enhances Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Loads In Both Arthropod Cells And Human Keratinocytes, Shovan Dutta, Michael J. Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlam Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr Kraj, Michael Ledizet, John F. Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A. Holder, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ...


Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit Jan 2018

Dielectric Properties Of Isolated Adrenal Chromaffin Cells Determined By Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. C. Sabuncu, M. Stacey, G. L. Graviso, N. Semenova, P. T. Vernier, N. Leblanc, I. Chatterjee, J. Zaklit

Bioelectrics Publications

Knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological cells plays an important role in numerical models aimed at understanding how high intensity ultrashort nanosecond electric pulses affect the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles. To this end, using electrical impedance spectroscopy, the dielectric properties of isolated, neuroendocrine adrenal chromaffin cells were obtained. Measured impedance data of the cell suspension, acquired between 1 kHz and 20 MHz, were fit into a combination of constant phase element and Cole-Cole models from which the effect of electrode polarization was extracted. The dielectric spectrum of each cell suspension was fit into a Maxwell-Wagner ...


Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2018

Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Imaging of fluorescent small molecule transport into electropermeabilized cells reveals polarized patterns of entry, which must reflect in some way the mechanisms of the migration of these molecules across the compromised membrane barrier. In some reports, transport occurs primarily across the areas of the membrane nearest the positive electrode (anode), but in others cathode-facing entry dominates. Here we compare YO-PRO-1, propidium, and calcein uptake into U-937 cells after nanosecond (6 ns) and microsecond (220 µs) electric pulse exposures. Each of the three dyes exhibits a different pattern. Calcein shows no preference for anode- or cathode-facing entry that is detectable with ...


Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas Jan 2018

Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Inflammation is the major cause of endothelial barrier hyper-permeability, associated with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study reports that p53 "orchestrates" the defence of vascular endothelium against LPS, by mediating the opposing actions of Rac1 and RhoA in pulmonary tissues. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells treated with HSP90 inhibitors activated both Rac1- and P21-activated kinase, which is an essential element of vascular barrier function. 17AAG increased the phosphorylation of both LIMK and cofilin, in contrast to LPS which counteracted those effects. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells exposed to LPS exhibited decreased expression of phospho-cofilin. 17AAG treatment ...


Targeting Ovarian Cancer And Endothelium With An Allosteric Ptp4a3 Phosphatase Inhibitor, Kelley E. Mcqueeney, Joseph M. Salamoun, James C. Burnett, Nektarios Barabutis, Paula Pekic, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Danielle C. Llaneza, Robert Cornelison, Yunpeng Bai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, John D. Catravas Jan 2018

Targeting Ovarian Cancer And Endothelium With An Allosteric Ptp4a3 Phosphatase Inhibitor, Kelley E. Mcqueeney, Joseph M. Salamoun, James C. Burnett, Nektarios Barabutis, Paula Pekic, Sophie L. Lewandowski, Danielle C. Llaneza, Robert Cornelison, Yunpeng Bai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A oncoproteins is common in many human cancers and is associated with poor patient prognosis and survival. We observed elevated levels of PTP4A3 phosphatase in 79% of human ovarian tumor samples, with significant overexpression in tumor endothelium and pericytes. Furthermore, PTP4A phosphatases appear to regulate several key malignant processes, such as invasion, migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting a pivotal regulatory role in cancer and endothelial signaling pathways. While phosphatases are attractive therapeutic targets, they have been poorly investigated because of a lack of potent and selective chemical probes. In this study, we disclose that a potent ...


Cold Atmospheric Plasma As A Potential Tool For Multiple Myeloma Treatment, Dehui Xu, Yujing Xu, Qingjie Cui, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Yanjie Yang, Niaojuan Feng, Rong Liang, Hailan Chen, Kai Ye, Michael G. Kong Jan 2018

Cold Atmospheric Plasma As A Potential Tool For Multiple Myeloma Treatment, Dehui Xu, Yujing Xu, Qingjie Cui, Dingxin Liu, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Yanjie Yang, Niaojuan Feng, Rong Liang, Hailan Chen, Kai Ye, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal and incurable hematological malignancy thus new therapy need to be developed. Cold atmospheric plasma, a new technology that could generate various active species, could efficiently induce various tumor cells apoptosis. More details about the interaction of plasma and tumor cells need to be addressed before the application of gas plasma in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that He+O2 plasma could efficiently induce myeloma cell apoptosis through the activation of CD95 and downstream caspase cascades. Extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation is essential for CD95-mediated cell apoptosis in ...


Esope-Equivalent Pulsing Protocols For Calcium Electroporation: An In Vitro Optimization Study On 2 Cancer Cell Models, Stefania Romeo, Anna Sannino, Maria Rosaria Scarfi, P. Thomas Vernier, Ruggero Cadossi, Julie Gehl, Olga Zeni Jan 2018

Esope-Equivalent Pulsing Protocols For Calcium Electroporation: An In Vitro Optimization Study On 2 Cancer Cell Models, Stefania Romeo, Anna Sannino, Maria Rosaria Scarfi, P. Thomas Vernier, Ruggero Cadossi, Julie Gehl, Olga Zeni

Bioelectrics Publications

Reversible electroporation is used to increase the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs in local tumor treatment (electrochemotherapy) by applying the pulsing protocol (8 rectangular pulses, 1000 V/cm, 100 µs) standardized in the framework of the European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy multicenter trial. Currently, new electrochemotherapy strategies are under development to extend its applicability to tumors with different histology. Electrical parameters and drug type are critical factors. A possible approach is to test pulse parameters different from European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy but with comparable electroporation yield (European Standard Operating Procedure on Electrochemotherapy-equivalent protocols). Moreover, the use of non-toxic ...


High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao Nov 2017

High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG) n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG) n tract length at the end of ...


Activation Of The Phospholipid Scramblase Tmem16f By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) Facilitates Its Diverse Cytophysiological Effects, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Elena Gianulis, Jade Meads, Maura Casciola, Peter A. Mollica, Olga N. Pakhomova Oct 2017

Activation Of The Phospholipid Scramblase Tmem16f By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field (Nspef) Facilitates Its Diverse Cytophysiological Effects, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Elena Gianulis, Jade Meads, Maura Casciola, Peter A. Mollica, Olga N. Pakhomova

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) are emerging as a novel modality for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, the downstream protein effectors responsible for nsPEF bioeffects remain to be established. Here we demonstrate that nsPEF activate TMEM16F (or Anoctamin 6), a protein functioning as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca2+-activated chloride channel. Using confocal microscopy and patch clamp recordings, we investigated the relevance of TMEM16F activation for several bioeffects triggered by nsPEF, including phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, nanopore-conducted currents, membrane blebbing, and cell death. In HEK 293 cells treated with a single 300-ns pulse of 25.5 ...


Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani Oct 2017

Effects Of Carboxylated Nanodiamonds On Macrophages During And After Differentiation, Maisoun E. Bani Hani

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Nanodiamonds (ND) are a carbon-based nanomaterial that are increasingly being proposed for developing novel imaging techniques, as carriers of biomolecules and therapeutic drugs, as coatings for implants, and for other biomedical applications. The exceptional chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of ND make this material suitable in a wide range of fields. The application of ND in the biomedical field is attractive but requires more in-depth investigation into the safety of ND and its interactions with different cells and systems. The effects of ND on the immune system are not fully understood or investigated and there are several controverting reports regarding ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Oct 2017

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


The Chondrocyte Channelome: A Novel Ion Channel Candidate In The Pathogenesis Of Pectus Deformities, Anthony J. Asmar Jul 2017

The Chondrocyte Channelome: A Novel Ion Channel Candidate In The Pathogenesis Of Pectus Deformities, Anthony J. Asmar

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Costal cartilage is a type of rod-like hyaline cartilage connecting the ribs to the sternum. The chest wall deformities pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) involve displacement of the sternum causing a depression or protrusion of the chest. There is little knowledge about costal cartilage and pectus deformities with much of its understanding based on assumptions from articular cartilage. Chondrocytes are subjected to a constantly changing environment with fluctuations in pH and osmolarity. Ion channels detect these changes and in turn regulate proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Using ion channel qPCR arrays, we produced expression profiles for normal ...


Computing Spatiotemporal Heat Maps Of Lipid Electropore Formation: A Statistical Approach, Willy Wriggers, Frederica Castellani, Julio A. Kovacs, P. Thomas Vernier Apr 2017

Computing Spatiotemporal Heat Maps Of Lipid Electropore Formation: A Statistical Approach, Willy Wriggers, Frederica Castellani, Julio A. Kovacs, P. Thomas Vernier

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

We extend the multiscale spatiotemporal heat map strategies originally developed for interpreting molecular dynamics simulations of well-structured proteins to liquids such as lipid bilayers and solvents. Our analysis informs the experimental and theoretical investigation of electroporation, that is, the externally imposed breaching of the cell membrane under the influence of an electric field of sufficient magnitude. To understand the nanoscale architecture of electroporation, we transform time domain data of the coarse-grained interaction networks of lipids and solvents into spatial heat maps of the most relevant constituent molecules. The application takes advantage of our earlier graph-based activity functions by accounting for ...


A Balanced Approach To Adaptive Probability Density Estimation, Julio Kovacs, Cailee Helmick, Willy Wriggers Apr 2017

A Balanced Approach To Adaptive Probability Density Estimation, Julio Kovacs, Cailee Helmick, Willy Wriggers

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Our development of a Fast (Mutual) Information Matching (FIM) of molecular dynamics time series data led us to the general problem of how to accurately estimate the probability density function of a random variable, especially in cases of very uneven samples. Here, we propose a novel Balanced Adaptive Density Estimation (BADE) method that effectively optimizes the amount of smoothing at each point. To do this, BADE relies on an efficient nearest-neighbor search which results in good scaling for large data sizes. Our tests on simulated data show that BADE exhibits equal or better accuracy than existing methods, and visual tests ...


Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk Mar 2017

Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Almost all the reported capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (CCPCR) systems to date are still limited to research use stemming from unresolved issues related to repeatability, reliability, convenience, and sensitivity. To move CCPCR technology forward toward commercialization, a couple of critical strategies and innovations are discussed here. First, single- and dual-end heating strategies are analyzed and compared between each other. Especially, different solutions for dual-end heating are proposed and discussed, and the heat transfer and fluid flow inside the capillary tube with an optimized dual-end heating strategy are analyzed and modeled. Second, real-time CCPCR is implemented with light-emitting diode and ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Mar 2017

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Quantitative Limits On Small Molecule Transport Via The Electropermeome - Measuring And Modeling Single Nanosecond Perturbations, Esin B. Sözer, Zachary A. Levine, P. Thomas Vernier Mar 2017

Quantitative Limits On Small Molecule Transport Via The Electropermeome - Measuring And Modeling Single Nanosecond Perturbations, Esin B. Sözer, Zachary A. Levine, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the permeabilization of cell membranes by pulsed electric fields (electroporation) remain obscure despite decades of investigative effort. To advance beyond descriptive schematics to the development of robust, predictive models, empirical parameters in existing models must be replaced with physics- and biology-based terms anchored in experimental observations. We report here absolute values for the uptake of YO-PRO-1, a small-molecule fluorescent indicator of membrane integrity, into cells after a single electric pulse lasting only 6 ns. We correlate these measured values, based on fluorescence microphotometry of hundreds of individual cells, with a diffusion-based geometric analysis of pore-mediated ...


An Effective Computational Method Incorporating Multiple Secondary Structure Predictions In Topology Determination For Cryo-Em Images, Abhishek Biswas, Desh Ranjan, Mohammad Zubair, Stephanie Zeil, Kamal Al Nasr, Jing He Jan 2017

An Effective Computational Method Incorporating Multiple Secondary Structure Predictions In Topology Determination For Cryo-Em Images, Abhishek Biswas, Desh Ranjan, Mohammad Zubair, Stephanie Zeil, Kamal Al Nasr, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

A key idea in de novo modeling of a medium-resolution density image obtained from cryo-electron microscopy is to compute the optimal mapping between the secondary structure traces observed in the density image and those predicted on the protein sequence. When secondary structures are not determined precisely, either from the image or from the amino acid sequence of the protein, the computational problem becomes more complex. We present an efficient method that addresses the secondary structure placement problem in presence of multiple secondary structure predictions and computes the optimal mapping. We tested the method using 12 simulated images from alpha-proteins and ...


Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno Jan 2017

Tissue Specific Microenvironments: A Key Tool For Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine, Patrick C. Sachs, Peter A. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The accumulated evidence points to the microenvironment as the primary mediator of cellular fate determination. Comprised of parenchymal cells, stromal cells, structural extracellular matrix proteins, and signaling molecules, the microenvironment is a complex and synergistic edifice that varies tissue to tissue. Furthermore, it has become increasingly clear that the microenvironment plays crucial roles in the establishment and progression of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, cancer, and ageing. Here we review the historical perspectives on the microenvironment, and how it has directed current explorations in tissue engineering. By thoroughly understanding the role of the microenvironment, we can begin to correctly ...


High-Throughput Single-Molecule Mapping Links Subtelomeric Variants And Long-Range Haplotypes With Specific Telomeres, Eleanor Young, Steven Pastor, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Justin Sibert, Angel C. Y. Mak, Pui-Yan Kwok, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao Jan 2017

High-Throughput Single-Molecule Mapping Links Subtelomeric Variants And Long-Range Haplotypes With Specific Telomeres, Eleanor Young, Steven Pastor, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Justin Sibert, Angel C. Y. Mak, Pui-Yan Kwok, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Accurate maps and DNA sequences for human subtelomere regions, along with detailed knowledge of subtelomere variation and long-range telomereterminal haplotypes in individuals, are critical for understanding telomere function and its roles in human biology. Here, we use a highly automated whole genome mapping technology in nano-channel arrays to analyze large terminal human chromosome segments extending from chromosome-specific subtelomere sequences through subtelomeric repeat regions to terminal (TTAGGG) n repeat tracts. We establish detailed maps for subtelomere gap regions in the human reference sequence, detect many new large subtelomeric variants and demonstrate the feasibility of long-range haplotyping through segmentally duplicated subtelomere regions ...


Hyper-Activation Of Pp60(Src) Limits Nitric Oxide Signaling By Increasing Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels During Acute Lung Injury, Sanjiv Kumar, Xutong Sun, Satish Kumar Noonepalle, Qing Lu, Evgeny Zemskov, Ting Wang, Saurabh Aggarwal, Christine Gross, Shruti Sharma, Ankit A. Sesai, John D. Catravas Jan 2017

Hyper-Activation Of Pp60(Src) Limits Nitric Oxide Signaling By Increasing Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels During Acute Lung Injury, Sanjiv Kumar, Xutong Sun, Satish Kumar Noonepalle, Qing Lu, Evgeny Zemskov, Ting Wang, Saurabh Aggarwal, Christine Gross, Shruti Sharma, Ankit A. Sesai, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

The molecular mechanisms by which the endothelial barrier becomes compromised during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated acute lung injury (ALI) are still unresolved. We have previously reported that the disruption of the endothelial barrier is due, at least in part, to the uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of RhoA. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which LPS induces eNOS uncoupling during ALI. Exposure of pulmonary endothelial cells (PAEC) to LPS increased pp60Src activity and this correlated with an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production, but also an increase in ...


Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey Jan 2017

Biochemical And Histological Differences Between Costal And Articular Cartilages, Michael W. Stacey

Bioelectrics Publications

Biologically, costal cartilage is an understudied tissue type and much is yet to be learned regarding underlying mechanisms related to form and function, and how these relate to disease states, specifically chest wall deformity. Chest wall deformities have a component of inheritance, implying underlying genetic causes; however the complexity of inheritance suggests multiple genetic components. At our Centre investigations were performed on gene expression of key select genes from costal cartilage removed at surgery of patients with chest wall deformity to show high expression of decorin, a key player in collagen fiber formation and growth. Also, the degree of tissue ...


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Gene Electrotransfer Promotes Angiogenesis In A Porcine Model Of Cardiac Ischemia, Anna A. Bulysheva, Barbara Hargrave, Nina Burcus, Cathryn G. Lundberg, Len Murray, Richard Heller Aug 2016

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Gene Electrotransfer Promotes Angiogenesis In A Porcine Model Of Cardiac Ischemia, Anna A. Bulysheva, Barbara Hargrave, Nina Burcus, Cathryn G. Lundberg, Len Murray, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

This study aimed to assess safety and therapeutic potential of gene electrotransfer (GET) as a method for delivery of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to ischemic myocardium in a porcine model. Myocardial ischemia was induced by surgically occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in swine. GET following plasmid encoding VEGF-A injection was performed at four sites in the ischemic region. Control groups either received injections of the plasmid without electrotransfer or injections of the saline vehicle. Animals were monitored for 7 weeks and the hearts were evaluated for angiogenesis, myocardial infarct size and left ventricular contractility ...


Deep Models For Brain Em Image Segmentation: Novel Insights And Improved Performance, Ahmed Fakhry, Hanchuan Peng, Shuiwang Ji Jan 2016

Deep Models For Brain Em Image Segmentation: Novel Insights And Improved Performance, Ahmed Fakhry, Hanchuan Peng, Shuiwang Ji

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Accurate segmentation of brain electron microscopy (EM) images is a critical step in dense circuit reconstruction. Although deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely used in a number of applications in computer vision, most of these models that proved to be effective on image classification tasks cannot be applied directly to EM image segmentation, due to the different objectives of these tasks. As a result, it is desirable to develop an optimized architecture that uses the full power of DNNs and tailored specifically for EM image segmentation.

Results: In this work, we proposed a novel design of DNNs for ...


Conserved Intramolecular Interactions Maintain Myosin Interacting-Heads Motifs Explaining Tarantula Muscle Super-Relaxed State Structural Basis, Lorenzo Alamo, Dan Qi, Willy Wriggers, Antonio Pinto, Jingui Zhu, Aivett Bilbao, Richard E. Gillilan, Songnian Hu, Raúl Padrón Jan 2016

Conserved Intramolecular Interactions Maintain Myosin Interacting-Heads Motifs Explaining Tarantula Muscle Super-Relaxed State Structural Basis, Lorenzo Alamo, Dan Qi, Willy Wriggers, Antonio Pinto, Jingui Zhu, Aivett Bilbao, Richard E. Gillilan, Songnian Hu, Raúl Padrón

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Tarantula striated muscle is an outstanding system for understanding the molecular organization of myosin filaments. Three-dimensional reconstruction based on cryo-electron microscopy images and single-particle image processing revealed that, in a relaxed state, myosin molecules undergo intramolecular head head interactions, explaining why head activity switches off. The filament model obtained by rigidly docking a chicken smooth muscle myosin structure to the reconstruction was improved by flexibly fitting an atomic model built by mixing structures from different species to a tilt-corrected 2-nm three-dimensional map of frozen-hydrated tarantula thick filament. We used heavy and light chain sequences from tarantula myosin to build a ...


Effects Of High Voltage Nanosecond Electric Pulses On Eukaryotic Cells (In Vitro): A Systematic Review, Tina Batista Napotink, Matej Reberšek, P. Thomas Vernier, Babara Mali, Damijan Miklavčič Jan 2016

Effects Of High Voltage Nanosecond Electric Pulses On Eukaryotic Cells (In Vitro): A Systematic Review, Tina Batista Napotink, Matej Reberšek, P. Thomas Vernier, Babara Mali, Damijan Miklavčič

Bioelectrics Publications

For this systematic review, 203 published reports on effects of electroporation using nanosecond high-voltage electric pulses (nsEP) on eukaryotic cells (human, animal, plant) in vitro were analyzed. A field synopsis summarizes current published data in the field with respect to publication year, cell types, exposure configuration, and pulse duration. Published data were analyzed for effects observed in eight main target areas (plasma membrane, intracellular, apoptosis, calcium level and distribution, survival, nucleus, mitochondria, stress) and an additional 107 detailed outcomes. We statistically analyzed effects of nsEP with respect to three pulse duration groups: A: 1–10 ns, B: 11–100 ns ...