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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett May 2013

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Gene Expression Response In Early Developmental Stages Of Rainbow Trout Exposed To Ecologically Relevant Concentrations Of Malathion, Susan Miller Dec 2012

Gene Expression Response In Early Developmental Stages Of Rainbow Trout Exposed To Ecologically Relevant Concentrations Of Malathion, Susan Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the early life stage toxic effects of environmental organophosphate exposure on organism health is crucial to identifying biomarkers that can be used for preventative care. Malathion, a potent organophosphate, is one of the most widely used organophosphates in agriculture and pest eradication. Due to its widespread use, pesticide runoff into area bodies of water poses a great threat to aquatic life and human inhabitants. Acute exposure to high concentrations of malathion causes neurological abnormalities and can result in respiratory failure, muscle spasms, and mental confusion in humans.

In the present study, the effects of malathion are observed following acute ...


Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett Oct 2012

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Advanced Molecular Biologic Techniques In Toxicologic Disease, Jeanine Ward, Gyongyi Szabo, David Mcmanus, Edward Boyer Oct 2012

Advanced Molecular Biologic Techniques In Toxicologic Disease, Jeanine Ward, Gyongyi Szabo, David Mcmanus, Edward Boyer

Gyongyi Szabo

The advancement of molecular biologic techniques and their capabilities to answer questions pertaining to mechanisms of pathophysiologic events have greatly expanded over the past few years. In particular, these opportunities have provided researchers and clinicians alike the framework from with which to answer clinical questions not amenable for elucidation using previous, more antiquated methods. Utilizing extremely small molecules, namely microRNA, DNA, protein, and nanoparticles, we discuss the background and utility of these approaches to the progressive, practicing physician. Finally, we consider the application of these tools employed as future bedside point of care tests, aiding in the ultimate goal of ...


Decomposing The Energetic Impact Of Drug-Resistant Mutations: The Example Of Hiv-1 Protease-Drv Binding, Yufeng Cai, Celia Schiffer Oct 2012

Decomposing The Energetic Impact Of Drug-Resistant Mutations: The Example Of Hiv-1 Protease-Drv Binding, Yufeng Cai, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 protease is a major drug target for AIDS therapy. With the appearance of drug-resistant HIV-1 protease variants, understanding the mechanism of drug resistance becomes critical for rational drug design. Computational methods can provide more details about inhibitor-protease binding than crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The latest FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor is Darunavir (DRV). Herein, each DRV atom is evaluated by free energy component analysis for its contribution to the binding affinity with wild-type protease and ACT, a drug-resistant variant. This information can contribute to the rational design of new HIV-1 protease inhibitors.


Mass Spectrometry Tools For Analysis Of Intermolecular Interactions, Jared Auclair, Mohan Somasundaran, Karin Green, James Evans, Celia Schiffer, Dagmar Ringe, Gregory Petsko, Jeffrey Agar Oct 2012

Mass Spectrometry Tools For Analysis Of Intermolecular Interactions, Jared Auclair, Mohan Somasundaran, Karin Green, James Evans, Celia Schiffer, Dagmar Ringe, Gregory Petsko, Jeffrey Agar

Celia A. Schiffer

The small quantities of protein required for mass spectrometry (MS) make it a powerful tool to detect binding (protein-protein, protein-small molecule, etc.) of proteins that are difficult to express in large quantities, as is the case for many intrinsically disordered proteins. Chemical cross-linking, proteolysis, and MS analysis, combined, are a powerful tool for the identification of binding domains. Here, we present a traditional approach to determine protein-protein interaction binding sites using heavy water ((18)O) as a label. This technique is relatively inexpensive and can be performed on any mass spectrometer without specialized software.


Context Surrounding Processing Sites Is Crucial In Determining Cleavage Rate Of A Subset Of Processing Sites In Hiv-1 Gag And Gag-Pro-Pol Polyprotein Precursors By Viral Protease, Sook-Kyung Lee, Marc Potempa, Madhavi Kolli, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Ronald Swanstrom Oct 2012

Context Surrounding Processing Sites Is Crucial In Determining Cleavage Rate Of A Subset Of Processing Sites In Hiv-1 Gag And Gag-Pro-Pol Polyprotein Precursors By Viral Protease, Sook-Kyung Lee, Marc Potempa, Madhavi Kolli, Aysegul Ozen, Celia Schiffer, Ronald Swanstrom

Celia A. Schiffer

Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins by the HIV-1 protease (PR) is essential for the production of infectious particles. However, the determinants governing the rates of processing of these substrates are not clearly understood. We studied the effect of substrate context on processing by utilizing a novel protease assay in which a substrate containing HIV-1 matrix (MA) and the N-terminal domain of capsid (CA) is labeled with a FlAsH (fluorescein arsenical hairpin) reagent. When the seven cleavage sites within the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins were placed at the MA/CA site, the rates ...


Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Subtype 1: Structure-Function Analysis Using Cysteine Mutagenesis And Thiol Modifying Techniques, Jamie Park Aug 2012

Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Subtype 1: Structure-Function Analysis Using Cysteine Mutagenesis And Thiol Modifying Techniques, Jamie Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 is the main mediator of bi-directional nucleoside flux and is found ubiquitously. Inhibitor and substrate interactions with ENT1 are known to be affected by cysteine-modifying reagents. Our aim was to investigate the importance of cysteine residues in hENT1 function and identify which residues were sensitive to thiol modification for further application of cysteine scanning mutagenesis on extracellular loop 5. Transporter function was assessed by the binding of [3H]NBMPR and the cellular uptake of [3H]2-chloroadenosine. Treatment of hENT1 with the neutral sulfhydryl-modifier methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) enhanced [3H]NBMPR binding but decreased ...


Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof May 2012

Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gemcitabine is a potent nucleoside analogue against solid tumors however drug resistance rapidly emerges. Removal of gemcitabine incorporated in the DNA by repair mechanisms could potentially contribute to resistance in chemo-refractory solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated homologous recombination repair of gemcitabine-stalled replication forks as a potential mechanism contributing to resistance. We also studied the effect of hyperthermia on homologous recombination pathway to explain the previously reported synergy between gemcitabine and hyperthermia. We found that hyperthermia degrades and inhibits localization of Mre11 to gemcitabine-stalled replication forks. Furthermore, gemcitabine-treated cells that were also treated with hyperthermia demonstrate a prolonged passage ...


Dual Recognition Of The Ribosome And The Signal Recognition Particle By The Srp Receptor During Protein Targeting To The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Elisabet C. Mandon, Ying Jiang, Reid Gilmore Feb 2012

Dual Recognition Of The Ribosome And The Signal Recognition Particle By The Srp Receptor During Protein Targeting To The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Elisabet C. Mandon, Ying Jiang, Reid Gilmore

Elisabet Mandon

We have analyzed the interactions between the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SRP receptor (SR), and the ribosome using GTPase assays, biosensor experiments, and ribosome binding assays. Possible mechanisms that could contribute to an enhanced affinity between the SR and the SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex to promote protein translocation under physiological ionic strength conditions have been explored. Ribosomes or 60S large ribosomal subunits activate the GTPase cycle of SRP54 and SRalpha by providing a platform for assembly of the SRP-SR complex. Biosensor experiments revealed high-affinity, saturable binding of ribosomes or large ribosomal subunits to the SR. Remarkably, the SR has ...


The Effects Of Extended Access To Methamphetamine Self-Administration On Dopaminergic Markers In The Striatum, Joe Luevano Jan 2012

The Effects Of Extended Access To Methamphetamine Self-Administration On Dopaminergic Markers In The Striatum, Joe Luevano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a persistent problem in the U.S. and abroad. Escalation of METH use among independent users occurs for a variety of physiological and psychological reasons. Methamphetamine dependence may be attributed to the rewarding effect of this drug via the dopaminergic systems of the central nervous system (CNS). The presence of METH in the CNS increases synaptic release of dopamine. This increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be directly attributed to the rewarding effects of METH. Following METH use, compensatory changes have been found to occur in the dopaminergic system during various periods of abstinence. It ...


Combretazet-3 A Novel Synthetic Cis-Stable Combretastatin-A4-Azetidinone Hybrid With Enhanced Stabilityand Therapeutic Efficacy In Colon Cancer, Lisa M. Greene, Shu Wang, Niamh O'Boyle, Sandra A. Bright, Jane E. Reid, Patrick Kelly, Mary J. Meegan, Daniela M. Zisterer Jan 2012

Combretazet-3 A Novel Synthetic Cis-Stable Combretastatin-A4-Azetidinone Hybrid With Enhanced Stabilityand Therapeutic Efficacy In Colon Cancer, Lisa M. Greene, Shu Wang, Niamh O'Boyle, Sandra A. Bright, Jane E. Reid, Patrick Kelly, Mary J. Meegan, Daniela M. Zisterer

Articles

In recent years an extensive series of synthetic combretastatin A-4 (CA-4)-azetidinone (β-lactam) hybrids were designed and synthesised with a view to improve the stability, therapeutic efficacy and aqueous solubility of CA-4. Lead compounds containing a 3,4,5-trimethoxy aromatic ring at position 1 and a variety of substitution patterns at positions 3 and 4 of the β-lactam ring were screened in three adenocarcinoma-derived colon cancer cell lines (CT-26, Caco-2 and the CA-4 resistant cell line, HT-29). In both CT-26 and Caco-2 cells all β-lactam analogues analysed displayed potent therapeutic efficacy within the nanomolar range. Substitution of the ethylene bridge ...