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Articles 1 - 30 of 144

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack Jan 2018

Wnt Secretion Proteins Modulate Rankl-Induced Expression Of Aire In Thymic Epithelial Cells, Daniel Pollack

Dissertations and Theses

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are essential for a proper adaptive immune response by regulating thymocyte development and establishing central tolerance. In the thymus, TECs differentially express Wnt proteins, which activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Wnt signaling is thought to regulate cell survival, proliferation, and development although the direct molecular mechanisms in TECs have yet to be elucidated. The inducible inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with Dkk1 leads to a rapid loss of TEC progenitors as well as a decline in mature Aire-expressing mTECs. Therefore, we explore the role of Wnt ligands potentially responsible for stimulating and/or regulating ...


Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Mar 2017

Ticks Elicit Variable Fibrinogenolytic Activities Upon Feeding On Hosts With Different Immune Backgrounds, Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, John F. Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E. Sonenshine, John D. Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Increased engorgement weights were noted for ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on ...


Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann Aug 2016

Muc1 In Normal And Impaired Spermatogenesis, Folker E. Franke, Sigurd Kraus, Claus Eiermann, Katharina Pauls, El-Nasir Lalani, Martin Bergmann

El Nasir Lalani

The MUC1 mucin [also known as episialin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) or polymorphic epithelial mucin (PEM)] is a component of the mucosal glycocalyx, contributing to anti-adhesive and protective cell functions. MUC1 has been shown in a variety of epithelial cell types in the reproductive tracts of males and females, but this is the first report of its expression in human testis and non-epithelial cells of the germ cell lineage. Analysing 65 testes with normal or impaired spermatogenesis, we identified MUC1 protein in maturing germ cells by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibodies HMFG1, HMFG2 and SM3 binding to different glycosylation variants ...


Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani Aug 2016

Human Muc1 Mucin: A Potent Glandular Morphogen, Mark J. Hudson, Gordon W. Stamp, Khurram S. Chaudhary, Robert Hewitt, Andrew P. Stubbs, Paul D. Abel, El-Nasir Lalani

El Nasir Lalani

Human MUC1 mucin is a high-molecular-weight transmembrane glycoprotein, which is apically expressed in the majority of glandular epithelia. During embryonic development, changes in the pattern of MUC1 mucin expression coincide with the onset of glandular differentiation. This mucin is also frequently overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in carcinomas. To investigate the potential role of MUC1 mucin in morphogenesis, a full length MUC1 cDNA was transfected into murine mammary adenocarcinoma (410.4) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. This generated four clonal cell lines. Western blotting, FACS analysis, and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression of MUC1. All four MUC1-expressing clones demonstrated altered morphogenesis when ...


Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre Feb 2016

Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas. METHODS. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling ...


Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina E. Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah J. Lindauer, Robert F. Mullins, Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Bruce H. Grahn, Edwin M. Stone, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre Feb 2016

Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina E. Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah J. Lindauer, Robert F. Mullins, Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Bruce H. Grahn, Edwin M. Stone, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. METHODS. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5′- and 3′-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting ...


The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey Mccurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers Jan 2016

The Heli-Case Of The Missing Wrn Gene, Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey Mccurdy, Katie Michael, Jennifer Riddle, Kim Silvers

Eukaryon

Werner Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability, accelerated telomere shortening, and premature aging. Also, Werner Syndrome patients experience increased cancer rates, believed to be directly related to the lack of interaction between the WRN gene and tumor suppressor gene p53. The WRN gene consists of three identical molecules and has both exonuclease and helicase activity, which work together in opposite directions. WRN has been shown to stimulate polymerase â, needed in DNA repair. WRN helicase activity can also bind and degrade G-quadruplexes, which inhibit transcription. Studies show that the tumor suppressor gene p53 co-localizes with WRN ...


Psychiatric Gene Discoveries Shape Evidence On Adhd's Biology, Anita Thapar, J. Martin, Eric Mick, A. Arias Vasquez, Kate Langley, Stephen W. Scherer, Russell Schachar, Jennifer Crosbie, N. Williams, Barbara Franke, J. Elia, J. Glessner, H. Hakonarson, M. J. Owen, S. V. Faraone, Michael C. O'Donovan, Peter Holmans Nov 2015

Psychiatric Gene Discoveries Shape Evidence On Adhd's Biology, Anita Thapar, J. Martin, Eric Mick, A. Arias Vasquez, Kate Langley, Stephen W. Scherer, Russell Schachar, Jennifer Crosbie, N. Williams, Barbara Franke, J. Elia, J. Glessner, H. Hakonarson, M. J. Owen, S. V. Faraone, Michael C. O'Donovan, Peter Holmans

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

A strong motivation for undertaking psychiatric gene discovery studies is to provide novel insights into unknown biology. Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, and large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk, little is known about its pathogenesis and it remains commonly misunderstood. We assembled and pooled five ADHD and control CNV data sets from the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Northern Europe and Canada. Our aim was to test for enrichment of neurodevelopmental gene sets, implicated by recent exome-sequencing studies of (a) schizophrenia and (b) autism as a means of testing the hypothesis that ...


Synthesis And Application Of The Doxaz-Marcks Prodrug, Alla Balabanova Jan 2015

Synthesis And Application Of The Doxaz-Marcks Prodrug, Alla Balabanova

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chemotherapeutic prodrugs have demonstrated success in killing cancer cells; however they also pose harm to healthy cells. The objective of this project was to synthesize an improved prodrug that is selectively activated only in the cancer microenvironment, thus minimally affecting healthy tissue. A photolabile linker was hypothesized to achieve said objective. The Yin group discovered that the MARCKS-ED peptide can localize to the exosome via curvature sensing and electrostatic interactions. In addition, the Koch group determined that Doxazolidine (Doxaz) is more cytotoxic than its clinical drug precursor. Also, no cancer cell lines have shown resistance to this anthracycline. Based on ...


Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton Oct 2014

Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton

Other Undergraduate Scholarship

Research has shown that changes in gene expression play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Our project will evaluate genome-wide RNA expression patterns from brain and blood in an AD mouse model. This analysis will provide insight regarding the mechanisms of AD pathology as well as determine a possible diagnostic tool utilizing RNA expression patterns found in the blood as biomarkers for AD.


Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu Jun 2014

Characterizing The Response Of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Species To The Application Of A Phage Cocktail, Steven Liu

Symposium

Project Summary: The application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections is known as phage therapy, which takes advantage of bacteriophage’s natural ability to infect and lyse bacterial hosts. Phages have been shaped by billions of years of evolution to be highly specialized deliverers of bactericidal agents to the cytoplasm of their target bacteria. Ever since discovery of bacteriophages in 1915, phage therapy was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for eliminating bacterial infections. The effectiveness of phage therapy can be increased by creating a mixture of multiple phages to target a wider variety of bacterial strains. Furthermore, phage therapy ...


Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet Jan 2014

Integrating Phage Therapy Into Western Medicine, Jacob B. Jaminet

Undergraduate Research Posters

The World Health Organization has described the rise of antibiotic use as a “global heath security emergency” (who.int). With the growing concern about antibiotic resistant bacteria, there has been an increased interest in bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are high-specific viruses that only infect bacteria. The use of bacteriophages medicinally to treat bacteria is called phage therapy. Research in phage therapy gained momentum until the introduction of antibiotics. While the USA and other Western countries accepted antibiotics, the Soviet Union and their satellite nations still continued to research phages. Since the funding for research was supplied by the Soviet military, the results ...


Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre May 2013

Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

No abstract provided.


Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett May 2013

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Molecular Imaging Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas In Vitro And In Vivo, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, Kusum Rathore, Alfred Legendre, L Wright, L Marnett Apr 2013

Molecular Imaging Of Cyclooxygenase-2 In Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas In Vitro And In Vivo, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, Kusum Rathore, Alfred Legendre, L Wright, L Marnett

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

The enzyme COX-2 is induced at high levels in tumors but not in surrounding normal tissues, which makes it an attractive target for molecular imaging of cancer. We evaluated the ability of novel optical imaging agent, fluorocoxib A to detect urinary bladder canine transitional cell carcinomas (K9TCC). Here, we show that fluorocoxib A uptake overlapped with COX-2 expression in primary K9TCC cells in vitro. Using subcutaneously implanted primary K9TCC in athymic mice, we show specific uptake of fluorocoxib A by COX-2-expressing K9TCC xenograft tumors in vivo. Fluorocoxib A uptake by COX-2-expressing xenograft tumors was blocked by 70% (P < 0.005) when pretreated with the COX-2 selective inhibitor, celecoxib (10 mg/kg), 4 hours before intravenous administration of fluorocoxib A (1 mg/kg). Fluorocoxib A was taken up by COX-2-expressing tumors but not by COX-2-negative human UMUC-3 xenograft tumors. UMUC-3 xenograft tumors with no expression of COX-2 showed no uptake of fluorocoxib A. In addition, fluorocoxib A uptake was evaluated in five dogs diagnosed with TCC. Fluorocoxib A specifically detected COX-2-expressing K9TCC during cystoscopy in vivo but was not detected in normal urothelium. Taken together, our findings show that fluorocoxib A selectively bound to COX-2-expressing primary K9TCC cells in vitro, COX-2-expressing K9TCC xenografts tumors in nude mice, and heterogeneous canine TCC during cystoscopy in vivo. Spontaneous cancers in companion animals offer a unique translational model for evaluation of novel imaging and therapeutic agents using primary cancer cells in vitro and in heterogeneous cancers in vivo.


Modulation Of Adipose Tissue Inflammation By Bioactive Food Compounds, N. Siriwardhana, N. Kalupahana, Maria Cekanova, M. Lemieux, B. Greer, N, Moustaid-Moussa Mar 2013

Modulation Of Adipose Tissue Inflammation By Bioactive Food Compounds, N. Siriwardhana, N. Kalupahana, Maria Cekanova, M. Lemieux, B. Greer, N, Moustaid-Moussa

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Adipose tissue has an important endocrine function in the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Obesity leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation of the adipose tissue, which disrupts this endocrine function and results in metabolic derangements, such as type-2 diabetes. Dietary bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and certain fatty acids, are known to suppress both systemic and adipose tissue inflammation and have the potential to improve these obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Mechanistically, polyphenolic compounds including non-flavonoids, such as curcumin and resveratrol, and flavonoids, such as catechins (tea-polyphenols), quercetin and isoflavones, suppress nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPK) pathways while activating ...


Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre Jan 2013

Neutron Radiography With Combined Computed Tomography: A Novel Tool For Cancer Diagnosis And Imaging (Abstract), Maria Cekanova, H Bilheux, Kusum Rathore, J Bilheux, L Walker, Robert Donnell, Alfred Legendre

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

No abstract provided.


Inhibition Of Bacillus Cereus Growth By Bacteriocin Producing Bacillus Subtilis Isolated From Fermented Baobab Seeds (Maari) Is Substrate Dependent, Donatien Kaboré, Dennis S. Nielsen, Hagrétoui Sawadogo-Lingan, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jakobsen, Line Thorsen Jan 2013

Inhibition Of Bacillus Cereus Growth By Bacteriocin Producing Bacillus Subtilis Isolated From Fermented Baobab Seeds (Maari) Is Substrate Dependent, Donatien Kaboré, Dennis S. Nielsen, Hagrétoui Sawadogo-Lingan, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jakobsen, Line Thorsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Maari is a spontaneously alkaline fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds. Due to the spontaneous nature of maari fermentations growth of the opportunistic human pathogen Bacillus cereus is occasionally observed. Bacillus subtilis strains are important for alkaline seed fermentations because of their enzymatic activities contributing to desirable texture, flavor and pH development. Some B. subtilis strains have antimicrobial properties against B. cereus. In the present work, three bacteriocin producing B. subtilis strains (B3, B122 and B222) isolated from maari were tested. The production of antimicrobial activity by the three strains was found to be greatly influenced by the ...


Aβ Alters The Dna Methylation Status Of Cell-Fate Genes In An Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Gary D. Isaacs, Noor Taher, Courtney Mckenzie, Rebecca Garrett, Matthew Baker, Nena Fox Jan 2013

Aβ Alters The Dna Methylation Status Of Cell-Fate Genes In An Alzheimer’S Disease Model, Gary D. Isaacs, Noor Taher, Courtney Mckenzie, Rebecca Garrett, Matthew Baker, Nena Fox

Faculty Publications and Presentations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid-β plaques (Aβ). Despite ongoing research, some ambiguity remains surrounding the role of Aβ in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease. While several studies have focused on the mutations associated with AD, our understanding of the epigenetic contributions to the disease remains less clear. To that end, we determined the changes in DNA methylation in differentiated human neurons with and without Aβ treatment. We isolated the DNA from neurons treated with Aβ or vehicle, and digested the two samples with either a methylation-sensitive (HpaII) or a methylation-insensitive (MspI) restriction ...


Amalgamation Of Nucleosides And Amino Acids In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Sandra H. Barnard Jan 2013

Amalgamation Of Nucleosides And Amino Acids In Antibiotic Biosynthesis, Sandra H. Barnard

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The rapid increase in antibiotic resistance demands the identification of novel antibiotics with novel targets. One potential antibacterial target is the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall, which is both ubiquitous and necessary for bacterial survival. Both the caprazamycin-related compounds A-90289 and muraminomicin, as well as the capuramycin-related compounds A-503083 and A-102395 are potent inhibitors of the translocase I enzyme, one of the key enzymes required for cell wall biosynthesis. The caprazamycin-related compounds contain a core nonproteinogen b-hydroxy-a-amino acid referred to as 5’-C-glycyluridine (GlyU). Residing within the biosynthetic gene clusters of the aforementioned compounds is a shared open reading ...


Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett Oct 2012

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Comparison Of Phenolic Compounds And Antioxidant Capacities Of Traditional Sorghum Beers With Other Alcoholic Beverages, Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, Romaric G. Bayili, Louis C. Obame, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof. Oct 2012

Comparison Of Phenolic Compounds And Antioxidant Capacities Of Traditional Sorghum Beers With Other Alcoholic Beverages, Fatouma Abdoul-Latif, Romaric G. Bayili, Louis C. Obame, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof.

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers from Burkina Faso. Dolo samples were screened for their total phenolic content, proanthocyanidins and putative antioxidant capacities, and were compared with industrial beers and wines. Total phenols were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Proanthocyanidins content were determined by the method of HCl-butanol hydrolysis. Antioxidant activities were evaluated both with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) using 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical) (ABTS•+). The average contents of total phenols and proanthocyanidins were 506 μg GAE/ml of dolo and 45 μg ...


Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt Oct 2012

Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

Presentation delivered to librarians in China, Japan and South Korea as part of my sabbatical research on the use of libraries by Asian students in their home countries.


Toxicity Assessment And Analgesic Activity Investigation Of Aqueous Acetone Extracts Of Sida Acuta Burn F. And Sida Cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), Medicinal Plants Of Burkina Faso, Kiessoum Konate, Adama Hilou, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Alain Souza, Nicolas Barro, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jacques Datté, Bertrand M’Batchi Aug 2012

Toxicity Assessment And Analgesic Activity Investigation Of Aqueous Acetone Extracts Of Sida Acuta Burn F. And Sida Cordifolia L. (Malvaceae), Medicinal Plants Of Burkina Faso, Kiessoum Konate, Adama Hilou, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Alain Souza, Nicolas Barro, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Jacques Datté, Bertrand M’Batchi

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Background Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) are traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat several ailments, mainly pains, including abdominal infections and associated diseases. Despite the extensive use of these plants in traditional health care, literature provides little information regarding their toxicity and the pharmacology. This work was therefore designed to investigate the toxicological effects of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida acuta Burn f. and Sida cordifolia L. Furthermore, their analgesic capacity was assessed, in order to assess the efficiency of the traditional use of these two medicinal plants from Burkina Faso. Method For acute toxicity ...


Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Is Inhibited By Bad: Regulation Of Cyclin D1, R Fernando, Js Foster, A Bible, A Ström, Rg Pestell, M Rao, Arnold Saxton, Seung Baek, K Yamaguchi, Robert Donnell, Maria Cekanova, J Wimalasena Jul 2012

Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Is Inhibited By Bad: Regulation Of Cyclin D1, R Fernando, Js Foster, A Bible, A Ström, Rg Pestell, M Rao, Arnold Saxton, Seung Baek, K Yamaguchi, Robert Donnell, Maria Cekanova, J Wimalasena

Seung J Baek

Recent investigations suggest that functions of the proapoptotic BCL2 family members, including BAD, are not limited to regulation of apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that BAD inhibits G(1) to S phase transition in MCF7 breast cancer cells independent of apoptosis. BAD overexpression inhibited G(1) transit and cell growth as well as cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression was mediated through inhibition of transcription activated by AP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that BAD is localized at the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-response element (TRE) and cAMP-response element (CRE) in the cyclin D1 promoter. This was shown to reflect direct binding interactions of ...


Antibacterial Activity Against Beta- Lactamase Producing Methicillin And Ampicillin-Resistants Staphylococcus Aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (Fici) Determination, Kiessoun K Onate, Jacques François Mavoungou, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Adama Hilou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bertrand M’Batchi Jun 2012

Antibacterial Activity Against Beta- Lactamase Producing Methicillin And Ampicillin-Resistants Staphylococcus Aureus: Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (Fici) Determination, Kiessoun K Onate, Jacques François Mavoungou, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Raïssa Rr Aworet-Samseny, Adama Hilou, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bertrand M’Batchi

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative ...


Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover Jun 2012

Development Of A Protocol To Measure Gene Expression In The Mouse Tibia, Daniel Hoover

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Numerous molecular factors active in bone tissue direct fracture repair and remodeling which can be altered by disease conditions such as Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and Osteoporosis. Methods of molecular biology are commonly applied to investigate the expression and role of these molecular factors. This project presents a robust three-step protocol for examining gene expression in the mouse tibia. The protocol begins with isolating RNA from a flash frozen tibia sample. The isolated RNA is reverse transcribed into cDNA. Finally, PCR is performed to indentify expressed genes. Establishing this protocol will allow further research into the mechanisms of bone remodeling ...


Bacteriocin Formation By Dominant Aerobic Sporeformers Isolated From Traditional Maari, Donatien Kabore, Line Thorsen, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Torben Sune Berner, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jackobsen Jan 2012

Bacteriocin Formation By Dominant Aerobic Sporeformers Isolated From Traditional Maari, Donatien Kabore, Line Thorsen, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Torben Sune Berner, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jackobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The antimicrobial activity of 8 Bacillus spp. and 2 Lysinibacillus spp. representing the predominant aerobic sporeformers during traditional maari fermentations, a traditional fermented baobab seeds product fromBurkina Faso,was investigated. The antimicrobial activitywas assessed against a total of 31 indicator organisms representing various Gram-negative and positive pathogens. The screening showed that 3 Bacillus subtilis strains (B3, B122 and B222) in particular had antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive organisms and were selected for further studies. Itwas found that the antimicrobial substances producedwere heat stable, in-sensitive to catalase, sensitive to protease and trypsin but resistant to the proteolytic action of papain and ...


Acid Resistance, Bile Tolerance And Antimicrobial Properties Of Dominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Traditional “Maari” Baobab Seeds Fermented Condiment, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bréhima Diawara, Mogens Jacobsen Jan 2012

Acid Resistance, Bile Tolerance And Antimicrobial Properties Of Dominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Traditional “Maari” Baobab Seeds Fermented Condiment, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Bréhima Diawara, Mogens Jacobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Maari is a fermented food condiment obtained by spontaneous fermentation of seeds from the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). Nine dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, isolated from traditional maari fermentation were examined for their resistance to pH 2.5, their tolerance to 0.3% bile and their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The agar spot test was used to screen the dominant LAB for antagonistic activity against a total of 21 indicator organisms including Bacillus cereus strains, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. It was observed that all LAB strains survived in 0.3% bile ...