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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey Aug 2017

Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey

Theses and Dissertations

These studies have investigated different candidate genomic regions for their contributions to ascites in broilers. Ascites syndrome is a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arteriole hypertension that concerns the poultry industry worldwide. Investigations have demonstrated the disease to be genetically regulated and to exhibit moderate to high heritabilities. Although previous studies have indicated a few chromosomes to be involved with ascites, no genes have been identified to date with direct links to the disease. This dissertation presents a collection of studies that determine the genomic and genetic interactions for regions on chromosome 2 and 9 for ascites phenotypes in broiler chickens ...


Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla Jan 2014

Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of recurrent unprovoked seizures. It affects almost 1% of the world population. Although there is a wide range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) available, they only treat the seizure symptoms and do not cure the disease itself. The poor role of AEDs can be attributed to the lack of knowledge of exact mechanisms and networks that produce epileptic activities in the neocortex. At present, the best cure for epilepsy is surgical removal of electrically localized epileptic brain tissue. Surgically removed brain tissue presents an excellent opportunity to discover the molecular and cellular basis of human ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


Repair Of Endonuclease- And Transposon-Induced Dna Double Strand Breaks By Host Factors In Arabidopsis , Zhuying Li Jan 2006

Repair Of Endonuclease- And Transposon-Induced Dna Double Strand Breaks By Host Factors In Arabidopsis , Zhuying Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The maize Ac/Ds transposable elements are members of the hAT transposon family. Ac/Ds transpose in diverse species and via a mechanism similar to that involved in V(D)J recombination. Here, we studied the repair of Ds transposition-induced hairpins by host factors in Arabidopsis. The results indicate that AtKu could position hairpin-opening to sites close to the hairpin apex. In the absence of AtMre11 or AtKu70, repair junctions have a higher frequency of small deletions (3-10bp) and larger deletions (11-50bp), respectively. Comparison of the repair of I-SceI- and Ds-induced DSB indicates that Ac transposase could influence Ds-induced DSB ...


The Mechanism Of Arabidopsis Immutans Variegation , Aigen Fu Jan 2006

The Mechanism Of Arabidopsis Immutans Variegation , Aigen Fu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Arabidopsis immutans (im) is variegated with green sectors and white sectors containing defective plastids due to a nuclear gene mutation. IM is a plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) sharing similarity with mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX). In order to better understand IM's biological roles and variegation mechanism of im, I characterized im plants at different levels;A structural model of IM, in which the diiron reaction center is composed of two conserved histidine and four glutamate residues, was tested by mutagenesis in vitro and in planta. It that these six conserved residues were found essential for IM activity and do ...


Studies Of Hypoxia Response And Regulation Of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Hif-1 In Caenorhabditis Elegans , Chuan Shen Jan 2006

Studies Of Hypoxia Response And Regulation Of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Hif-1 In Caenorhabditis Elegans , Chuan Shen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

All aerobic organisms require molecular oxygen to generate metabolic energy for normal growth and survival. During evolution, multi-cellular organisms have developed and refined complex networks for adaptation to hypoxic environments at both systemic and cellular levels. Adaptation to hypoxia largely results from changes in the activity and expression of key proteins. These include proteins involved in increasing oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues and proteins that facilitate glycolysis for anaerobic metabolism. The mammalian transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. More than 100 target genes of HIF mediate broad systemic and local responses to hypoxia, including ...


The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li Jan 2006

The Analysis Of Global Gene Expression Related To Starch, Lipid And Protein Composition , Ling Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation provides a greater understanding of starch metabolism and its regulation by using mutants altered in starch accumulation, together with a combination of approaches such as global gene profiling, promoter::GUS/GFP analyses, and genetics;Starch debranching enzymes are critical for starch accumulation. The temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA1 and ISA2 is consistent with previous evidence that they co-function as a protein complex (ISA1/ISA2) for starch synthesis. The extensive temporal and spatial co-expression of ISA2 and ISA3 suggests they might also form a protein complex, taking part in starch metabolism. ISA3 protein is localized in leaf chloroplast ...


Plant Genome Informatics: Evaluation And Analysis Of Genomic Dna Features Involved In The Transcriptional Processing Of Protein Coding Genes , Shannon Dwayne Schlueter Jan 2006

Plant Genome Informatics: Evaluation And Analysis Of Genomic Dna Features Involved In The Transcriptional Processing Of Protein Coding Genes , Shannon Dwayne Schlueter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As biological data collection methods have become more cost effective and less time consuming, the necessity for computational tools to store, manage, and analyze this data has led to the creation of a broad field of research. Bioinformatics, while firmly rooted in the technology of information management, is now a mainstream component in the majority of scientific investigations. With the vast majority of effort in bioinformatics being applied to research on vertebrate species, researchers in the plant sciences have often been left with less than satisfactory tools. The research presented in this dissertation was done in an effort to advance ...


Recognition And Signal Transduction In The Expression Of Phytophthora Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr] , Hongyu Gao Jan 2006

Recognition And Signal Transduction In The Expression Of Phytophthora Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr] , Hongyu Gao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Phytophthora sojae, a hemibiotrophic oomycete, is the causal pathogen of stem and root rot disease of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr). The annual soybean yield loss suffered from this disease is valued at about 300 million dollars. A series of single Rps genes protect soybean from the root and stem rot disease. In the last two decades Rps1-k has been the most stable and widely used Phytophthora resistance gene in the major soybean-producing regions of the United States;Two classes of CC-NB-LRR-type Rps1-k genes were isolated from the Rps1-k locus. Representative members from each gene class were expressed in transgenic ...


Functional Characterization Of The Rad51 Genes In Zea Mays And Their Roles In Mu Transposition , Jin Li Jan 2006

Functional Characterization Of The Rad51 Genes In Zea Mays And Their Roles In Mu Transposition , Jin Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad51p plays a central role in homologous recombination and DNA repair. Double mutants of the two Zea mays L. rad51 homologs are viable, but male sterile and have ~22% of normal seed set. Light microscopic analyses of male meiosis in these plants reveal: many chromosomes are unpaired at diakinesis and over 33% of quartets carry cells that either lack a nucleolus or have two nucleoli, indicating that non-disjunction occurs at both meiotic divisions. FISH analysis shows that 70% pachytene cells have paired 5S rDNA loci. Thus, maize RAD51 is required for efficient chromosome pairing and proper chromosome ...


Neuronal Functions Of Ahr-1, The Caenorhabditis Elegans Homolog Of The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor , Hongtao Qin Jan 2006

Neuronal Functions Of Ahr-1, The Caenorhabditis Elegans Homolog Of The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor , Hongtao Qin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxins and related compounds. Toxicological and genetic studies have shown that AHR regulates important development events and physiological functions. Interestingly, AHR homologs are found in most metazoans, and studies of AHR regulation and function in invertebrate model systems may provide insight to the ancient functions of AHR. In this thesis, I analyze the endogenous functions of the ahr-1 gene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. ahr-1:GFP is expressed in a subset of neurons. ahr-1 regulates the development of diverse neuronal cell types, including the AVM and PLM touch receptor ...


Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton Jan 2006

Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

T-box (Tbx) proteins are dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and appear to have significant roles in a number of developmental processes. The T-box family is characterized by a highly conserved DNA binding domain. Over twenty mammalian T-box proteins have been identified, many of which have the demonstrated ability to regulate transcription. Both activators and repressors of gene transcription have been described within this family, but how their functions are performed is largely unknown;Tbx2 is a powerful transcriptional repressor with functional roles identified in cardiogenesis and limb development. However the functional domain(s) of Tbx2 are poorly characterized. Tbx2 contains a ...


The Mechanism Of Var2 Leaf Variegation , Fei Yu Jan 2005

The Mechanism Of Var2 Leaf Variegation , Fei Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Arabidopsis f&barbelow;ilamentation t&barbelow;emperature s&barbelow;ensitive (FtsH) metalloprotease gene family comprises 12 members (AtFtH1-AtFtsH12 ), including three pairs of closely related genes that are targeted to chloroplasts (AtFtsH2 and AtFtsH8; AtFtsH1 and AtFtsH5; and AtFtsH7 and AtFtsH9). Mutations in AtFtsH5 ( var1) and AtFtsH2 (var2) give rise to variegated plants with green- and white-sectored leaves. Cells in the green sectors contain morphologically normal chloroplasts, whereas cells in the white sectors are blocked in chloroplast biogenesis. A major question is how chloroplasts arise in cells that have a mutant genotype. We have found by two-dimensional (2-D) green gel and gel filtration ...


Analysis Of Hoxa5 Expression And Function In Development Of The Central Nervous System , Milan Joksimovic Jan 2005

Analysis Of Hoxa5 Expression And Function In Development Of The Central Nervous System , Milan Joksimovic

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Hox genes encode transcription factors that are indispensable for proper spatio-temporal patterning of the vertebrate body axes. In mouse, Hoxa5 transcripts are differentially expressed in specific mesoderm-derived structures and in the most anterior domain of expression in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the functional significance of any pattern of protein-coding RNAs must be verified by correlating the presence of the protein(s) and RNAs. Here we describe the dynamic pattern of HOXA5 protein during mouse embryogenesis. The HOXA5 protein is detected as early as embryonic day (E) 9.0, and is found, as development proceeds, in several mesoderm-derived ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Splicing Related Genes And Alternative Splicing In Plants , Bing-Bing Wang Jan 2005

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Splicing Related Genes And Alternative Splicing In Plants , Bing-Bing Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The phenomenon of pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes has been mostly studied in mammalian and yeast systems. The splicing machinery in plants is thought to be largely conserved relative to animal and fungal organisms. This thesis encompasses systematic studies of splicing-related genes and alternative splicing (AS) in plants. A total of 74 snRNA genes and 395 genes encoding splicing related proteins were identified in Arabidopsis, including the previously elusive U4atac snRNA gene. About 50% of the splicing related genes are duplicated in plants. The duplication ratios for splicing regulators are even higher, indicating that the splicing mechanism is generally conserved among ...


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...


Investigation Of The Molecular Mechanism Of Fertility Restoration In Texas Cytoplasm Maize , David Stewart Skibbe Jan 2004

Investigation Of The Molecular Mechanism Of Fertility Restoration In Texas Cytoplasm Maize , David Stewart Skibbe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) is a maternally inherited inability to produce viable pollen. In Texas (T)-cytoplasm maize, the combined action of two restorer of fertility genes, rfl and rfla , can overcome the male sterile phenotype. Previous research established rf2a encodes a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with broad substrate specificity. This broad substrate specificity complicates determining the molecular mechanism of rf2a-mediated fertility restoration. In response, a combination of transgenic, biochemical, reverse genetic, and genomic approaches were utilized. Three additional functional maize ALDH genes (rf2b, rf2c, and rf2d) with differing substrate specificities were identified. Each ALDH gene was characterized via in ...


The Central Role Of Acetyl-Coa In Plant Metabolism, As Examined Through Studies Of Atp Citrate Lyase And The Bio1 Mutant Of Arabidopsis , Elizabeth K. Winters Jan 2004

The Central Role Of Acetyl-Coa In Plant Metabolism, As Examined Through Studies Of Atp Citrate Lyase And The Bio1 Mutant Of Arabidopsis , Elizabeth K. Winters

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The acetyl-CoA/biotin network encompasses acetyl-CoA generation and utilization, biotin synthesis, recovery, and transport, and myriad metabolic processes requiring biotin-containing enzymes. To expand understanding of this network and its control, plants with altered levels of ACL (ATP citrate lyase) and BIO1 (adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase) were examined.;An inducible promoter provides a powerful method to test the effects of altered expression of specific genes. The synthetic GVG promoter, reported to be sterol-inducible in Arabidopsis thaliana, was inducible in Glycine max (soybean) when used to control the GUS reporter gene, or the ACLA or ACLB genes. It showed the same unique pattern in ...


The Essential Jil-1 Kinase Regulates Histone H3 Phosphorylation And Maintains Chromatin Structure In Drosophila , Weiguo Zhang Jan 2004

The Essential Jil-1 Kinase Regulates Histone H3 Phosphorylation And Maintains Chromatin Structure In Drosophila , Weiguo Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

JIL-1 encodes a chromatin-associated tandem serine/threonine kinase in Drosophila melanogaster. JIL-1 predominantly associates with interbands on polytene chromosomes. It appears at higher levels on the X chromosome than on autosomes in males, and distributes about equally on all chromosomes in females. In addition, in males JIL-1 overlaps with the MSL (for male specific lethal) complex that specifically associates with the male X chromosome on which expression of most genes are upregulated.;We isolated JIL-1 mutants by inducing imprecise excision of an EP element inserted in JIL-1. We found that JIL-1 is required for viability of both females and males ...


Computational And Molecular Analysis Of Myb Gene Family, Cizhong Jiang Jan 2004

Computational And Molecular Analysis Of Myb Gene Family, Cizhong Jiang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Myb proteins are defined by a highly conserved DNA-specific binding domain termed Myb, which is composed of approximately 50 amino acids with constantly spaced tryptophan residues. Multiple copies of Myb domains often exist as tandem repeats within a single protein. There are up to four tandem Myb repeats present in Myb proteins identified to date (termed R0R1R2R3 hereafter).;In our study, we collected additional Myb genes, and performed a series of phylogenetic analyses to explore the evolutionary origin of Myb genes. The results suggest that the Myb gene family originated from an ancient one Myb-box gene. One and two intragenic ...


Identification And Functional Analysis Of Thylakoid Membrane Proteome , Yingchun Wang Jan 2003

Identification And Functional Analysis Of Thylakoid Membrane Proteome , Yingchun Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Membrane proteins play crucial roles in many biological functions. Identities and functions of most membrane proteins remain to be revealed. New technological breakthroughs in proteomics together with the availability of genomic sequence information make it possible to study functions of membrane proteins on a genome-wide scale. We used a multidisciplinary approach combining biochemistry, genetics, proteomics and bioinformatics to study the functions of the thylakoid proteome of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The thylakoid membrane proteins were separated into peripheral and integral fractions and resolved into 2-D gels with different pH ranges. The protein spots in the 2-D gels were subjected to peptide ...


Molecular And Genetic Characterization Of Rf2, A Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Required For Male Fertility In Maize (Zea Mays L) , Xiangqin Cui Jan 2001

Molecular And Genetic Characterization Of Rf2, A Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Required For Male Fertility In Maize (Zea Mays L) , Xiangqin Cui

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

T-cytoplasm induced male sterility (cms-T) is a maternally inherited inability to produce viable pollen in maize. The causal factor, the URF13 protein, is encoded by the mitochondrial genome and accumulates in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Fertility restoration of cms-T is mediated by the complementary action of two nuclear genes, rf1 and rf2. The rf2 gene was cloned via transposon tagging. Sequence analysis revealed that it has high sequence similarity to mammalian mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases (mtALDHs). Sequence, mRNA, and protein analyses of the spontaneous mutant allele rf2-R213 demonstrated that the ALDH activity is necessary for rf2's function as a cms-T ...


Structure And Function Of A Novel Cap-Independent Translation Element In The 3' Untranslated Region Of A Viral Rna , Liang Guo Jan 2000

Structure And Function Of A Novel Cap-Independent Translation Element In The 3' Untranslated Region Of A Viral Rna , Liang Guo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on a cap-independent translation element (TE) we identified in the RNA of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). Assisted by the TE, all messenger RNAs of BYDV, which include BYDV genomic RNA and subgenomic RNAs, are translated cap-independently. This allows uncapped, nonpolyadenylated BYDV RNAs to compete with capped and polyadenylated host mRNAs for the translation machinery. The core of the TE is a 105 nt sequence (TE105) located in the 3' UTR of BYDV genomic RNA. Due to its 3' position, at least two functions are necessary for TE105: 3 '--5' communication, and recruitment of translation machinery. TE105 ...


Transposon-Induced Homologous Recombination At The Maize P Locus And In Transgenic Arabidopsis , Yongli Xiao Jan 1999

Transposon-Induced Homologous Recombination At The Maize P Locus And In Transgenic Arabidopsis , Yongli Xiao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The maize P gene encodes a Myb-homologous regulator of red phlobaphene pigment biosynthesis in the pericarp, cob and other floral tissues. The P locus has a unique structure with two 5.2kb direct repeats flanking the P gene coding region. When the transposon (Ac) inserts into one site between the two direct repeats in the P-ovov-1114 allele, homologous recombination between the two 5.2kb repeats can occur and the whole P gene coding sequence is deleted;To further study this transposon-induced homologous recombination. This study examined six alleles that carry Ac insertions at different sites in the P locus, in ...


Molecular Characterization Of Myb-Homologous Transcriptional Factors Of The Flavonoid Pathway In Zea Mays , Peifen Zhang Jan 1999

Molecular Characterization Of Myb-Homologous Transcriptional Factors Of The Flavonoid Pathway In Zea Mays , Peifen Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Structural genes encoding enzymes that catalyze each step of flavonoid synthesis are temporally and spatially regulated. It has been shown that specific anthocyanin pigmentation patterns in maize are achieved by the tissue-specific expression of regulatory genes. Moreover, this tissue-specific regulation is a consequence of the generation of different alleles or duplicated copies of regulatory genes during evolution;In contrast, the myb-homologous P1 gene was the only known regulatory gene required for phlobaphene biosynthesis. The isolation and characterization of the P2 gene, reported here, provides direct molecular evidence that the P region contains duplicated genes. Furthermore, the duplicated P1 (herein, P1-rr ...


Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin Jan 1999

Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Chromatin remodeling is an essential step for many chromatin-related fundamental cellular processes, such as gene replication, transcription, recombination and gene silencing. Two classes of protein complexes contribute to chromatin remodeling: protein complexes with ATPase activity and protein complexes capable of enzymatic modifications of chromosomal proteins, especially histones. Compared to well-studied histone acetylation which has been directly linked to gene transcription, the role of histone phosphorylation in chromatin remodeling for gene transcription is still poorly understood although there is some correlation between histone phosphorylation and gene transcription;A novel nuclear tandem protein kinase JIL-1 was cloned and identified in Kristen Johansen ...