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Genetics

2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 36

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman Dec 2018

Investigating Autophagy Dysfunction Induced By A Parkinson's Disease-Causing Mutation In Vps35, Abir Ashfakur Rahman

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is an idiopathic disorder with no known cure. With number of cases steadily rising around the world, it is imperative to turn to the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the disease manifestation and neurodegeneration to craft novel modes of therapy. VPS35 is one of the few genes that have identified and definitively linked to familial PD. The particular mutation that has been associated is known to cause dysfunction of a key cellular process known as autophagy. This process is primarily responsible for clearance of unwanted, damaged or misfolded proteins, among other things. Our study reveals ...


Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani Dec 2018

Genetic And Epigenetic Investigations On Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome In Meat Type- Chickens, Khaloud Alzahrani

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a collection of studies that investigate the genetic and epigenetic associations to ascites phenotype in broiler chickens. Ascites is a significant metabolic disease associated with fast-growing meat-type chickens (broilers) and is a terminal result of pulmonary hypertension syndrome PHS. It is a multi-factorial syndrome caused by interactions between genetic, physiological, environmental, and managemental factors. It was estimated that ascites accounts for losses of about US$1 billion annually worldwide and for over 25% of broilers mortality. Although traditional and molecular genetic methods in the selection and in performance improvements, has greatly reduced ascites frequency, yet it has ...


Identification Of Deubiquitinating Enzymes That Control The Cell Cycle In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudine E. Mapa Nov 2018

Identification Of Deubiquitinating Enzymes That Control The Cell Cycle In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudine E. Mapa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A large fraction of the proteome displays cell cycle-dependent expression, which is important for cells to accurately grow and divide. Cyclical protein expression requires protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), and several ubiquitin ligases (E3) have established roles in this regulation. Less is understood about the roles of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB), which antagonize E3 activity. A few DUBs have been shown to interact with and deubiquitinate cell cycle-regulatory E3s and their protein substrates, suggesting DUBs play key roles in cell cycle control. However, in vitro studies and characterization of individual DUB deletion strains in yeast suggest that these ...


33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark Nov 2018

33 - Identification Of Proteins That Regulate Crispr Dna Uptake Of Pyrococcus Furiosus, Landon Clark

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspace Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated) system is a prokaryotic, adaptive immune system used by bacterial and archaeal organism to fight infections by viruses and other harmful invasive DNAs. These prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immune systems have been exploited as powerful genome editing tools that work many different organisms and cells including humans. The newly developed CRISPR-based technologies are transforming medicine and science and have been used in research applications for developing cures for certain cancers, HIV, hemophilia, etc. The function of the CRISPR-Cas systems follow three basis steps: (1) adaptation (invading DNA is integrated into the host genome ...


The Role Of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells And Classical Dendritic Cells In The Maintenance And Regulation Of The Bone Marrow Niche, Jingzhu Zhang Aug 2018

The Role Of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells And Classical Dendritic Cells In The Maintenance And Regulation Of The Bone Marrow Niche, Jingzhu Zhang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The bone marrow niche is an important microenvironment for the regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. The first discovered niche component is mesenchymal stromal cells, which are the major source for the production and secretion of multiple niche factors. Mesenchymal stromal cells are heterogeneous and various transgenes have been used to target non-identical but overlapping subpopulations. To further characterize the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells, we tested the targeting specificity of three tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes. We show that in addition to osteoblasts, Ocn-Cre targets a majority of Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and arteriolar pericytes. Surprisingly, Dmp1-Cre also targets a subset ...


Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger Aug 2018

Characterization Of The Celf6 Rna Binding Protein: Effects On Mouse Vocal Behavior And Biochemical Function, Michael A. Rieger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Behavior in higher eukaryotes is a complex process which integrates signals in the environment, the genetic makeup of the organism, and connectivity in the nervous system to produce extremely diverse adaptations to the phenomenon of existence. Unraveling the subcellular components that contribute to behavioral output is important for both understanding how behavior occurs in an unperturbed state, as well as understanding how behavior changes when the underlying systems that generate it are altered. Of the numerous molecular species that make up a cell, the regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), the coding template of all proteins, is of key importance to ...


Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin Jul 2018

Production Of A Candidate Recombinant Protein Vaccine For Mannheimia Haemolytica In Lettuce And Tobacco Chloroplasts, Coby K. Martin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cattle industry worldwide is ravaged by bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a bacterial disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. Recent efforts to design vaccines against M. haemolytica focus on a virulence factor, leukotoxin, in addition to surface lipoproteins. Plant-based protein production is a safe and inexpensive alternative to traditional methods. Edible vaccines deliver antigens to pharyngeal tissues, which can provide local immunization against M. haemolytica prior to its progression into the lungs. In this project, a chimeric protein containing M. haemolytica antigens was produced in tobacco chloroplasts as a candidate edible vaccine for BRD. Attempts were made to transform lettuce chloroplasts ...


Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Scramblase is an enzyme that facilitates the movement of newly synthesized phospholipids from the cytosolic side to the extracellular side of the lipid bilayer. This process is vital for cell membrane repair and growth. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the gene SIT1 encodes for the Scramblase protein, whose functionality is Ca2+-dependent. In this experiment, the concentration of accessible Ca2+ ions was decreased in order to observe whether the change had an aect on the expression of SIT1 and cell growth. It was hypothesized that expression of the SIT1 gene would increase, while cell growth would decrease. To carry out the experiment ...


Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott May 2018

Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of Escherichia coli and Meiothermus ruber proC genes using the complementation assay. In this research project, mutants of varying severity to the functional state of the protein were developed. The results showed that two or more amino acid deletions reduced or eliminated ProC function. Amino acid substitutions, on the other hand, were not severe enough to impact ProC function. Double and triple mutants ...


Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani May 2018

Unravelling The Layers Of Cell Wall Synthesis And Function In Rice, Ritu Mihani

Theses and Dissertations

The plant cell wall is of critical importance to plant growth and survival, functioning in maintaining structural integrity, supporting cell expansion, and acting as the first line of defense in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The major components of the cell wall are cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and pectin. Recent focus on the transcriptional machinery regulating cell wall biosynthesis in plants has revealed many key transcription factors responsible for orchestrating cell wall deposition. However, many of these TFs act redundantly and work coherently with a suite of TFs to activate the cell wall biosynthetic machinery. Heterologous expression of TFs is ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam May 2018

Investigation For Novel Anti-Apoptotic Factors In The Neurons Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Haylie Rachel Lam

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings May 2018

Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogenesis is the biological production of methane. Only anaerobic archaea known as methanogens are capable of such a metabolic feat. They have strict living conditions and substrate sources which determine their rate of metabolism. This is of particular importance from a greenhouse gas reduction perspective or biogas capturing perspective. One of the best ways to optimize methanogen methane production is via genetic manipulation. The current procedures are timely though, therefore a faster cloning processes should be developed. The objective of this study was to optimize a premade genetic transformation kit known as the Gibson Kit. The Gibson Kit was supposed ...


The Synthesis And Function Of The Peritrophic Matrix In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sean Conway Apr 2018

The Synthesis And Function Of The Peritrophic Matrix In Drosophila Melanogaster, Sean Conway

Dissertations (2009 -)

Maintenance of functional barrier structures separating an organism from and regulating its interaction with the environment is critical for many aspects of fitness. Arguably, the most dynamic interface between an animal and its environment is the gut, as the organism must balance the primary functions, digestion and nutrient acquisition, with several homeostatic and defensive systems including pathogen defense, microbiome maintenance and stem cell renewal. Many animals secrete extracellular barrier structures along their guts to organize and modulate these interactions, including intestinal mucosal secretions in humans and a semi-permeable structure in insects called the peritrophic matrix (PM). In Drosophila, the PM ...


Copy Number Variation In The Porcine Genome Detected From Whole-Genome Sequence, Rebecca Anderson Mar 2018

Copy Number Variation In The Porcine Genome Detected From Whole-Genome Sequence, Rebecca Anderson

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Copy number variations (CNVs) are large insertions, deletions, and duplications in the genome that vary between individuals in a species. These variations are known to impact a broad range of phenotypes from molecular-level traits to higher-order clinical phenotypes. CNVs have been linked to complex traits in humans such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nervous system disorders, and early-onset extreme obesity. In this study, whole-genome sequence was obtained from 72 founders of an intensely phenotyped experimental swine herd at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska. This included 24 boars (12 Duroc and 12 Landrace ...


Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz Mar 2018

Investigating The Genetic Structure Of Northern Long-Eared Bats In Nebraska, Jonathan Korbitz

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Abstract:

The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) is one of many species of hibernating bats in North America affected by a recently discovered fungal disease called white-nose syndrome (WNS). Northern long-eared bats seem to be extremely susceptible to the disease with mass fatalities occurring among populations in eastern North America. Researchers in the eastern distribution of this species have performed mtDNA analysis to identify the population structure of the species; however, genetic analysis has yet to be done in western parts of its distribution. The goal of this study is to create a better understanding of the genetic makeup of ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, And Mrub_1328 Are Orthologs Of B_3454, B_3455, B_3457, B_3458, Respectively Found In Escherichia Coli Coding For A Branched Chain Amino Acid Atp Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter System, Bennett Tomlin, Adam Buric, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, And Mrub_1328 Are Orthologs Of B_3454, B_3455, B_3457, B_3458, Respectively Found In Escherichia Coli Coding For A Branched Chain Amino Acid Atp Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter System, Bennett Tomlin, Adam Buric, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1325, Mrub_1326, Mrub_1327, and Mrub_1328 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a Branched Chain Amino Acid ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1325 (DNA coordinates 1357399-1358130 on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP binding domain; 2) Mrub_1326 (DNA coordinates 1358127-1359899 on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain and permease domain; 3) Mrub_1327 (DNA coordinates 1359899-1360930 on the reverse strand) encodes a permease domain; and 4)Mrub_1328 (DNA coordinates 1711022-1712185 on the reverse strand) encodes the substrate binding domain. This system is not predicted ...


Confirmation That Mrub_1751 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylf, Mrub_1752 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylh, And Mrub_1753 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylg, Ben Price, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Confirmation That Mrub_1751 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylf, Mrub_1752 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylh, And Mrub_1753 Is Homologous To E. Coli Xylg, Ben Price, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1751, Mrub_1752 and Mrub_1753 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a D-xylose ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_1752 (DNA coordinates 1809004-1810224 on the forward strand) encodes the permease component (aka transmembrane domain), predicted to be an ortholog and 2) Mrub_1753 (DNA coordinates 1810227-1811000 on the forward strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain (aka nucleotide binding domain); and 3) Mrub_1751 (DNA coordinates 1807855-1808892 on the forward strand) encodes the solute binding protein. The ABC-transporter for M. ruber to transport D-xylose is homologous with the transporter ...


Modeling And Designing Genetic Devices Using Transcriptional Interference In Escherichia Coli, Antoni Escalas Bordoy Jan 2018

Modeling And Designing Genetic Devices Using Transcriptional Interference In Escherichia Coli, Antoni Escalas Bordoy

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Microorganisms inhabit every extreme location of our planet. In their journey through the ages, they have been able to incredibly adapt to a myriad of different environmental conditions. A key mechanism for their success has been their ability to respond to environmental and nutritional changes through regulatory programs primarily encoded at the transcriptional level. This adaptability to new environments is what encourages scientists to believe in engineering a biological revolution that will transform our lives due to its potential to result in innovative approaches for bioremediation, sustainable energy production, and biomedical therapies. This thesis explores the potential of the phenomenon ...


Mrub_2120, Mrub_2121, Mrub_2122, Mrub_2123 And Mrub_2124 Are Orthologs Of E. Coli Genes B3458, B3457, B3456, B3455 And B3454, Respectively, And Make Up An Operon That Codes For The Branched-Chain Amino Acid Abc Transporter In Meiothermus Ruber Dsm 1279, Aaron Jones, Madelyn Huber, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Mrub_2120, Mrub_2121, Mrub_2122, Mrub_2123 And Mrub_2124 Are Orthologs Of E. Coli Genes B3458, B3457, B3456, B3455 And B3454, Respectively, And Make Up An Operon That Codes For The Branched-Chain Amino Acid Abc Transporter In Meiothermus Ruber Dsm 1279, Aaron Jones, Madelyn Huber, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_2120, Mrub_2121, Mrub_2122, Mrub_2123 and Mrub_2124 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a branched-chain amino acid ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_2120 (DNA coordinates 2169247-2170416 on the reverse strand) encodes the branched-chain amino acid binding protein that is localized to the periplasm; 2) Mrub_2121 (DNA coordinates 2170433..2171353 on the reverse strand) encodes the first TMD; 3) Mrub_2122 (DNA coordinates 2171365..2172279 on the reverse strand) encodes the second TMD; 4) Mrub_2123 (DNA coordinates 2172276..2173028 on the reverse strand) encodes the first ...


Mrub_1675, Mrub_1676, Mrub_1677, And Mrub_1679 Genes Are Orthologs Of B_3458, B_3457, B_3456, And B_3454 Genes In E. Coli, Respectively, Coding For Abc Transporters. Mrub_1678 And B_3455, Though Perform Similar Tasks, Are Not Orthologous, Ravi Patel, Alaina Hofmann, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Mrub_1675, Mrub_1676, Mrub_1677, And Mrub_1679 Genes Are Orthologs Of B_3458, B_3457, B_3456, And B_3454 Genes In E. Coli, Respectively, Coding For Abc Transporters. Mrub_1678 And B_3455, Though Perform Similar Tasks, Are Not Orthologous, Ravi Patel, Alaina Hofmann, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_1675, Mrub_1676, Mrub_1677, and Mrub_1679 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a Branched chain amino acid (ABC) transporter: Mrub_1675 (DNA coordinates 1711022..1712185 on the reverse strand) encodes the permease component, Mrub_1676 (DNA coordinates 1712313..1713170) encodes for the NBD (aka nucleotide binding domain), Mrub_1677 (DNA coordinates 1713167..1714075 on the reverse strand) encodes the NBD (aka nucleotide binding domain), Mrub_1678 (DNA coordinates 1713167..1714075 on the reverse strand) encodes the TMD (aka transmembrane domain) and Mrub_1679 (DNA coordinates 1714781..1715485 on the reverse ...


Examination Of Orthologous Genes (Mrub_2518 And B3728, Mrub_2519 And B3727, Mrub_2520 And B3726, Mrub_2521 And B3725) Responsible For Abc Phosphate Transporters In Two Species M. Ruber And E. Coli, Margaret Meyer, Dr. Lori Scott Jan 2018

Examination Of Orthologous Genes (Mrub_2518 And B3728, Mrub_2519 And B3727, Mrub_2520 And B3726, Mrub_2521 And B3725) Responsible For Abc Phosphate Transporters In Two Species M. Ruber And E. Coli, Margaret Meyer, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes b3725, b3726, b3727, b3728 and Mrub_2518, Mrub_2519, Mrub_2520 and Mrub_2521 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict that these genes encode the components of a Phosphate ABC transporter: Orthologous genes Mrub_2518 (DNA coordinates 2565359..2566438) and b3728 encodes the periplasmic phosphate binding component; Orthologous genes Mrub_2519 (DNA coordinates 2566499..2567485) and b3727, and Mrub_2520 (DNA coordinates 2567496..2568326) and b3726 encode for the two transmembrane proteins; Orthologous genes Mrub_2521 (DNA coordinates 2568338..2569159) and b3725 encode for the ATP binding protein within the cytoplasm. Within the two species, M. ruber ...


Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas Jan 2018

Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Inflammation is the major cause of endothelial barrier hyper-permeability, associated with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study reports that p53 "orchestrates" the defence of vascular endothelium against LPS, by mediating the opposing actions of Rac1 and RhoA in pulmonary tissues. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells treated with HSP90 inhibitors activated both Rac1- and P21-activated kinase, which is an essential element of vascular barrier function. 17AAG increased the phosphorylation of both LIMK and cofilin, in contrast to LPS which counteracted those effects. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells exposed to LPS exhibited decreased expression of phospho-cofilin. 17AAG treatment ...


Crispr-Assisted Interrogation And Engineering Of Metabolic Pathways, Marcelo Colika Bassalo Jan 2018

Crispr-Assisted Interrogation And Engineering Of Metabolic Pathways, Marcelo Colika Bassalo

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Since Mendel’s work established the basis of inheritance in the late 1800s, multiple decades of research characterized monogenic traits across all domains of life. Yet, we still have a fairly limited knowledge on the genotype behind the vast majority of phenotypes. It is now evident that discrete biological functions can rarely be linked to a single gene. Further, these multigenic traits are often interconnected via a sophisticated and robust metabolic and regulatory network, selected by evolution in order to optimally distribute resources. The complexity of these multigenic traits challenges traditional genetic tools, broadly limiting our capability to understand and ...


Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham Jan 2018

Epigenetic Mechanisms Governing Behavioral Reprogramming In The Ant Camponotus Floridanus, Riley John Graham

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Eusocial insect colonies divide behaviors among specialist groups called castes. In some species, caste identity is determined by the interaction of endogenous (e.g. genomic) and exogenous (e.g. juvenile hormone from nurses) signals during larval development, suggesting epigenetic mechanisms underlie plastic traits tied to caste identity. Previous work demonstrated a link between patterns of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and caste-specific gene expression in Major and Minor workers of the ant Camponotus floridanus, and we hypothesized caste-specific behaviors such as foraging may be similarly regulated by histone acetylation. To test this hypothesis, we fed mature (~30d old) Majors ...


Reprogramming The Retina: Next Generation Strategies Of Retinal Neuroprotection And Gene Therapy Vector Potency Assessment, Devin Scott Mcdougald Jan 2018

Reprogramming The Retina: Next Generation Strategies Of Retinal Neuroprotection And Gene Therapy Vector Potency Assessment, Devin Scott Mcdougald

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Mutations within over 250 known genes are associated with inherited retinal degeneration. Clinical success following gene replacement therapy for Leber’s congenital amaurosis type 2 establishes a platform for the development of downstream treatments targeting other forms of inherited and acquired ocular disease. Unfortunately, several challenges relevant to complex disease pathology and limitations of current gene transfer technologies impede the development of gene replacement for each specific form of retinal degeneration. Here we describe gene augmentation strategies mediated by recombinant AAV vectors that impede retinal degeneration in pre-clinical models of acquired and inherited vision loss. We demonstrate distinct neuroprotective effects ...


Chromatin Remodeling Dynamics During Brown Adipogenesis, Suzanne Natalie Shapira Jan 2018

Chromatin Remodeling Dynamics During Brown Adipogenesis, Suzanne Natalie Shapira

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to expend energy through the action of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Increasing brown fat mass or activity through genetic or chemical manipulation in mice suppresses obesity and its comorbidities; as such, there is great interest in developing approaches to increase the amount and/or function of brown fat to combat metabolic disorders. My thesis work aimed to dissect the molecular mechanisms by which the helix- loop-helix transcription factor Early B-Cell Factor 2 (EBF2) regulates brown adipocyte commitment and terminal differentiation. Through analysis of tissue-specific knockout mouse models, we found that EBF2 is required ...