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Genetics

2010

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn Dec 2010

Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The four basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription factors, myogenin, Myf5, MRF4, and MyoD are critical for embryonic skeletal muscle development. Myogenin is necessary for the terminal differentiation of myoblasts into myofibers during embryogenesis, but little is known about the roles played by myogenin in adult skeletal muscle function and metabolism. Furthermore, while metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, how it is regulated at the transcriptional level remains poorly understood. In this study, my aim was to determine the function of myogenin in adult skeletal muscle metabolism, exercise capacity, and regeneration. To investigate this, I utilized a mouse strain harboring the Myogflox ...


Development Of A Genetic Modification System In Clostridium Scatologenes Atcc 25775 For Generation Of Mutants, Prasanna Tamarapu Parthasarathy Dec 2010

Development Of A Genetic Modification System In Clostridium Scatologenes Atcc 25775 For Generation Of Mutants, Prasanna Tamarapu Parthasarathy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

3-Methyl indole (3-MI) is a malodorant in food and animal waste and Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 is the model organism for the study of 3-MI production. 3-MI is an anaerobic degradation product of L-tryptophan and can cause pulmonary disorders and death in cattle and goats. To elucidate the 3-MI biosynthesis pathway and the underlying genes, it is necessary to develop a system to allow genetic modification in Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775. Bacteriophages and transposons are useful tools to achieve this goal. Isolation of Clostridium scatologenes ATCC 25775 bacteriophage was attempted by prophage induction and enrichments using environmental sources. To induce ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley Dec 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative intracellular pathogens that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Shigella relies on the precise transcriptional regulation of virulence genes, encoded by a large virulence plasmid, for invasion and infection of human colonic epithelial cells. The transcription of most identified virulence genes are regulated through a cascade controlled by the primary regulator of virulence genes, VirF, and the global transcriptional regulator, VirB. Currently, few studies have addressed how individual Shigella virulence genes are precisely regulated for optimal expression during specific stages of pathogenesis and within the constraints of the regulatory cascade. This work addresses how ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett Aug 2010

Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The spatiotemporal coordination of gene expression is a fundamental process in cellular biology. Gene expression is regulated, in large part, by sequence-specific transcription factors that bind to DNA regions in the proximity of each target gene. Transcription factor activity and specificity are, in turn, regulated post-translationally by protein-modifying enzymes. High-throughput methods exist to probe specific steps of this process, such as protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, but few computational tools exist to integrate this information in a principled, model-oriented manner. In this work, I develop several computational tools for studying the functional implications of transcription factor modification. I establish the first ...


Characterizing The Role Of Dna Repair Proteins In Telomere Length Regulation And Maintenance: Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein And 8-Oxoguanine Dna Glycosylase, David Beomjin Rhee Aug 2010

Characterizing The Role Of Dna Repair Proteins In Telomere Length Regulation And Maintenance: Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein And 8-Oxoguanine Dna Glycosylase, David Beomjin Rhee

Doctoral Dissertations

Telomeres are the chromosome end structures consisting of telomere-associated proteins and short tandem repeat sequences, TTAGGG, in humans and mice. Telomeres prevent chromosome termini from being recognized as broken DNA ends. The structural integrity of DNA including telomeres is constantly threatened by a variety of DNA damaging agents on a daily basis. To counteract the constant threats from DNA damage, organisms have developed a number of DNA repair pathways to ensure that the integrity of genome remains intact. A number of DNA repair proteins localize to telomeres and contribute to telomere maintenance; however, it is still unclear as to what ...


The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino Aug 2010

The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal model organism to test genetic and molecular biological mechanisms within the context of a living animal. For over one hundred years Drosophila continues to produce a boundless extent of informative and important scientific data providing crucial insight into development, disease progression and genetic interactions. A century as a model organism allowed for the development of an abundance of unique genetic and molecular tools allowing researchers to tease apart cellular mechanisms with very little limitation. From the whole adult body to tissue function to molecular networks, if a biological question arises it most likely can be ...


Inhibiting Mirna In Caenorhabditis Elegans Using A Potent And Selective Antisense Reagent, Genhua Zheng, Victor R. Ambros, Wen-Hong Li Apr 2010

Inhibiting Mirna In Caenorhabditis Elegans Using A Potent And Selective Antisense Reagent, Genhua Zheng, Victor R. Ambros, Wen-Hong Li

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Antisense reagents can serve as efficient and versatile tools for studying gene function by inhibiting nucleic acids in vivo. Antisense reagents have particular utility for the experimental manipulation of the activity of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are involved in the regulation of diverse developmental and physiological pathways in animals. Even in traditional genetic systems, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, antisense reagents can provide experimental strategies complementary to mutational approaches. Presently no antisense reagents are available for inhibiting miRNAs in the nematode C. elegans.

RESULTS: We have developed a new class of fluorescently labelled antisense reagents to inhibit miRNAs in ...


In The Tradition Of Science: An Interview With Victor Ambros, Victor R. Ambros Mar 2010

In The Tradition Of Science: An Interview With Victor Ambros, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis Jan 2010

Towards An Understanding Of The Etiology Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Identification Of Genes Implicated In Aaa Risk And Development, John Hunt Lillvis

Wayne State University Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease for which mechanisms of formation are still not well understood. Despite a strong genetic component to AAA risk, specific risk alleles are still largely unidentified. AAA is also a localized disease with a majority occurring in the infrarenal abdominal aorta and is six times more common than aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. To determine whether risk alleles are present in functional positional candidate genes. we: 1. performed a genetic association study using DNA from AAA cases and controls in ten candidate genes and 2. performed exon sequencing on three genes with evidence ...


Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller Jan 2010

Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy approaches delivering fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have shown promise as a potential treatment for increasing blood flow to ischemic limbs. Currently, effective noninvasive techniques to deliver plasmids encoding genes of therapeutic interest, such as FGF-2, are limited. We sought to determine if intradermal injection of plasmid DNA encoding FGF-2 (pFGF) followed by noninvasive cutaneous electroporation (pFGFE+) could increase blood flow and angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. pFGFE+ or control treatments were administered on postoperative day 0. Compared to injection of pFGF alone (pFGFE-), delivery of pFGFE+ significantly increased FGF-2 expression for 10 days. Further, the ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Sorting Of Drosophila Small Silencing Rnas Partitions Microrna* Strands Into The Rna Interference Pathway, Megha Ghildiyal, Jia Xu, Herve Seitz, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore Jan 2010

Sorting Of Drosophila Small Silencing Rnas Partitions Microrna* Strands Into The Rna Interference Pathway, Megha Ghildiyal, Jia Xu, Herve Seitz, Zhiping Weng, Phillip D. Zamore

GSBS Student Publications

In flies, small silencing RNAs are sorted between Argonaute1 (Ago1), the central protein component of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway, and Argonaute2 (Ago2), which mediates RNA interference. Extensive double-stranded character-as is found in small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)-directs duplexes into Ago2, whereas central mismatches, like those found in miRNA/miRNA* duplexes, direct duplexes into Ago1. Central to this sorting decision is the affinity of the small RNA duplex for the Dcr-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which loads small RNAs into Ago2. Here, we show that while most Drosophila miRNAs are bound to Ago1, miRNA* strands accumulate bound to Ago2. Like siRNA loading, efficient ...


Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel Jan 2010

Dissecting The Biosyntheses Of Gilvocarcins And Ravidomycins, Madan Kumar Kharel

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Gilvocarcin V (GV) and ravidomycin (RMV) exhibit excellent antitumor activities in the presence of near-UV light at low concentration maintaining a low in vivo cytotoxicity. Although, the exact molecular mechanism for in vivo actions of these antibiotics has yet to be determined, a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of the vinyl side chain with DNA thymidine residues in addition to the inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNAhistone H3 cross-linking are reported for the GV’s mechanism of action. Such activities have made these molecules interesting candidates for the biosynthetic investigation to generate analogues with improved activity/solubility. Previous biosynthetic studies have ...


Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson Jan 2010

Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson

Wayne State University Dissertations

The dominant paradigm for cancer research focuses on the identification of specific genes for cancer causation and for the discovery of therapeutic targets. Alternatively, the current data emphasize the significance of karyotype heterogeneity in cancer progression over specific gene-based causes of cancer. Variability of a magnitude significant to shift cell populations from homogeneous diploid cells to a mosaic of structural and numerical chromosome alterations reflects the characteristic low-fidelity genome transfer of cancer cell populations. This transition marks the departure from micro-evolutionary gene-level change to macro-evolutionary change that facilitates the generation of many unique karyotypes within a cell population. Considering cancer ...


Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor Jan 2010

Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor

Wayne State University Dissertations

Progression through meiosis occurs through a strict sequence of events, so that one round of DNA replication precedes programmed recombination and two nuclear divisions. Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for meiosis, and any disruption in its activity leads to meiotic defects. The Cdk1 inhibitor, Sic1, regulates the G1-S transition in the mitotic cell cycle and the analogous transition in meiosis. We have employed a form of Sic1, Sic1deltaPHA, that is mutated at multiple phosphorylation sites and resistant to degradation. Meiosis specific expression of Sic1deltaPHA disrupts Cdk1 activity and leads to significant accumulation of over replicated DNA ...