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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Sex Chromosome Ratios And Aneuploidy Rates In The Zona Pellucida Selected Spermatozoa From Normal And Subfertile Men, Qinuo Fan Van Dyk Oct 1997

Sex Chromosome Ratios And Aneuploidy Rates In The Zona Pellucida Selected Spermatozoa From Normal And Subfertile Men, Qinuo Fan Van Dyk

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The human hemizona has been demonstrated to select spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and the capacity to undergo the zona-induced acrosomal reaction. The studies conducted here are directed at using the human hemizona to investigate two key questions: (1) whether human X-chromosome bearing spermatozoa (X-sperm) and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa (Y-sperm) differ in their functional survival time (assessed by their capacity to bind to the human zona pellucida) after prolonged in vitro incubation, and (2) whether hemizona-bound spermatozoa have a reduced aneuploidy rate compared to unbound (and therefore, unselected) spermatozoa?

In the functional survival study, donor spermatozoa were held in ...


Ms2 Coat Protein Mutants Which Bind Qβ Rna, Marc Spingola, David S. Peabody Jul 1997

Ms2 Coat Protein Mutants Which Bind Qβ Rna, Marc Spingola, David S. Peabody

Marc Spingola

The coat proteins of the RNA phages MS2 and Qβ are structurally homologous, yet they specifically bind different RNA structures. In an effort to identify the basis of RNA binding specificity we sought to isolate mutants that convert MS2 coat protein to the RNA binding specificity of Qβ. A library of mutations was created which selectively substitutes amino acids within the RNA binding site. Genetic selection for the ability to repress translation from the Qβ translational operator led to the isolation of several MS2 mutants that acquired binding activity for Qβ RNA. Some of these also had reduced abilities to ...


Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis Of Human Embryos Derived From In Vitro And In Vivo Matured Oocytes, Constance Descisciolo Jul 1997

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis Of Human Embryos Derived From In Vitro And In Vivo Matured Oocytes, Constance Descisciolo

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Despite adequate hormonal stimulation, oocytes collected for the purpose of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer display several levels of nuclear maturity. Preovulatory or mature oocytes, technically those that are Metaphase I or II, are inseminated shortly after aspiration and assessed for fertilization the following day. Prophase I oocytes, also called germinal vesicle-bearing or immature oocytes, require a 24-36 hour period in culture before being exposed to spermatozoa. During this time, the majority of Prophase I oocytes complete nuclear maturation in vitro, progressing from germinal vesicle breakdown through first polar body extrusion. If inseminated, many in vitro matured oocytes fertilize ...


Oral Cancer Screening, Damon Omar Watson Jun 1997

Oral Cancer Screening, Damon Omar Watson

Honors Theses

Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx have increased throughout the decades. Since oral cancer represents a small percentage of the total cancers in the United States, it is often overlooked. Though this is the case, the results of this cancer can be devastating. To address this issue, an Oral Cancer Screening was organized on August 14, 1996 at the West Michigan Cancer Center in Kalamazoo. This was a joint collaboration between the author, the West Michigan Cancer Center, and the Kalamazoo Valley Dental Society. This event allowed research to take place concerning the data obtained. Confidential results and information ...


Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen Jan 1997

Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase (GA) is an enzyme involved in industrial corn starch processing. Genetic and biochemical approaches were used to study the mechanisms governing GA thermostability. Three proline substitution (Xaa → Pro) mutations were constructed that were predicted to increase the enzyme's stability by decreasing its conformational entropy of unfolding. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ser30 → Pro increased, Asp345 → Pro did not alter and Glu408 → Pro greatly decreased GA stability as measured by resistance to irreversible thermoinactivation relative to the wild-type enzyme. The Ser30 → Pro mutation was combined with other previously identified stabilizing mutations to examine whether combining such mutations ...


Identification Of Genes In Tn916 Encoding Membrane-Targeted Proteins, Suganda Loe Jan 1997

Identification Of Genes In Tn916 Encoding Membrane-Targeted Proteins, Suganda Loe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Tn916 is a 18 kb, broad-host range conjugative transposon originally isolated from Enterococcus faecalis. Transposon TnphoA was used to identify genes in Tn916 encoding for membrane-targeted proteins or for secretion. Sixty five independent PhoA+ gene fusions were isolated. These insertions clustered into two regions, open reading frames 13 and 15 (Flanagan et al., Plasmid 32:350-354). These TnphoA insertional mutations in resulted in a Tn+ (ability to transpose intracellularly) and Tra- (inability to transfer conjugatively) phenotype. The hydrophathy analysis of ORF13 and ORF15 revealed that these proteins lack the classical signal peptides necessary for protein export, suggesting that these two ...


Genetic Analysis Of Quantitative Trait Loci With Inbred And Hybrid Progeny Of Maize , David Frederick Austin Jan 1997

Genetic Analysis Of Quantitative Trait Loci With Inbred And Hybrid Progeny Of Maize , David Frederick Austin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The first objective of this study was to compare quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in two climatically diverse environments in a population of F6:7 lines of an elite maize (Zea mays L.) single-cross. The second objective was to detect QTL for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability effects in hybrid progeny of F2:3 and F6:8 lines from the same population. Evaluations of both inbred per se and hybrid progeny from the same population enabled comparisons between QTL controlling the two progeny types;The results from the F6:7 inbred progeny evaluations suggest that QTL detection can ...


Host Regulation Of The Replication Of The Yeast Retrotransposon Ty5 , Ning Ke Jan 1997

Host Regulation Of The Replication Of The Yeast Retrotransposon Ty5 , Ning Ke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The replication of retroelements may have deleterious effects on the hosts. Therefore, elements and their hosts have coevolved mechanisms to regulate retroelement replication. This regulation can occur at the transcriptional, translational, or post-translational levels as well as through targeted integration or cDNA recombination. I have studied host regulation of the Saccharomyces retrotransposon Ty5. I have found that Ty5 transcription is carefully controlled. Transcription of Ty5 is haploid specific and is repressed 10 fold in diploid strains. Ty5 transcription is also regulated by the pheromone response pathway, which is activated during mating. In addition, Ty5 transcription is regulated by flanking sequences ...


Suppressor Analysis Of The Protein Kinase Elm1p, An Enzyme Involved In The Regulation Of Yeast Morphology , Nicholas Patrick Edgington Jan 1997

Suppressor Analysis Of The Protein Kinase Elm1p, An Enzyme Involved In The Regulation Of Yeast Morphology , Nicholas Patrick Edgington

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ascomycete that has several developmental options, with concomitant morphological changes, that depend on cell type and nutrient status. In response to these signals, vegetative Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells assume one of two distinct morphologies, the yeast form or the filamentous form. Molecules affecting this morphogenetic response were identified by analyzing transposon-induced or spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore yeast form growth to a strain that constitutively exhibits filamentous form characteristics owing to mutation of the protein kinase Elm1p. One transposon-tagged mutation was isolated and is allelic to the negative regulatory subunit Bcy1p, thus activation of cAMP dependent protein ...


Cloning And Characterization Of A Soybean Snf2 Yeast Homolog , Weiping Chen Jan 1997

Cloning And Characterization Of A Soybean Snf2 Yeast Homolog , Weiping Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It is of great economic and scientific interest to understand plant disease resistance genes at the molecular level. Phytophthora sojae, a fungal pathogen of soybean is of particular interest since the root and stem rot resulting from its infection causes great economic loss. It is the goal of this project to clone Phytophthora resistance genes from soybean. This was done by designing primers from the conserved regions of known plant disease resistance genes using a modified differential display for near isogenic lines; L85-3044 a resistant line and Williams, a susceptible line. Several polymorphic bands were identified, including a unique 0 ...


Analyses Of A Genic Male-Sterile Mutant In Soybean , Wei Jin Jan 1997

Analyses Of A Genic Male-Sterile Mutant In Soybean , Wei Jin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new genic male-sterile mutant in soybean was characterized genetically, developmentally, and molecularly. This mutant is controlled by a single recessive gene, which is not allelic to six previously identified soybean genic male-sterile mutants: ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, or ms6. No linkage was detected between the male-sterile gene and flower color (W1 locus), or between the male-sterile gene and pubescence color (T1 locus). Developmental and enzymatic studies showed that sterility was caused by retention of the callose walls, which normally are degraded by callase ([beta]-1,3-glucanase) at the late tetrad stage. Molecular markers linked with the male-sterile gene ...