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Developmental Biology

2011

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Mlk3 Regulates Bone Development Downstream Of The Faciogenital Dysplasia Protein Fgd1 In Mice, Weiguo Zou, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Shashi Kant, Bo Zhai, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Steven P. Gygi, Roland Baron, Roger J. Davis, Dallas Jones, Laurie H. Glimcher Nov 2011

Mlk3 Regulates Bone Development Downstream Of The Faciogenital Dysplasia Protein Fgd1 In Mice, Weiguo Zou, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Shashi Kant, Bo Zhai, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Steven P. Gygi, Roland Baron, Roger J. Davis, Dallas Jones, Laurie H. Glimcher

Davis Lab Publications

Mutations in human FYVE, RhoGEF, and PH domain-containing 1 (FGD1) cause faciogenital dysplasia (FGDY; also known as Aarskog syndrome), an X-linked disorder that affects multiple skeletal structures. FGD1 encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that specifically activates the Rho GTPase CDC42. However, the mechanisms by which mutations in FGD1 affect skeletal development are unknown. Here, we describe what we believe to be a novel signaling pathway in osteoblasts initiated by FGD1 that involves the MAP3K mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3). We observed that MLK3 functions downstream of FGD1 to regulate ERK and p38 MAPK, which in turn phosphorylate and activate ...


Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker Oct 2011

Electrosensory Ampullary Organs Are Derived From Lateral Line Placodes In Bony Fishes, Melissa S. Modrell, William E. Benis, R. Glenn Northcutt, Marcus C. Davis, Clare V.H. Baker

Faculty Publications

Electroreception is an ancient subdivision of the lateral line sensory system, found in all major vertebrate groups (though lost in frogs, amniotes and most ray-finned fishes). Electroreception is mediated by 'hair cells' in ampullary organs, distributed in fields flanking lines of mechanosensory hair cell-containing neuromasts that detect local water movement. Neuromasts, and afferent neurons for both neuromasts and ampullary organs, develop from lateral line placodes. Although ampullary organs in the axolotl (a representative of the lobe-finned clade of bony fishes) are lateral line placode-derived, non-placodal origins have been proposed for electroreceptors in other taxa. Here we show morphological and molecular ...


A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones Oct 2011

A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones

Peter Jones Lab Publications

Mutations in MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) are linked to the severe postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder RTT (Rett syndrome). MeCP2 was originally characterized as a transcriptional repressor that preferentially bound methylated DNA; however, recent results indicate MeCP2 is a multifunctional protein. MeCP2 binding is now associated with certain expressed genes and involved in nuclear organization as well, indicating that its gene regulatory function is context-dependent. In addition, MeCP2 is proposed to regulate mRNA splicing and a mouse model for RTT shows aberrant mRNA splicing. To further understand MeCP2 and potential roles in RTT pathogenesis, we have employed a biochemical approach to identify ...


Tnf-Stimulated Map Kinase Activation Mediated By A Rho Family Gtpase Signaling Pathway, Shashi Kant, Wojciech Swat, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Benjamin G. Neel, Richard A. Flavell, Roger J. Davis Oct 2011

Tnf-Stimulated Map Kinase Activation Mediated By A Rho Family Gtpase Signaling Pathway, Shashi Kant, Wojciech Swat, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Benjamin G. Neel, Richard A. Flavell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The biological response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) involves activation of MAP kinases. Here we report a mechanism of MAP kinase activation by TNF that is mediated by the Rho GTPase family members Rac/Cdc42. This signaling pathway requires Src-dependent activation of the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor Vav, activation of Rac/Cdc42, and the engagement of the Rac/Cdc42 interaction site (CRIB motif) on mixed-lineage protein kinases (MLKs). We show that this pathway is essential for full MAP kinase activation during the response to TNF. Moreover, this MLK pathway contributes to inflammation in vivo.


Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra Aug 2011

Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra

Peter Jones Lab Publications

DNA methylation is a tightly regulated epigenetic mark associated with transcriptional repression. Next-generation sequencing of purified methylated DNA obtained from early Xenopus tropicalis embryos demonstrates that this genome is heavily methylated during blastula and gastrula stages. Although DNA methylation is largely absent from transcriptional start sites marked with histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), we find both promoters and gene bodies of active genes robustly methylated. In contrast, DNA methylation is absent in large H3K27me3 domains, indicating that these two repression pathways have different roles. Comparison with chromatin state maps of human ES cells reveals strong conservation of epigenetic makeup ...


Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley Aug 2011

Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Salmonids, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), are a staple economic, recreational, tribal, and environmental resource, yet many populations are unsustainable. This study was part of a broad scale effort to monitor the impact of downstream migration obstacles on juvenile salmonid health and survival, which is an essential step towards increasing Smolt-to-Adult Return ratios (SARs). The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibit differing quantities of alphaII-Spectrin Breakdown Products (SBDPs) over two consecutive spring migration periods, indicative of neurogenesis rate and/or biological response to head injury. AlphaII-Spectrin is ...


Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang Aug 2011

Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is second leading cause of death in the United States. Improving cancer care through patient care, research, education and prevention not only saves lives, but reduces health care cost as well. Breast cancer is the most leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer related death in women of the United States. 14-3-3s are a family of conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. They form complexes with hundreds of proteins by binding to specific phospho-serine/threonine containing motifs. In this way they regulate a variety of cellular processes and are involved in many human diseases especially cancer to ...


The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh May 2011

The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) is a cytokine that plays essential roles in regulating embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. In normal cells, TGF-b exerts an anti-proliferative effect. TGF-b inhibits cell growth by controlling a cytostatic program that includes activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15Ink4B and p21WAF1/Cip1 and repression of c-myc. In contrast to normal cells, many tumors are resistant to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b. In several types of tumors, particularly those of gastrointestinal origin, resistance to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b has been attributed to TGF-b receptor or Smad mutations. However, these mutations are absent from ...


Arctic Mustard Flower Color Polymorphism Controlled By Petal-Specific Downregulation At The Threshold Of The Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway, Cynthia A. Dick, Jason Buenrostro, Timothy Butler, Matthew L. Carlson, Daniel J. Kliebenstein, Justen B. Whittall Apr 2011

Arctic Mustard Flower Color Polymorphism Controlled By Petal-Specific Downregulation At The Threshold Of The Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway, Cynthia A. Dick, Jason Buenrostro, Timothy Butler, Matthew L. Carlson, Daniel J. Kliebenstein, Justen B. Whittall

Biology

Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s) of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread ...


Effect Of Life History On Microrna Expression During C. Elegans Development, Xantha Karp, Molly Hammell, Maria C. Ow, Victor R. Ambros Apr 2011

Effect Of Life History On Microrna Expression During C. Elegans Development, Xantha Karp, Molly Hammell, Maria C. Ow, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Animals have evolved mechanisms to ensure the robustness of developmental outcomes to changing environments. MicroRNA expression may contribute to developmental robustness because microRNAs are key post-transcriptional regulators of developmental gene expression and can affect the expression of multiple target genes. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model to study developmental responses to environmental conditions. In favorable environments, C. elegans larvae develop rapidly and continuously through four larval stages. In contrast, in unfavorable conditions, larval development may be interrupted at either of two diapause stages: The L1 diapause occurs when embryos hatch in the absence of food, and the dauer diapause occurs ...


The Role Of Jnk In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Madhumita Das, David S. Garlick, Dale Greiner, Roger J. Davis Mar 2011

The Role Of Jnk In The Development Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Madhumita Das, David S. Garlick, Dale Greiner, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway has been implicated in the growth of carcinogen-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism that accounts for JNK-regulated tumor growth is unclear. Here we demonstrate that compound deficiency of the two ubiquitously expressed JNK isoforms (JNK1 and JNK2) in hepatocytes does not prevent hepatocellular carcinoma development. Indeed, JNK deficiency in hepatocytes increased the tumor burden. In contrast, compound JNK deficiency in hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells reduced both hepatic inflammation and tumorigenesis. These data indicate that JNK plays a dual role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. JNK promotes an inflammatory hepatic ...


Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright Mar 2011

Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications

BACKGROUND: A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy.

RESULTS: We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of ...


Jnk Regulates Foxo-Dependent Autophagy In Neurons, Ping Xu, Madhumita Das, Judith Reilly, Roger J. Davis Feb 2011

Jnk Regulates Foxo-Dependent Autophagy In Neurons, Ping Xu, Madhumita Das, Judith Reilly, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in the regulation of neuronal function. JNK is encoded by three genes that play partially redundant roles. Here we report the creation of mice with targeted ablation of all three Jnk genes in neurons. Compound JNK-deficient neurons are dependent on autophagy for survival. This autophagic response is caused by FoxO-induced expression of Bnip3 that displaces the autophagic effector Beclin-1 from inactive Bcl-XL complexes. These data identify JNK as a potent negative regulator of FoxO-dependent autophagy in neurons.


Dynamic Glucoregulation And Mammalian-Like Responses To Metabolic And Developmental Disruption In Zebrafish, Agata Jurczyk, Nicole M. Roy, Rabia Bajwa, Philipp Gut, Kathryn Lipson, Chaoxing Yang, Laurence Covassin, Waldemar J. Racki, Aldo A. Rossini, Nancy Phillips, Didier Y. R. Stainier, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Rita Bortell, Philip Diiorio Jan 2011

Dynamic Glucoregulation And Mammalian-Like Responses To Metabolic And Developmental Disruption In Zebrafish, Agata Jurczyk, Nicole M. Roy, Rabia Bajwa, Philipp Gut, Kathryn Lipson, Chaoxing Yang, Laurence Covassin, Waldemar J. Racki, Aldo A. Rossini, Nancy Phillips, Didier Y. R. Stainier, Dale L. Greiner, Michael A. Brehm, Rita Bortell, Philip Diiorio

Biology Faculty Publications

Zebrafish embryos are emerging as models of glucose metabolism. However, patterns of endogenous glucose levels, and the role of the islet in glucoregulation, are unknown. We measured absolute glucose levels in zebrafish and mouse embryos, and demonstrate similar, dynamic glucose fluctuations in both species. Further, we show that chemical and genetic perturbations elicit mammalian-like glycemic responses in zebrafish embryos. We show that glucose is undetectable in early zebrafish and mouse embryos, but increases in parallel with pancreatic islet formation in both species. In zebrafish, increasing glucose is associated with activation of gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase1 (pck1) transcription. Non-hepatic Pck1 protein is ...


From Dna To Protein: A Study Of Genomic Instability Candidate Genes During Zebrafish Development, Kristine Griffett Jan 2011

From Dna To Protein: A Study Of Genomic Instability Candidate Genes During Zebrafish Development, Kristine Griffett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a type of freshwater minnow often used to model human diseases including cancer, anxiety and aging diseases. The overall biology of zebrafish is strikingly similar to that of humans, allowing these fish to be used for drug discovery and toxicology studies for preclinical trials. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used to identify and characterize several candidate genes within two known regions of genomic instability on chromosome 18 and chromosome 4. This fish that were used in this study had been previously classified as genomic instability (gin) mutants due to increased incidence of somatic mutation ...


Understanding The Origins, Dispersal, And Evolution Of Bonamia Species (Phylum Haplosporidia) Based On Genetic Analyses Of Ribosomal Rna Gene Regions, Kristina M. Hill Jan 2011

Understanding The Origins, Dispersal, And Evolution Of Bonamia Species (Phylum Haplosporidia) Based On Genetic Analyses Of Ribosomal Rna Gene Regions, Kristina M. Hill

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.