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Developmental Biology

University of Massachusetts Medical School

Development

Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin May 2019

Brown Fat Organogenesis And Maintenance Requires Akt1 And Akt2, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Camila Martinez Calejman, Su Myung Jung, Huawei Li, David A. Guertin

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is relevant to understanding energy homeostasis and obesity. The AKT kinases are insulin effectors with critical in vivo functions in adipocytes; however, their role in adipocyte development remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate AKT function in BAT development.

METHODS: We conditionally deleted Akt1 and Akt2 either individually or together with Myf5-Cre, which targets early mesenchymal precursors that give rise to brown adipocytes. Because Myf5-Cre also targets skeletal muscle and some white adipocyte lineages, comparisons were made between AKT function in BAT versus white ...


Ninjurin1 Positively Regulates Osteoclast Development By Enhancing The Survival Of Prefusion Osteoclasts, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Wook Shin, Taekwon Son, Hye Shin. Lee, Ji Soo Chae, Sejin Jeon, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyu-Won Kim Jan 2019

Ninjurin1 Positively Regulates Osteoclast Development By Enhancing The Survival Of Prefusion Osteoclasts, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Wook Shin, Taekwon Son, Hye Shin. Lee, Ji Soo Chae, Sejin Jeon, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyu-Won Kim

Open Access Articles

Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that originate from hematopoietic stem cells and develop through the fusion of mononuclear myeloid precursors. Dysregulation of OC development causes bone disorders such as osteopetrosis, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoclastogenesis have been well established, the means by which OCs maintain their survival during OC development remain unknown. We found that Ninjurin1 (Ninj1) expression is dynamically regulated during osteoclastogenesis and that Ninj1(-/-) mice exhibit increased trabecular bone volume owing to impaired OC development. Ninj1 deficiency did not alter OC differentiation, transmigration, fusion, or actin ring formation but increased Caspase-9-dependent intrinsic apoptosis ...


Kat-Independent Gene Regulation By Tip60 Promotes Esc Self-Renewal But Not Pluripotency, Diwash Acharya, Sarah J. Hainer, Yeonsoo Yoon, Feng Wang, Ingolf Bach, Jaime A. Rivera-Perez, Thomas G. Fazzio Apr 2017

Kat-Independent Gene Regulation By Tip60 Promotes Esc Self-Renewal But Not Pluripotency, Diwash Acharya, Sarah J. Hainer, Yeonsoo Yoon, Feng Wang, Ingolf Bach, Jaime A. Rivera-Perez, Thomas G. Fazzio

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Although histone-modifying enzymes are generally assumed to function in a manner dependent on their enzymatic activities, this assumption remains untested for many factors. Here, we show that the Tip60 (Kat5) lysine acetyltransferase (KAT), which is essential for embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pre-implantation development, performs these functions independently of its KAT activity. Unlike ESCs depleted of Tip60, KAT-deficient ESCs exhibited minimal alterations in gene expression, chromatin accessibility at Tip60 binding sites, and self-renewal, thus demonstrating a critical KAT-independent role of Tip60 in ESC maintenance. In contrast, KAT-deficient ESCs exhibited impaired differentiation into mesoderm and endoderm, demonstrating a KAT-dependent function ...


Effect Of Life History On Microrna Expression During C. Elegans Development, Xantha Karp, Molly Hammell, Maria C. Ow, Victor R. Ambros Apr 2011

Effect Of Life History On Microrna Expression During C. Elegans Development, Xantha Karp, Molly Hammell, Maria C. Ow, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Animals have evolved mechanisms to ensure the robustness of developmental outcomes to changing environments. MicroRNA expression may contribute to developmental robustness because microRNAs are key post-transcriptional regulators of developmental gene expression and can affect the expression of multiple target genes. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model to study developmental responses to environmental conditions. In favorable environments, C. elegans larvae develop rapidly and continuously through four larval stages. In contrast, in unfavorable conditions, larval development may be interrupted at either of two diapause stages: The L1 diapause occurs when embryos hatch in the absence of food, and the dauer diapause occurs ...