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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer Oct 2017

Regulation Of The Fgf/Erk Signaling Pathway: Roles In Zebrafish Gametogenesis And Embryogenesis, Jennifer M. Maurer

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signaling cascades, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, play vital roles in early vertebrate development. Signals through these pathways are initiated by a growth factor or hormone, are transduced through a kinase cascade, and result in the expression of specific downstream genes that promote cellular proliferation, growth, or differentiation. Tight regulation of these signals is provided by positive or negative modulators at varying levels in the pathway, and is required for proper development and function. Two members of the dual-specificity phosphatase (Dusp) family, dusp6 and dusp2, are believed to be negative regulators of the ERK pathway and are ...


Functions Of Argonaute Proteins In Self Versus Non-Self Recognition In The C. Elegans Germline: A Dissertation, Meetu Seth Aug 2016

Functions Of Argonaute Proteins In Self Versus Non-Self Recognition In The C. Elegans Germline: A Dissertation, Meetu Seth

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Organisms employ sophisticated mechanisms to silence foreign nucleic acid, such as viruses and transposons. Evidence exists for pathways that sense copy number, unpaired DNA, or aberrant RNA (e.g., dsRNA), but the mechanisms that distinguish “self” from “non-self” are not well understood. Our studies on transgene silencing in C. elegans have uncovered an RNA surveillance system in which the PIWI protein, PRG-1, uses a vast repertoire of piRNAs to recognize foreign transcripts and to initiate epigenetic silencing. Partial base pairing by piRNAs is sufficient to guide PRG-1 targeting. PRG-1 in turn recruits RdRP to synthesize perfectly matching antisense siRNAs (22G-RNAs ...


Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine Sep 2014

Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During each life cycle, gametes must preserve and pass on both genetic and epigenetic information, making the germline both immortal and totipotent. In the male germline the dramatic morphological transformation of a germ cell through meiosis, into a sperm competent for fertilization, while retaining this information is an incredible example of cellular differentiation. This process of spermatogenesis is inherently thermosensitive in numerous metazoa ranging from worms to man. Here, I describe the role of two redundant AGO-class paralogs, ALG-3/4, and their small RNA cofactors, in promoting thermotolerant male fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. alg-3/4 double mutants exhibit temperature dependent ...


Role Of Map4k4 In Skeletal Muscle Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mengxi Wang May 2013

Role Of Map4k4 In Skeletal Muscle Differentiation: A Dissertation, Mengxi Wang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Skeletal muscle is a complicated and heterogeneous striated muscle tissue that serves critical mechanical and metabolic functions in the organism. The process of generating skeletal muscle, myogenesis, is elaborately coordinated by members of the protein kinase family, which transmit diverse signals initiated by extracellular stimuli to myogenic transcriptional hierarchy in muscle cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including p38 MAPK, c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are components of serine/threonine protein kinase cascades that play important roles in skeletal muscle differentiation. The exploration of MAPK upstream kinases identified mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase ...