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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Control Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Differentiation By The Heterochronic Genes And The Cellular Asymmetry Machinery In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Omid F. Harandi, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Control Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Differentiation By The Heterochronic Genes And The Cellular Asymmetry Machinery In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Omid F. Harandi, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Transitions between asymmetric (self-renewing) and symmetric (proliferative) cell divisions are robustly regulated in the context of normal development and tissue homeostasis. To genetically assess the regulation of these transitions, we used the postembryonic epithelial stem (seam) cell lineages of Caenorhabditis elegans. In these lineages, the timing of these transitions is regulated by the evolutionarily conserved heterochronic pathway, whereas cell division asymmetry is conferred by a pathway consisting of Wnt (Wingless) pathway components, including posterior pharynx defect (POP-1)/TCF, APC related/adenomatosis polyposis coli (APR-1)/APC, and LIT-1/NLK (loss of intestine/Nemo-like kinase). Here we explore the genetic regulatory mechanisms ...


Developmental Decline In Neuronal Regeneration By The Progressive Change Of Two Intrinsic Timers, Yan Zou, Hui Chiu, Anna Zinovyeva, Victor Ambros, Chiou-Fen Chuang, Chieh Chang Oct 2015

Developmental Decline In Neuronal Regeneration By The Progressive Change Of Two Intrinsic Timers, Yan Zou, Hui Chiu, Anna Zinovyeva, Victor Ambros, Chiou-Fen Chuang, Chieh Chang

Victor R. Ambros

Like mammalian neurons, Caenorhabditis elegans neurons lose axon regeneration ability as they age, but it is not known why. Here, we report that let-7 contributes to a developmental decline in anterior ventral microtubule (AVM) axon regeneration. In older AVM axons, let-7 inhibits regeneration by down-regulating LIN-41, an important AVM axon regeneration-promoting factor. Whereas let-7 inhibits lin-41 expression in older neurons through the lin-41 3' untranslated region, lin-41 inhibits let-7 expression in younger neurons through Argonaute ALG-1. This reciprocal inhibition ensures that axon regeneration is inhibited only in older neurons. These findings show that a let-7-lin-41 regulatory circuit, which was previously ...


The Evolution Of Our Thinking About Micrornas, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

The Evolution Of Our Thinking About Micrornas, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Our appreciation of the significance of microRNAs to biology at large continues to be an evolving process.


The Developmental Timing Regulator Hbl-1 Modulates The Dauer Formation Decision In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

The Developmental Timing Regulator Hbl-1 Modulates The Dauer Formation Decision In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Animals developing in the wild encounter a range of environmental conditions, and so developmental mechanisms have evolved that can accommodate different environmental contingencies. Harsh environmental conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans larvae to arrest as stress-resistant "dauer" larvae after the second larval stage (L2), thereby indefinitely postponing L3 cell fates. HBL-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of L2 vs. L3 cell fate. Through the analysis of genetic interactions between mutations of hbl-1 and of genes encoding regulators of dauer larva formation, we find that hbl-1 can also modulate the dauer formation decision in a complex manner. We propose that dynamic interactions between ...


Micrornas And Developmental Timing, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas And Developmental Timing, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

MicroRNAs regulate temporal transitions in gene expression associated with cell fate progression and differentiation throughout animal development. Genetic analysis of developmental timing in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans identified two evolutionarily conserved microRNAs, lin-4/mir-125 and let-7, that regulate cell fate progression and differentiation in C. elegans cell lineages. MicroRNAs perform analogous developmental timing functions in other animals, including mammals. By regulating cell fate choices and transitions between pluripotency and differentiation, microRNAs help to orchestrate developmental events throughout the developing animal, and to play tissue homeostasis roles important for disease, including cancer.


Dauer Larva Quiescence Alters The Circuitry Of Microrna Pathways Regulating Cell Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Dauer Larva Quiescence Alters The Circuitry Of Microrna Pathways Regulating Cell Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

In C. elegans larvae, the execution of stage-specific developmental events is controlled by heterochronic genes, which include those encoding a set of transcription factors and the microRNAs that regulate the timing of their expression. Under adverse environmental conditions, developing larvae enter a stress-resistant, quiescent stage called 'dauer'. Dauer larvae are characterized by the arrest of all progenitor cell lineages at a stage equivalent to the end of the second larval stage (L2). If dauer larvae encounter conditions favorable for resumption of reproductive growth, they recover and complete development normally, indicating that post-dauer larvae possess mechanisms to accommodate an indefinite period ...


Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Why do many microRNA gene mutants display no evident phenotype? Multiply mutant worms that are selectively impaired in genetic regulatory network activities have been used to uncover previously unknown functions for numerous Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs.


Prb/Cki Pathways At The Interface Of Cell Cycle And Development, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Prb/Cki Pathways At The Interface Of Cell Cycle And Development, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Comment on: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, cki-1 and cki-2, act in overlapping but distinct pathways to control cell-cycle quiescence during C. elegans development. Buck SH, et al. Cell Cycle 2009; 8:2613-20.


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.