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Articles 1 - 30 of 191

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo Mar 2019

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Chemistry Publications

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


Limited Sequence Diversity Within A Population Supports Prebiotic Rna Reproduction, Ryo Mizuuchi, Niles Lehman Jan 2019

Limited Sequence Diversity Within A Population Supports Prebiotic Rna Reproduction, Ryo Mizuuchi, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

The origins of life require the emergence of informational polymers capable of reproduction. In the RNA world on the primordial Earth, reproducible RNA molecules would have arisen from a mixture of compositionally biased, poorly available, short RNA sequences in prebiotic environments. However, it remains unclear what level of sequence diversity within a small subset of population is required to initiate RNA reproduction by prebiotic mechanisms. Here, using a simulation for template-directed recombination and ligation, we explore the effect of sequence diversity in a given population for the onset of RNA reproduction. We show that RNA reproduction is improbable in low ...


Generating High-Order Optical And Spin Harmonics From Ferromagnetic Monolayers, G.P. Zhang, M.S. Si, M. Murakami, Y.H. Bai, Thomas F. George Nov 2018

Generating High-Order Optical And Spin Harmonics From Ferromagnetic Monolayers, G.P. Zhang, M.S. Si, M. Murakami, Y.H. Bai, Thomas F. George

Thomas George

High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in solids has entered a new phase of intensive research, with envisioned band-structure mapping on an ultrashort time scale. This partly benefits from a flurry of new HHG materials discovered, but so far has missed an important group. HHG in magnetic materials should have profound impact on future magnetic storage technology advances. Here we introduce and demonstrate HHG in ferromagnetic monolayers. We find that HHG carries spin information and sensitively depends on the relativistic spin–orbit coupling; and if they are dispersed into the crystal momentum k space, harmonics originating from real transitions can be k-resolved ...


Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee Nov 2018

Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Robbyn Anand

Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...


Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov Nov 2018

Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Phaeosphaeride A Derivatives As Antitumor Agents, Victoria Abzianidze, Petr Beltyukov, Sofya Zakharenkova, Natalia Moiseeva, Jennifer Mejia, Alvin Holder, Yuri Trishin, Alexander Berestetskiy, Victor Kuznetsov

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

New derivatives of phaeosphaeride A (PPA) were synthesized and characterized. Anti-tumor activity studies were carried out on the HCT-116, PC3, MCF-7, A549, К562, NCI-Н929, Jurkat, THP-1, RPMI8228 tumor cell lines, and on the HEF cell line. All of the compounds synthesized were found to have better efficacy than PPA towards the tumor cell lines mentioned. Compound 6 was potent against six cancer cell lines, HCT-116, PC-3, K562, NCI-H929, Jurkat, and RPMI8226, showing a 47, 13.5, 16, 4, 1.5, and 7-fold increase in anticancer activity comparative to those of etoposide, respectively. Compound 1 possessed selectivity toward the NCI-H929 cell ...


Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza Oct 2018

Adapting Cell-Free Protein Synthesis As A Platform Technology For Education, Grace W. Chu, Max Z. Levine, Nicole E. Gregorio, Javin P. Oza

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as an enabling biotechnology for research and biomanufacturing as it allows for the production of protein without the need for a living cell. Applications of CFPS include the construction of libraries for functional genomics and structural biology, the production of personalized medicine, and the expression of virus-like particles. The absence of a cell wall provides an open platform for direct manipulation of the reaction conditions and biological machinery. This project focuses on adapting the CFPS biotechnology to the classroom, making a hands-on bioengineering approach to learning protein synthesis accessible to students grades K-16 through ...


Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington Sep 2018

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes convert histone arginine residues into citrulline to modulate chromatin organization and gene expression. Although PADs are expressed in anterior pituitary gland cells, their functional role and expression in pituitary adenomas is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first examined normal human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas and found that PAD2, PAD4 and citrullinated histones are highest in prolactinomas and somatoprolactinomas. In the somatoprolactinoma-derived GH3 cell line, PADs citrullinate histone H3, which is attenuated by a pan-PAD inhibitor. RNA-sequencing and ChIP studies show that the expression of microRNAs let-7c-2, miR-23b and miR-29c is suppressed by histone ...


T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot Sep 2018

T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot

Schiffer Lab Publications

The delayed availability of vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic created a sense of urgency to better prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Advancements in manufacturing technology, speed and capacity have been achieved but vaccine effectiveness remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe a novel vaccine design strategy called immune engineering in the context of H7N9 influenza vaccine development. The approach combines immunoinformatic and structure modeling methods to promote protective antibody responses against H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) by engineering whole antigens to carry seasonal influenza HA memory CD4(+) T cell epitopes - without perturbing native antigen structure - by galvanizing HA-specific memory ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...


Advancing Professional Development Strategies For Chemistry And Biochemistry Undergraduates, Christian A. Brown Apr 2018

Advancing Professional Development Strategies For Chemistry And Biochemistry Undergraduates, Christian A. Brown

Senior Theses

In the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of South Carolina (the Department), most curriculum-driven professional development is reserved for third- and fourth-year students. Classroom learning occurs at all levels, but the context comes late. Early exposure to career options and hands-on training is imperative for undergraduates to obtain maximum experiential learning. The purpose of this project is to advance the current professional development strategies of the Department, specifically targeting second- and third-year students. The study surveyed students' current involvement in professional development activities. The data on extracurricular experience and post-graduation interest was used to design a workshop ...


The Oligomerization State Of Bacterial Enzyme I (Ei) Determines Ei's Allosteric Stimulation Or Competitive Inhibition By Α-Ketoglutarate, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti Feb 2018

The Oligomerization State Of Bacterial Enzyme I (Ei) Determines Ei's Allosteric Stimulation Or Competitive Inhibition By Α-Ketoglutarate, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Vincenzo Venditti

Chemistry Publications

The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a signal transduction pathway that couples phosphoryl transfer to active sugar transport across the cell membrane. The PTS is initiated by phosphorylation of enzyme I (EI) by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The EI phosphorylation state determines the phosphorylation states of all other PTS components and is thought to play a central role in the regulation of several metabolic pathways and to control the biology of bacterial cells at multiple levels, for example, affecting virulence and biofilm formation. Given the pivotal role of EI in bacterial metabolism, an improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling its activity could ...


Comparison Of Partially And Fully Chemically-Modified Sirna In Conjugate-Mediated Delivery In Vivo, Matthew R. Hassler, Anton A. Turanov, Julia F. Alterman, Reka A. Haraszti, Andrew H. Coles, Maire F. Osborn, Dimas Echeverria, Mehran Nikan, William E. Salomon, Loic Roux, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Sarah M. Davis, David V. Morrissey, Phillip D. Zamore, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Melissa J. Moore, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Feb 2018

Comparison Of Partially And Fully Chemically-Modified Sirna In Conjugate-Mediated Delivery In Vivo, Matthew R. Hassler, Anton A. Turanov, Julia F. Alterman, Reka A. Haraszti, Andrew H. Coles, Maire F. Osborn, Dimas Echeverria, Mehran Nikan, William E. Salomon, Loic Roux, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Sarah M. Davis, David V. Morrissey, Phillip D. Zamore, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Melissa J. Moore, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based drugs require chemical modifications or formulation to promote stability, minimize innate immunity, and enable delivery to target tissues. Partially modified siRNAs (up to 70% of the nucleotides) provide significant stabilization in vitro and are commercially available; thus are commonly used to evaluate efficacy of bio-conjugates for in vivo delivery. In contrast, most clinically-advanced non-formulated compounds, using conjugation as a delivery strategy, are fully chemically modified (100% of nucleotides). Here, we compare partially and fully chemically modified siRNAs in conjugate mediated delivery. We show that fully modified siRNAs are retained at 100x greater levels in various ...


Automated Nmr Resonance Assignments And Structure Determination Using A Minimal Set Of 4d Spectra, Thomas Evangelidis, Santrupti Nerli, Jiří Nováček, Andrew E. Brereton, P. Andrew Karplus, Rochelle R. Dotas, Vincenzo Venditti, Nikolaos G. Sgourakis, Konstantinos Tripsianes Jan 2018

Automated Nmr Resonance Assignments And Structure Determination Using A Minimal Set Of 4d Spectra, Thomas Evangelidis, Santrupti Nerli, Jiří Nováček, Andrew E. Brereton, P. Andrew Karplus, Rochelle R. Dotas, Vincenzo Venditti, Nikolaos G. Sgourakis, Konstantinos Tripsianes

Chemistry Publications

Automated methods for NMR structure determination of proteins are continuously becoming more robust. However, current methods addressing larger, more complex targets rely on analyzing 6–10 complementary spectra, suggesting the need for alternative approaches. Here, we describe 4D-CHAINS/autoNOE-Rosetta, a complete pipeline for NOE-driven structure determination of medium- to larger-sized proteins. The 4D-CHAINS algorithm analyzes two 4D spectra recorded using a single, fully protonated protein sample in an iterative ansatz where common NOEs between different spin systems supplement conventional through-bond connectivities to establish assignments of sidechain and backbone resonances at high levels of completeness and with a minimum error rate ...


Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro Jan 2018

Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro

Armacost Library Undergraduate Research Award (ALURA)

This study investigated recent discoveries of Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) in order to determine the current threat BaP poses to residents of Southern California. Literature reviews comprise the research done on BaP-induced health effects. Primary articles reviewed include “Adverse Effect of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Benzo(a)Pyrene and Protective Effect of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Learning and Memory Ability in Male

Sprague-Dawley Rat” by Xiao Liang (2014), and “Bioaccumulation and oxidative damage in juvenile scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]Pyrene, benzo[b]Fluoranthene and chrysene” by Meng Xiu (2014). These studies conclude that BaP potentially impairs memory and learning ...


The Molecular Basis Of Caspase-9 Inactivation By Pka And C-Abl Kinases, Banyuhay Paningbatan Serrano Jan 2018

The Molecular Basis Of Caspase-9 Inactivation By Pka And C-Abl Kinases, Banyuhay Paningbatan Serrano

Doctoral Dissertations

Caspases are the cysteine proteases that facilitate the fundamental pathway of programmed cell death or apoptosis. The activation and function of these powerful enzymes are tightly regulated to ensure the faithful execution of apoptosis and prevent untimely cell death. Many deadly human diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and autoimmune disorders have been associated with defective activation and faulty regulation of caspases. As such, caspases are considered as attractive drug targets, which when properly controlled, can lead to effective therapeutics for apoptosis-related diseases. Thus, comprehensive investigations of the structure, function and regulation of caspases are necessary to understand the complex mechanisms ...


Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco Dec 2017

Structural Determination Of The Broadly Reactive Anti-Ighv1-69 Anti-Idiotypic Antibody G6 And Its Idiotope, Yuval Avnir, Kristina L. Prachanronarong, Shurong Hou, Brendan J. Hilbert, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A. Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 ...


Differential Uptake Of Gold Nanoparticles By 2 Species Of Tadpole, The Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) And The Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus), Lucas B. Thompson, Gerardo L.F. Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J. Sitton, Taylor B. Bury, Laura L. Lee, Kevin T. Lerner, Peter P. Fong Aug 2017

Differential Uptake Of Gold Nanoparticles By 2 Species Of Tadpole, The Wood Frog (Lithobates Sylvaticus) And The Bullfrog (Lithobates Catesbeianus), Lucas B. Thompson, Gerardo L.F. Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J. Sitton, Taylor B. Bury, Laura L. Lee, Kevin T. Lerner, Peter P. Fong

Biology Faculty Publications

Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern that exert ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide–capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 d, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls. The rank order of weight-normalized gold uptake was wood frogs in combination > wood frogs alone > bullfrogs in ...


Biophysical And Computational Studies Of The Vcci:Vmip-Ii Complex, Anna Nguyen, Nai-Wei Kuo, Laura Showalter, Ricardo Ramos, Cynthia Dupureur, Michael Colvin, Patricia Liwang Aug 2017

Biophysical And Computational Studies Of The Vcci:Vmip-Ii Complex, Anna Nguyen, Nai-Wei Kuo, Laura Showalter, Ricardo Ramos, Cynthia Dupureur, Michael Colvin, Patricia Liwang

Cynthia Dupureur

Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the vCCI:vMIP-II complex and shows that vCCI binds ...


Mechanistic Insight Into Nanoparticle Surface Adsorption By Solution Nmr Spectroscopy In An Aqueous Gel, Timothy K. Egner, Pranjali Naik, Nicholas C. Nelson, Igor I. Slowing, Vincenzo Venditti Aug 2017

Mechanistic Insight Into Nanoparticle Surface Adsorption By Solution Nmr Spectroscopy In An Aqueous Gel, Timothy K. Egner, Pranjali Naik, Nicholas C. Nelson, Igor I. Slowing, Vincenzo Venditti

Chemistry Publications

Engineering nanoparticle (NP) functions at the molecular level requires a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes occurring at the NP surface. Herein we show that a combination of dark‐state exchange saturation transfer (DEST) and relaxation dispersion (RD) NMR experiments on gel‐stabilized NP samples enables the accurate determination of the kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption. We used the former approach to describe the interaction of cholic acid (CA) and phenol (PhOH) with ceria NPs with a diameter of approximately 200 nm. Whereas CA formed weak interactions with the NPs, PhOH was tightly bound to the NP surface. Interestingly, we ...


Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee Aug 2017

Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...


Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards Jul 2017

Real-Time Sensing Of Single-Ligand Delivery With Nanoaperture-Integrated Microfluidic Devices, W. Elliott Martin, Ning Ge, Bernadeta R. Srijanto, Emily Furnish, C. Patrick Collier, Christine A. Trinkle, Christopher I. Richards

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The measurement of biological events on the surface of live cells at the single-molecule level is complicated by several factors including high protein densities that are incompatible with single-molecule imaging, cellular autofluorescence, and protein mobility on the cell surface. Here, we fabricated a device composed of an array of nanoscale apertures coupled with a microfluidic delivery system to quantify single-ligand interactions with proteins on the cell surface. We cultured live cells directly on the device and isolated individual epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in the apertures while delivering fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor. We observed single ligands binding to EGFRs ...


Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton Jul 2017

Rational Drug Design Directed At Blocking The Initial Signaling Events In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis., Christopher A. Tipton

Theses

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is classified as an immune system response to an infectious state. If left untreated, SIRS leads to sepsis, septic shock, end-organ dysfunction, and death. As a patient progresses through these stages, associations of acute respiratory distress, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure persist, resulting in millions of deaths annually. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is released into the blood stream, triggering SIRS. LPS is found in the outer cell-wall of Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for initiation of a devastating cytokine storm. One of the regions of LPS, lipid A, is a polyacylated glucosamine ...


Discovery Of A Diaminopyrimidine Flt3 Inhibitor Active Against Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jamie A. Jarusiewicz, Jae Yoon Jeon, Michele C. Connelly, Yizhe Chen, Lei Yang, Sharyn D. Baker, R. Kiplin Guy May 2017

Discovery Of A Diaminopyrimidine Flt3 Inhibitor Active Against Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jamie A. Jarusiewicz, Jae Yoon Jeon, Michele C. Connelly, Yizhe Chen, Lei Yang, Sharyn D. Baker, R. Kiplin Guy

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Profiling of the kinase-binding capabilities of an aminopyrimidine analogue detected in a cellular screen of the St. Jude small-molecule collection led to the identification of a novel series of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitors. Structure–activity relationship studies led to the development of compounds exhibiting good potency against MV4-11 and MOLM13 acute myelogenous leukemia cells driven by FLT3, regardless of their FLT3 mutation status. In vitro pharmacological profiling demonstrated that compound 5e shows characteristics suitable for further preclinical development.


Towards Autonomous Microcystin Detection: Investigating Methods For Automation, Maureen Anne Schneider May 2017

Towards Autonomous Microcystin Detection: Investigating Methods For Automation, Maureen Anne Schneider

Theses and Dissertations

Due to increased anthropogenic activity, severe eutrophication is occurring in bodies of water around the world. Effects include decreased water quality, decreased value of surrounding land and recreational use (estimated loss in revenue of 0.67 and 3.96 U.S. billion dollars per year), and increased occurrence of toxin producing Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Microcystins are cyclic peptides made up of 7 amino acids and 800-1100 Daltons in size. They are one of the most predominantly produced of these toxins, and therefore was the focus of this study. Numerous structural variants of microcystin (referred to as congeners) exist, but ...


Characterization Of Active Site Residues In Class I Nitronate Monooxygenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pao1, Christopher Aguillon Apr 2017

Characterization Of Active Site Residues In Class I Nitronate Monooxygenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pao1, Christopher Aguillon

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


7Β-Hydroxy­Artemisinin, Paulo B. Carvalho, Bo Liu, Yunshan Wu, John S. Williamson, Mitchell A. Avery Apr 2017

7Β-Hydroxy­Artemisinin, Paulo B. Carvalho, Bo Liu, Yunshan Wu, John S. Williamson, Mitchell A. Avery

John S. Williamson

Crystals of the title compound [systematic name: (3R,6R,7S,8aR,9R,12aR)-7-hydr­oxy-3,6,9-trimethyl­octa­hydro-3,12-ep­oxy[1,2]dioxepino[4,3-i]isochromen-10(3H)-one], C15H22O6, were obtained from microbial transformation of artemisinin by a culture of Cunninghamella elegans. The stereochemistry of the compound is consistent with the spectroscopic findings in previously published works. A weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs in the crystal structure, together with intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.


Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry Mar 2017

Novel Cell Penetrating Peptide-Adaptors Effect Intracellular Delivery And Endosomal Escape Of Protein Cargos, John C. Salerno, Verra M. Ngwa, Scott J. Nowak, Carol A. Chrestensen, Allison N. Healey, Jonathan L. Mcmurry

Jonathan McMurry

The use of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as biomolecular delivery vehicles holds great promise for therapeutic and other applications, but development has been stymied by poor delivery and lack of endosomal escape. We have developed a CPP-adaptor system capable of efficient intracellular delivery and endosomal escape of user-defined protein cargos. The cell penetrating sequence of HIV transactivator of transcription was fused to calmodulin, which binds with subnanomolar affinity to proteins containing a calmodulin binding site. Our strategy has tremendous advantage over prior CPP technologies because it utilizes high affinity noncovalent, but reversible coupling between CPP and cargo. Three different cargo ...


Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei Feb 2017

Dual-Functional-Tag-Facilitated Protein Labeling And Immobilization, Xinyi Zhang, Wei Lu, Kevin Kwan, Dibakar Bhattacharyya, Yinan Wei

Chemistry Faculty Publications

An important strategy in the construction of biomimetic membranes and devices is to use natural proteins as the functional components for incorporation in a polymeric or nanocomposite matrix. Toward this goal, an important step is to immobilize proteins with high efficiency and precision without disrupting the protein function. Here, we developed a dual-functional tag containing histidine and the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA). AHA is metabolically incorporated into the protein, taking advantage of the Met-tRNA and Met-tRNA synthetase. Histidine in the tag can facilitate metal-affinity purification, whereas AHA can react with an alkyne-functionalized probe or surface via well-established click chemistry ...


Engineering Fret Biosensors For Microrna Presence/Absence Analysis, Nicholas E. Larkey, Sean M. Burrows Feb 2017

Engineering Fret Biosensors For Microrna Presence/Absence Analysis, Nicholas E. Larkey, Sean M. Burrows

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


Evolution Of Complex Target Selex To Identify Aptamers Against Mammalian Cell-Surface Antigens, Prabodhika R. Mallikaratchy Jan 2017

Evolution Of Complex Target Selex To Identify Aptamers Against Mammalian Cell-Surface Antigens, Prabodhika R. Mallikaratchy

Publications and Research

The demand has increased for sophisticated molecular tools with improved detection limits. Such molecules should be simple in structure, yet stable enough for clinical applications. Nucleic acid aptamers (NAAs) represent a class of molecules able to meet this demand. In particular, aptamers, a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of single-stranded modified/unmodified RNA/DNA molecules, can be evolved from a complex library using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) against almost any molecule. Since its introduction in 1990, in stages, SELEX technology has itself undergone several modifications, improving selection and broadening the repertoire of ...