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Settlement Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Larvae: Effects Of Substrate, Biofilms, Sediment And Adult Chemical Cues, Mario N. Tamburri, Mark W. Luckenbach, Denise L. Brietburg, Stephanie M. Bonniwell Jan 2008

Settlement Of Crassostrea Ariakensis Larvae: Effects Of Substrate, Biofilms, Sediment And Adult Chemical Cues, Mario N. Tamburri, Mark W. Luckenbach, Denise L. Brietburg, Stephanie M. Bonniwell

VIMS Articles

The Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) is being considered for introduction into the Chesapeake Bay. However, our current understanding of the biology and ecology of C. ariakensis is insufficient to predict whether an introduction will be successful, provide desired benefits, or have adverse impacts. Behavior of native Eastern oyster (C. virginica) pediveligers has been studied for many years and it is well established that they use a variety of habitat characteristics when selecting a site for colonization. Perhaps the most important of these are chemical cues emitted by adult conspecifics, which can lead to gregarious larval settlement and dense, persistent reef ...


Post-Settlement Survival And Growth Of The Suminoe Yster, Crassostrea Ariskensis, Exposed To Simulated Emersion Regimes, P.R. Kingsley-Smith, M.W. Luckenbach Jan 2008

Post-Settlement Survival And Growth Of The Suminoe Yster, Crassostrea Ariskensis, Exposed To Simulated Emersion Regimes, P.R. Kingsley-Smith, M.W. Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

In high salinity habitats along the Middle and South Atlantic coasts of the United States the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica occupies an intertidal refuge from predation, facilitated by its tolerance of aerial exposure and associated desiccation and temperature stress. Observations of the Suminoe oyster, C. ariakensis in its native environments in Asia reveal that this species is most commonly found subtidally or in the very low intertidal zone, suggesting that it may be less tolerant of aerial exposure. With serious consideration being given to introducing C. ariakensis to the mid-Atlantic region, it is important to understand the ability of this ...


Ecosystem Services Related To Oyster Restoration, Ld Coen, Rd Brumbaugh, D Bushek, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Et Al Jun 2007

Ecosystem Services Related To Oyster Restoration, Ld Coen, Rd Brumbaugh, D Bushek, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The importance of restoring filter-feeders, such as the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, to mitigate the effects of eutrophication (e.g. in Chesapeake Bay) is currently under debate. The argument that bivalve molluscs alone cannot control phytoplankton blooms and reduce hypoxia oversimplifies a more complex issue, namely that ecosystem engineering species make manifold contributions to ecosystem services. Although further discussion and research leading to a more complete understanding is required, oysters and other molluscs (e.g. mussels) in estuarine ecosystems provide services far beyond the mere top-down control of phytoplankton blooms, such as (1) seston filtration, (2) benthic–pelagic coupling, (3 ...


Effects Of Oyster Population Restoration Strategies On Phytoplankton Biomass In Chesapeake Bay: A Flexible Modeling Approach, Rs Fulford, Dl Brietburg, Rie Newell, Wm Kemp, Mw Luckenbach Apr 2007

Effects Of Oyster Population Restoration Strategies On Phytoplankton Biomass In Chesapeake Bay: A Flexible Modeling Approach, Rs Fulford, Dl Brietburg, Rie Newell, Wm Kemp, Mw Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

Cultural eutrophication in estuaries and other coastal systems has increased over the last 50 yr. Some recently proposed strategies to reverse this trend have included the restoration of bivalve suspension feeders as an ecological tool for reducing phytoplankton biomass. The ecological benefits accruing from such bivalve restoration will be dependent on the characteristics of the estuary, as well as how restoration is implemented. We developed a filtration model to estimate the effect of bivalve restoration on the rate of phytoplankton removal over a range of spatial and temporal scales and used it to compare alternate restoration strategies for the eastern ...


Taxonomic Composition And Growth Rates Of Phytoplankton Assemblages At The Subtropical Convergence East Of New Zealand, L Delizo, Wo Smith, J Hall Jan 2007

Taxonomic Composition And Growth Rates Of Phytoplankton Assemblages At The Subtropical Convergence East Of New Zealand, L Delizo, Wo Smith, J Hall

VIMS Articles

Off the eastern coast of New Zealand, warm, saline, nutrient-poor Subtropical Waters (STW) are separated from. cool, fresher, relatively nutrient-rich Sub-Antarctic Waters (SAW) by the Subtropical Convergence (STC). The Chatham Rise, a submarine rise, restricts. the latitudinal movement of the STC as well as mixing of STW and SAW Due to this restriction, this sector of the STC is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, macro-(nitrate, silicate and phosphate) and micro- (iron) nutrient concentrations. Shipboard incubations were conducted during austral spring 2000 and 2001 to test the hypothesis that these gradients affect the taxonomic composition and/or growth rates ...


Linking Water Quality To Living Resources In A Mid-Atlantic Lagoon System, Usa, Ce Wazniak, Mr Hall, Tjb Carruthers, B Sturgis, Wc Dennison, Rj Orth Jan 2007

Linking Water Quality To Living Resources In A Mid-Atlantic Lagoon System, Usa, Ce Wazniak, Mr Hall, Tjb Carruthers, B Sturgis, Wc Dennison, Rj Orth

VIMS Articles

The mid-Atlantic coastal bays are shallow coastal lagoons, separated from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier sand islands with oceanic exchanges restricted to narrow inlets. The relatively poor flushing of these lagoon systems makes them susceptible to eutrophication resulting from anthropogenic nutrient loadings. An intensive water quality and seagrass monitoring program was initiated to track ecological changes in the Maryland and Virginia coastal bays. The purpose of this study was to analyze existing monitoring data to determine status and trends in eutrophication and to determine any associations between water quality and living resources. Analysis of monitoring program data revealed several trends ...


Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Case Study Of A Highly Eutrophic Coastal Bay System, Mj Kennish, Sb Bricker, Wc Dennison, Pm Glibert, Rj Livingston, Ka Moore, Et Al. Jan 2007

Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Case Study Of A Highly Eutrophic Coastal Bay System, Mj Kennish, Sb Bricker, Wc Dennison, Pm Glibert, Rj Livingston, Ka Moore, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary is classified here as a highly eutrophic estuary based on application of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment model. Because it is shallow, poorly flushed, and bordered by highly developed watershed areas, the estuary is particularly susceptible to the effects of nutrient loading. Most of this load (similar to 50%) is from surface water inflow, but substantial fractions also originate from atmospheric deposition (similar to 39%), and direct groundwater discharges (similar to 11%). No point source inputs of nutrients exist in the Barnegat Bay watershed. Since 1980, all treated ...


Temporal And Vertical Dynamics In Picoplankton Photoheterotrophic Production In The Subtropical North Pacific Ocean, Matthew Church, Hugh Ducklow, Rm Letelier, David Karl Jan 2007

Temporal And Vertical Dynamics In Picoplankton Photoheterotrophic Production In The Subtropical North Pacific Ocean, Matthew Church, Hugh Ducklow, Rm Letelier, David Karl

VIMS Articles

The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the ...


Top-Down And Bottom-Up Controls On Sediment Organic Matter Composition In An Experimental Seagrass Ecosystem, Ac Spivak, Ea Canuel, Je Duffy, Jp Richardson Jan 2007

Top-Down And Bottom-Up Controls On Sediment Organic Matter Composition In An Experimental Seagrass Ecosystem, Ac Spivak, Ea Canuel, Je Duffy, Jp Richardson

VIMS Articles

We tested the singular and interactive effects of resource availability (light) and community composition (food chain length and herbivore species richness) on eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystem properties and functioning with an experimental mesocosm system. Food chain length was manipulated through the presence or absence of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) predators, whereas grazer species richness varied across three levels (zero, two, or four crustacean species). We found important and interacting effects of bottom-up and top-down forcings on sediment organic matter (SOM) composition. Light increased eelgrass and algal biomass and sediment organic carbon and nitrogen content. Increasing grazer diversity generally decreased algal ...


Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg, 1793) And Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen, Eugene Burreson Jan 1999

Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas (Thunberg, 1793) And Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen, Eugene Burreson

VIMS Articles

To evaluate and compare the performance of triploid juvenile C. gigas (mean shell height = 19.2 mm) and triploid juvenile Crassostrea virginica (mean shell height = 31.7 mm), 600 oysters of each species were deployed for 1 year in floating mesh cages at three replicate sites within low, medium, and high salinity regimes (respectively, <15%, 15-25%, > 25%) in the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Coast of Virginia. The comparative performance of the two oyster species varied with salinity. At low salinity sites, cumulative mortality of C. virginica (10%) was significantly (P < .05) lower than that of C. gigas (63%), and over-all mean growth rate of C. virginica (2.9 mm mo(-1)) was significantly (P < .05) higher than that of C. gigas (1.6 mm mo(-1)). At medium salinity sites, survival and growth rate of C. virginica and C. gigas were nor significantly (P > .05) different. Both species experienced moderately high cumulative mortality at the ...


A Review Of Introductions Of Exotic Oysters And Biological Planning For New Importations, Jay D. Andrews Jan 1980

A Review Of Introductions Of Exotic Oysters And Biological Planning For New Importations, Jay D. Andrews

VIMS Articles

Importation and transplantation of exotic oysters has probably resulted in the introduction into new areas of more marine invertebrate species than any other of man's activities. Unintentional introductions have resulted from careless movements of oysters without planning or consideration of consequences.


Cell Structure Of Shellfish Pathogens And Hyper-Parasites In The Genera Minchinia, Urosporidium, Haplosporidium, And Marteilia - Taxonomic Implications, Frank O. Perkins Jan 1979

Cell Structure Of Shellfish Pathogens And Hyper-Parasites In The Genera Minchinia, Urosporidium, Haplosporidium, And Marteilia - Taxonomic Implications, Frank O. Perkins

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Haplosporidian And Haplosporidian-Like Diseases Of Shellfish, Frank O. Perkins Jan 1979

Haplosporidian And Haplosporidian-Like Diseases Of Shellfish, Frank O. Perkins

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Dermocystidium-Marinum Infection In Oysters, Frank O. Perkins Jan 1976

Dermocystidium-Marinum Infection In Oysters, Frank O. Perkins

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Occurrence Of Hematopoietic Neoplasms In Virginia Oysters (Crassostrea-Virginica), Em Frierman Jan 1976

Occurrence Of Hematopoietic Neoplasms In Virginia Oysters (Crassostrea-Virginica), Em Frierman

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Oyster Mortality Studies In Virginia. Vii. Review Of Epizootiology And Origin Of Minchinia Nelson, Jay D. Andrews Jun 1968

Oyster Mortality Studies In Virginia. Vii. Review Of Epizootiology And Origin Of Minchinia Nelson, Jay D. Andrews

VIMS Articles

Intensive epizootics in Crassostrea virginica caused by Minchinia nelsoni (MSX) show no signs of abating in lower Chesapeake Bay. Prevalences of the pathogen have commonly exceeded 50% in susceptible stocks during the first year of exposure; mortalities of 50 to 70% occurred during the first year and slightly lower losses in succeeding years. Disease activity increased in isolated lots of oysters from 1963 to 1966 during a drought period with high salinities. Native and planted oysters were extremely scarce in the lower Chesapeake Bay hence density of populations appears not to be important for disease activity. Seasonal patterns of death ...


Studies On Oyster Scavengers And Their Relation To The Fungus Dermocystidium Marinum, Hinton D. Hoese Jan 1964

Studies On Oyster Scavengers And Their Relation To The Fungus Dermocystidium Marinum, Hinton D. Hoese

VIMS Articles

Dermocystidium marinum, a parasitic fungus of oysters, was demonstrated from the stomach of the snail, Urosalpinx cinerea, from the stomach, intestine, and body of three fishes, Gobiosoma bosci, Chasmodes bosquianus, and Opsanus tau, and from the body, especially setae, of two crabs, Neopanope texana and Rhithropanopeus harrisii. All animals containing D. marinum had scavenged oysters infected by the fungus. A few oysters became lightly infected when kept in aquaria with fishes that ·had been fed infected oyster tissue. In one tidal inlet of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, Eurypanopeus depressus was the most abundant scavenger, followed by Nassarius vibex, Gobiosoma bosci, and ...


Oyster Mortality Studies In Virginia: Ill. Epizootiology Of A Disease Caused By Haplosporidium Costale Wood And Andrews, Jay D. Andrews, Johon L. Wood, H. Dickson Hoese Jan 1962

Oyster Mortality Studies In Virginia: Ill. Epizootiology Of A Disease Caused By Haplosporidium Costale Wood And Andrews, Jay D. Andrews, Johon L. Wood, H. Dickson Hoese

VIMS Articles

A short, sharp eplzootic disease of oysters on Seaside of Eastern Shore, Virginia, has been associated with a new pathogen, Haplosporidium costale Wood and Andrews. Native oysters in trays have shown closely timed May-June losses for three consecutive years. Losses at other seasons were small. May-June losses ranged from 12 to 14 percent in 1959 to 36 to 44 percent in 1960. James River oysters moved to Seaside showed higher losses than natives after a year of acclimation. Oysters in Bayside creeks revealed late summer losses caused by Dermocystidimn marinmn Mackin, Owens, and Collier rather than May-June deaths.

The new ...


Some Effects Of High-Frequency X-Rays On The Oyster Drill Urosalpinx Cinerea, William J. Hargis Jr., Mary F. Arrighi, Robert W. Ramsey, R. Williams Jan 1957

Some Effects Of High-Frequency X-Rays On The Oyster Drill Urosalpinx Cinerea, William J. Hargis Jr., Mary F. Arrighi, Robert W. Ramsey, R. Williams

VIMS Articles

Scientists of ·the.Department of Agriculture (Bushland et al. 1955) recently announced the successful eradication of the screw-worm, Callitroga hominivorax, from the Dutch Island of Curacao. This was accomplished by releasing x-ray steralized males, which competed successfully with normal indigenous males for the females. After such matings the monogamous females deposited only sterile egg masses. Although several releases, Were necessary, eventually no fertile eggs Were detected at any of the.numerous observation points. Subsequent checks failed to reveal any live flies.

Because existing information concerning ecology and reproduction of drills appeared favorable, our group was encouraged to investigate this technique ...


The River Shrimp, Macrobrachium Ohione (Smith), In Virginia, Horton H. Hobbs, William H. Massman Jul 1952

The River Shrimp, Macrobrachium Ohione (Smith), In Virginia, Horton H. Hobbs, William H. Massman

VIMS Articles

The ''river shrimp" belonging to the genus Macrobrachium, which range in length from 34 to more than 230 mm., are not to be confused with the smalier "glass shrimp" belonging to the genus Palaemonetes, at least one species of which is a common form in the waters of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Virginia.