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Biological Sciences Peer-Reviewed Articles

2015

Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Overcoming Restoration Paradigms: Value Of The Historical Record And Metapopulation Dynamics In Native Oyster Restoration, Romauld N. Lipcius, Russell P. Burke, Danielle N. Mcculloch, Sebastian J. Schreiber, David M. Schulte, Rochelle D. Seitz, Jian Shen Sep 2015

Overcoming Restoration Paradigms: Value Of The Historical Record And Metapopulation Dynamics In Native Oyster Restoration, Romauld N. Lipcius, Russell P. Burke, Danielle N. Mcculloch, Sebastian J. Schreiber, David M. Schulte, Rochelle D. Seitz, Jian Shen

VIMS Articles

Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently ...


Trophic Cascades In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica: Revisited, David G. Ainley, Grant Ballard, Randolph M. Jones, Dennis Jongsomjit, Stephen D. Pierce, Walker O. Smith, Sam Veloz Aug 2015

Trophic Cascades In The Western Ross Sea, Antarctica: Revisited, David G. Ainley, Grant Ballard, Randolph M. Jones, Dennis Jongsomjit, Stephen D. Pierce, Walker O. Smith, Sam Veloz

VIMS Articles

We investigated mesopredator effects on prey availability in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, as - sessing the reasons why Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae foraging trip duration (FTD) increases and diet changes from krill to fish as numbers of foraging penguins and competing cetaceans increase in the penguins’ foraging area. To investigate penguins’ seasonally changing FTD as a function of foraging-population size—previously investigated indirectly—we used bio-logging to determine the penguins’ 3-dimensional foraging volume, while an autonomous glider quantified the depth, abundance, and distribution of potential prey. As numbers of foraging penguins and cetaceans increased, penguins spent more time on foraging trips ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2015

Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics During A Phytoplankton Bloom In The Ross Sea Polynya, By Queste, Kj Heywood, Wo Smith, De Kaufman, Td Jickells, Ms Dinniman Jan 2015

Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics During A Phytoplankton Bloom In The Ross Sea Polynya, By Queste, Kj Heywood, Wo Smith, De Kaufman, Td Jickells, Ms Dinniman

VIMS Articles

The Ross Sea polynya is one of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean. However, limited access and high spatio-temporal variability of physical and biological processes limit the use of conventional oceanographic methods to measure early season primary productivity. High-resolution observations from two Seagliders provide insights into the timing of a bloom in the southern Ross Sea polynya in December 2010. Changes in chlorophyll and oxygen concentrations are used to assess bloom dynamics. Using a ratio of dissolved oxygen to carbon, net primary production is estimated over the duration of the bloom showing a sensitive balance between net autotrophy ...


Visual Acuity In Pelagic Fishes And Mollusks (Vol 92, Pg 1, 2013), Yl Gagnon, Tt Sutton, S Johnsen Jan 2015

Visual Acuity In Pelagic Fishes And Mollusks (Vol 92, Pg 1, 2013), Yl Gagnon, Tt Sutton, S Johnsen

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Central Pacific Oceanographic Conditions On The Potential Vertical Habitat Of Four Tropical Tuna Species, Al Deary, S Moret-Ferguson, M Engels, E Zettler, G Jaroslow Jan 2015

Influence Of Central Pacific Oceanographic Conditions On The Potential Vertical Habitat Of Four Tropical Tuna Species, Al Deary, S Moret-Ferguson, M Engels, E Zettler, G Jaroslow

VIMS Articles

Climate change has resulted in the geographic and vertical expansion of oxygen minimum zones but their impact on the vertical distribution of commercially important species, such as tunas, is not well understood. Although La Nina events are characterized by increased upwelling along the equator, the increased primary productivity and bacterial proliferation drive the expansion of oxygen minimum zones. Vertical habitat of four tropical tuna species were characterized using direct observations of the oceanographic conditions of the Central Pacific Ocean during the 2008 La Nina event and existing primary literature on temperature and dissolved oxygen physiological tolerances for these tunas. Concentrations ...


Copepod Carcasses As Microbial Hot Spots For Pelagic Denitrification, Rn Glud, Hp Grossart, M Larsen, Kw Tang, Ke Arendt, Et Al. Jan 2015

Copepod Carcasses As Microbial Hot Spots For Pelagic Denitrification, Rn Glud, Hp Grossart, M Larsen, Kw Tang, Ke Arendt, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Copepods are exposed to a high non-predatory mortality and their decomposing carcasses act as microniches with intensified microbial activity. Sinking carcasses could thereby represent anoxic microenvironment sustaining anaerobic microbial pathways in otherwise oxic water columns. Using non-invasive O-2 imaging, we document that carcasses of Calanus finmarchicus had an anoxic interior even at fully air-saturated ambient O-2 level. The extent of anoxia gradually expanded with decreasing ambient O-2 levels. Concurrent microbial sampling showed the expression of nitrite reductase genes (nirS) in all investigated carcass samples and thereby documented the potential for microbial denitrification in carcasses. The nirS gene was occasionally expressed ...


Genetic And Biogeochemical Investigation Of Sedimentary Nitrogen Cycling Communities Responding To Tidal And Seasonal Dynamics In Cape Fear River Estuary, Ja Lisa, B Song, Cr Tobias, De Hines Jan 2015

Genetic And Biogeochemical Investigation Of Sedimentary Nitrogen Cycling Communities Responding To Tidal And Seasonal Dynamics In Cape Fear River Estuary, Ja Lisa, B Song, Cr Tobias, De Hines

VIMS Articles

Tidal and seasonal fluctuations in the oligohaline reaches of estuaries may alter geochemical features that influence structure and function of microbial communities involved in sedimentary nitrogen (N) cycling. In order to evaluate sediment community responses to short-term (tidal) and long-term (seasonal) changes in different tidal regimes, nitrogen cycling rates and genes were quantified in three sites that span a range of tidal influence in the upper portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary. Environmental parameters were monitored during low and high tides in winter and spring. N-15 tracer incubation experiments were conducted to measure nitrification, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox ...


Properties Of Age Compositions And Mortality Estimates Derived From Cohort Slicing Of Length Data, Le Ailloud, Mw Smith, Ay Then, Kl Omori, Gm Ralph, Jm Hoenig Jan 2015

Properties Of Age Compositions And Mortality Estimates Derived From Cohort Slicing Of Length Data, Le Ailloud, Mw Smith, Ay Then, Kl Omori, Gm Ralph, Jm Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Cohort slicing can be used to obtain catch-at-age data from length frequency distributions when directly measured age data are unavailable. The procedure systematically underestimates the relative abundance of the youngest age groups and overestimates abundance at older ages. Cohort-sliced catch-at-age data can be used to estimate total mortality rate (Z) using a regression estimator or the Chapman-Robson estimator for right truncated data. However, the effect of cohort slicing on accuracy and precision of resulting Z estimates remains to be determined. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the per cent bias and per cent root mean square error of the ...


Evaluating The Predictive Performance Of Empirical Estimators Of Natural Mortality Rate Using Information On Over 200 Fish Species, Ay Then, Jm Hoenig, Ng Hall, Da Hewitt Jan 2015

Evaluating The Predictive Performance Of Empirical Estimators Of Natural Mortality Rate Using Information On Over 200 Fish Species, Ay Then, Jm Hoenig, Ng Hall, Da Hewitt

VIMS Articles

Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date ...


Detection And Diversity Of Copper Containing Nitrite Reductase Genes (Nirk) In Prokaryotic And Fungal Communities Of Agricultural Soils, A Long, B Song, K Fridey, A Silva Jan 2015

Detection And Diversity Of Copper Containing Nitrite Reductase Genes (Nirk) In Prokaryotic And Fungal Communities Of Agricultural Soils, A Long, B Song, K Fridey, A Silva

VIMS Articles

Microorganisms are capable of producing N-2 and N2O gases as the end products of denitrification. Copper-containing nitrite reductase (NirK), a key enzyme in the microbial N-cycle, has been found in bacteria, archaea and fungi. This study seeks to assess the diversity of nirK genes in the prokaryotic and fungal communities of agricultural soils in the United States. New primers targeting the nirK genes in fungi were developed, while nirK genes in archaea and bacteria were detected using previously published methods. The new primers were able to detect fungal nirK genes as well as bacterial nirK genes from a group that ...


Reproductive Skew Drives Patterns Of Sexual Dimorphism In Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimps, Stc Chak, Je Duffy, Dr Rubenstein Jan 2015

Reproductive Skew Drives Patterns Of Sexual Dimorphism In Sponge-Dwelling Snapping Shrimps, Stc Chak, Je Duffy, Dr Rubenstein

VIMS Articles

Sexual dimorphism is typically a result of strong sexual selection on male traits used in male male competition and subsequent female choice. However, in social species where reproduction is monopolized by one or a few individuals in a group, selection on secondary sexual characteristics may be strong in both sexes. Indeed, sexual dimorphism is reduced in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates and eusocial insects with totipotent workers, presumably because of increased selection on female traits. Here, we examined the relationship between sexual dimorphism and sociality in eight species of Synalpheus snapping shrimps that vary in social structure and degree of reproductive ...


Biodiversity Mediates Top-Down Control In Eelgrass Ecosystems: A Global Comparative-Experimental Approach, Je Duffy, Pl Reynolds, C Bostrom, Ja Coyer, M Cusson, Et Al. Jan 2015

Biodiversity Mediates Top-Down Control In Eelgrass Ecosystems: A Global Comparative-Experimental Approach, Je Duffy, Pl Reynolds, C Bostrom, Ja Coyer, M Cusson, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Nutrient pollution and reduced grazing each can stimulate algal blooms as shown by numerous experiments. But because experiments rarely incorporate natural variation in environmental factors and biodiversity, conditions determining the relative strength of bottom-up and top-down forcing remain unresolved. We factorially added nutrients and reduced grazing at 15 sites across the range of the marine foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) to quantify how top-down and bottom-up control interact with natural gradients in biodiversity and environmental forcing. Experiments confirmed modest top-down control of algae, whereas fertilisation had no general effect. Unexpectedly, grazer and algal biomass were better predicted by cross-site variation ...


Marine Biodiversity And Ecosystem Functioning: What's Known And What's Next?, L Gamfeldt, Js Lefcheck, Jek Byrnes, Bj Cardinale, Je Duffy Jan 2015

Marine Biodiversity And Ecosystem Functioning: What's Known And What's Next?, L Gamfeldt, Js Lefcheck, Jek Byrnes, Bj Cardinale, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

Marine ecosystems are experiencing rapid and pervasive changes in biodiversity and species composition. Understanding the ecosystem consequences of these changes is critical to effectively managing these systems. Over the last several years, numerous experimental manipulations of species richness have been performed, yet existing quantitative syntheses have focused on a just a subset of processes measured in experiments and, as such, have not summarized the full data available from marine systems. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of 110 marine experiments from 42 studies that manipulated the species richness of organisms across a range of taxa and trophic levels ...


Mapping Diversity Indices: Not A Trivial Issue, V Granger, N Bez, Jm Fromentin, C Meynard, A Jadaud Jan 2015

Mapping Diversity Indices: Not A Trivial Issue, V Granger, N Bez, Jm Fromentin, C Meynard, A Jadaud

VIMS Articles

Mapping diversity indices, that is estimating values in all locations of a given area from some sampled locations, is central to numerous research and applied fields in ecology. Two approaches are used to map diversity indices without including abiotic or biotic variables: (i) the indirect approach, which consists in estimating each individual species distribution over the area, then stacking the distributions of all species to estimate and map a posteriori the diversity index, (ii) the direct approach, which relies on computing a diversity index in each sampled locations and then to interpolate these values to all locations of the studied ...


Projected Impacts Of Climate Warming On The Functional And Phylogenetic Components Of Coastal Mediterranean Fish Biodiversity, C Albouy, F Leprieur, F Le Loc'h, N Mouquet, Cn Meynard, Et Al. Jan 2015

Projected Impacts Of Climate Warming On The Functional And Phylogenetic Components Of Coastal Mediterranean Fish Biodiversity, C Albouy, F Leprieur, F Le Loc'h, N Mouquet, Cn Meynard, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Climate warming affects biodiversity distribution across all ecosystems. However, beyond changes in species richness, impacts on other biodiversity components are still overlooked, particularly in the marine realm. Here we forecasted the potential effect of climate warming on the phylogenetic and functional components of coastal Mediterranean fish biodiversity. To do so, we used species distribution models to project the potential distribution of 230 coastal fish species by the end of the 21st century based on the IPCC A2 scenario implemented with the Mediterranean climatic model NEMOMED8. From these projections, we assessed the changes in phylogenetic (PD) and functional diversity (FD) of ...


Vertical Mixing, Critical Depths, And Phytoplankton Growth In The Ross Sea, Wo Smith, Rm Jones Jan 2015

Vertical Mixing, Critical Depths, And Phytoplankton Growth In The Ross Sea, Wo Smith, Rm Jones

VIMS Articles

Phytoplankton growth and biomass accumulation vary spatially and temporally in the Ross Sea, largely as a function of ice concentrations, vertical mixing depths, and iron concentrations. To assess the role of vertical mixing in bloom initiation, we used a high-resolution numerical model to estimate changes in mixed layer depths from October 1 through early December, the period where phytoplankton growth begins and biomass accumulates, and estimate critical depths for this period. Mixed layers in October ranged from the complete water column (>600 m) to ca. 200 m; over a 60-day period, the mixed layers decreased on average by 70%. Estimated ...