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Biological Sciences Peer-Reviewed Articles

2011

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Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2011

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Diet Selectivity Of Juvenile Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) In Chesapeake Bay, Rd Seitz, Ke Knick, M Westphal Jan 2011

Diet Selectivity Of Juvenile Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) In Chesapeake Bay, Rd Seitz, Ke Knick, M Westphal

VIMS Articles

Shallow coves in Chesapeake Bay have abundant food and serve as nursery grounds for juvenile blue crabs. In this study, we examined the relationships between the diet of very small (4-40 mm CW) juvenile blue crabs and the benthic infauna in shallow, unvegetated nursery coves. We compared infauna in benthic samples with gut contents of juvenile blue crabs from six shallow coves in each of two sub-estuaries (Rappahannock and York Rivers) in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, USA. Benthic communities differed depending on river and location, with abundant clams in upriver regions and abundant polychaetes in downriver regions. Juvenile crabs, like adults ...


Non-Consumptive Predator Effects Indirectly Influence Marine Plant Biomass And Palatability, Pl Reynolds, Ee Sotka Jan 2011

Non-Consumptive Predator Effects Indirectly Influence Marine Plant Biomass And Palatability, Pl Reynolds, Ee Sotka

VIMS Articles

1. Predators can reduce herbivory and increase plant biomass by consuming herbivores, lowering individual herbivore feeding rates, or both. We tested whether the presence of predators increases plant quality by non-consumptively reducing grazing pressure and thereby weakening the strength of the induced response in plant chemical defences. 2. We performed a 42-day outdoor mesocosm experiment in which the herbivorous amphipod Ampithoe longimana was cultured on the brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula in the presence and absence of olfactory cues of its principal fish predator, the pinfish Lagodon rhomboides. The presence of fish cues reduced per capita rates of amphipod grazing by ...


Linked Indicator Sets For Addressing Biodiversity Loss, Th Sparks, Shm Butchart, A Balmford, L Bennun, D Stanwell-Smith, Rj Diaz, Et Al. Jan 2011

Linked Indicator Sets For Addressing Biodiversity Loss, Th Sparks, Shm Butchart, A Balmford, L Bennun, D Stanwell-Smith, Rj Diaz, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and ...


Food Chain Length And Omnivory Determine The Stability Of A Marine Subtidal Food Web, Zt Long, Jf Bruno, Je Duffy Jan 2011

Food Chain Length And Omnivory Determine The Stability Of A Marine Subtidal Food Web, Zt Long, Jf Bruno, Je Duffy

VIMS Articles

P>1. Using a subtidal marine food web as a model system, we examined how food chain length (predators present or absent) and the prevalence of omnivory influenced temporal stability (and its components) of herbivores and plants. We held the density of top predators constant but manipulated their identity to generate a gradient in omnivory prevalence. 2. We measured temporal stability as the inverse of the coefficient of variation of abundance over time. Predators and omnivory could influence temporal stability through effects on abundance (the 'abundance' effect), summed variance across taxa (the 'portfolio effect') or summed covariances among taxa (the ...


Population Structure Of A Deep-Water Squaloid Shark, The Portuguese Dogfish (Centroscymnus Coelolepis), A Verissimo, Jr Mcdowell, Je Graves Jan 2011

Population Structure Of A Deep-Water Squaloid Shark, The Portuguese Dogfish (Centroscymnus Coelolepis), A Verissimo, Jr Mcdowell, Je Graves

VIMS Articles

The genetic population structure of the deep-water squaloid Centroscymnus coelolepis (the Portuguese dogfish) in the eastern Atlantic was investigated using eight polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers and a 496-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR). Samples (20-50 individuals per location) were collected off Ireland, Portugal, Madeira, Mauritania, South Africa, and the Azores (Mid-Atlantic Ridge). High levels of genetic diversity were found at the nuclear microsatellite loci (mean A = 17.3; overall H(o) = 0.77), although there was low diversity at the mtDNA CR (h = 0.65, pi = 0 0.0018). Genetic diversity for the Portuguese dogfish was ...


The Role Of Nitrogen On The Growth And Colony Development Of Phaeocystis Globosa (Prymnesiophyceae), Xd Wang, Y Wang, Wo Smith Jan 2011

The Role Of Nitrogen On The Growth And Colony Development Of Phaeocystis Globosa (Prymnesiophyceae), Xd Wang, Y Wang, Wo Smith

VIMS Articles

The effects of nitrate, ammonium and urea on the growth and colony formation of three strains of Phaeocystis globosa were investigated. Although ammonium and urea supported growth, nitrate was the favoured nitrogen source for the growth of solitary cells for all three strains. Phaeocystis globosa CCMP 1528 and 629 formed colonies in all cultures where nitrate was the sole nitrogen source, but only a few colonies were observed in ammonium and urea treatments. Ammonium and urea were far less effective in supporting growth, biomass generation and colony formation in all three strains. Once colonies developed, colonial cells accounted for at ...


Copepod Guts As Biogeochemical Hotspots In The Sea: Evidence From Microelectrode Profiling Of Calanus Spp., Kw Tang, Rn Glud, A Glud, S Rysgaard, Tg Nielsen Jan 2011

Copepod Guts As Biogeochemical Hotspots In The Sea: Evidence From Microelectrode Profiling Of Calanus Spp., Kw Tang, Rn Glud, A Glud, S Rysgaard, Tg Nielsen

VIMS Articles

The environmental conditions inside the gut of Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis were measured with microelectrodes. An acidic potential hydrogen (pH) gradient was present in the gut of C. hyperboreus, and the lowest pH recorded was 5.40. The gut pH of a starved copepod decreased by 0.53 after the copepod resumed feeding for a few hours, indicating the secretion of acidic digestive fluid. A copepod feeding on Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) had slightly lower pH than that feeding on Rhodomonas salina (cryptophyte). Oxygen was undersaturated in the gut of both C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, with a steep gradient ...


A General Equilibrium Model For Atlantic Herring (Clupea Harengus) With Ecosystem Considerations, Je Kirkley, J Walden, R Fare Jan 2011

A General Equilibrium Model For Atlantic Herring (Clupea Harengus) With Ecosystem Considerations, Je Kirkley, J Walden, R Fare

VIMS Articles

A framework is presented for assessing the economic ramifications of ecosystem-based management decisions, with attention focused on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in New England. The Atlantic herring has often been referred to as the most important fish in the northeastern United States because it is a filter-feeder, is believed to improve water quality, and is very important to the health, growth, and abundance of major gamefish, marine mammals, seabirds, and several species of fish. Although many approaches for examining the potential economic ramifications of ecosystem-based management are possible, attention is focused on one method that can be used given existing ...