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Biological Sciences Peer-Reviewed Articles

2007

Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Ecosystem Services Related To Oyster Restoration, Ld Coen, Rd Brumbaugh, D Bushek, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Et Al Jun 2007

Ecosystem Services Related To Oyster Restoration, Ld Coen, Rd Brumbaugh, D Bushek, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The importance of restoring filter-feeders, such as the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, to mitigate the effects of eutrophication (e.g. in Chesapeake Bay) is currently under debate. The argument that bivalve molluscs alone cannot control phytoplankton blooms and reduce hypoxia oversimplifies a more complex issue, namely that ecosystem engineering species make manifold contributions to ecosystem services. Although further discussion and research leading to a more complete understanding is required, oysters and other molluscs (e.g. mussels) in estuarine ecosystems provide services far beyond the mere top-down control of phytoplankton blooms, such as (1) seston filtration, (2) benthic–pelagic coupling, (3 ...


Effects Of Oyster Population Restoration Strategies On Phytoplankton Biomass In Chesapeake Bay: A Flexible Modeling Approach, Rs Fulford, Dl Brietburg, Rie Newell, Wm Kemp, Mw Luckenbach Apr 2007

Effects Of Oyster Population Restoration Strategies On Phytoplankton Biomass In Chesapeake Bay: A Flexible Modeling Approach, Rs Fulford, Dl Brietburg, Rie Newell, Wm Kemp, Mw Luckenbach

VIMS Articles

Cultural eutrophication in estuaries and other coastal systems has increased over the last 50 yr. Some recently proposed strategies to reverse this trend have included the restoration of bivalve suspension feeders as an ecological tool for reducing phytoplankton biomass. The ecological benefits accruing from such bivalve restoration will be dependent on the characteristics of the estuary, as well as how restoration is implemented. We developed a filtration model to estimate the effect of bivalve restoration on the rate of phytoplankton removal over a range of spatial and temporal scales and used it to compare alternate restoration strategies for the eastern ...


Top-Down And Bottom-Up Controls On Sediment Organic Matter Composition In An Experimental Seagrass Ecosystem, Ac Spivak, Ea Canuel, Je Duffy, Jp Richardson Jan 2007

Top-Down And Bottom-Up Controls On Sediment Organic Matter Composition In An Experimental Seagrass Ecosystem, Ac Spivak, Ea Canuel, Je Duffy, Jp Richardson

VIMS Articles

We tested the singular and interactive effects of resource availability (light) and community composition (food chain length and herbivore species richness) on eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystem properties and functioning with an experimental mesocosm system. Food chain length was manipulated through the presence or absence of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) predators, whereas grazer species richness varied across three levels (zero, two, or four crustacean species). We found important and interacting effects of bottom-up and top-down forcings on sediment organic matter (SOM) composition. Light increased eelgrass and algal biomass and sediment organic carbon and nitrogen content. Increasing grazer diversity generally decreased algal ...


Taxonomic Composition And Growth Rates Of Phytoplankton Assemblages At The Subtropical Convergence East Of New Zealand, L Delizo, Wo Smith, J Hall Jan 2007

Taxonomic Composition And Growth Rates Of Phytoplankton Assemblages At The Subtropical Convergence East Of New Zealand, L Delizo, Wo Smith, J Hall

VIMS Articles

Off the eastern coast of New Zealand, warm, saline, nutrient-poor Subtropical Waters (STW) are separated from. cool, fresher, relatively nutrient-rich Sub-Antarctic Waters (SAW) by the Subtropical Convergence (STC). The Chatham Rise, a submarine rise, restricts. the latitudinal movement of the STC as well as mixing of STW and SAW Due to this restriction, this sector of the STC is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, macro-(nitrate, silicate and phosphate) and micro- (iron) nutrient concentrations. Shipboard incubations were conducted during austral spring 2000 and 2001 to test the hypothesis that these gradients affect the taxonomic composition and/or growth rates ...


Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Case Study Of A Highly Eutrophic Coastal Bay System, Mj Kennish, Sb Bricker, Wc Dennison, Pm Glibert, Rj Livingston, Ka Moore, Et Al. Jan 2007

Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Case Study Of A Highly Eutrophic Coastal Bay System, Mj Kennish, Sb Bricker, Wc Dennison, Pm Glibert, Rj Livingston, Ka Moore, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

The Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary is classified here as a highly eutrophic estuary based on application of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment model. Because it is shallow, poorly flushed, and bordered by highly developed watershed areas, the estuary is particularly susceptible to the effects of nutrient loading. Most of this load (similar to 50%) is from surface water inflow, but substantial fractions also originate from atmospheric deposition (similar to 39%), and direct groundwater discharges (similar to 11%). No point source inputs of nutrients exist in the Barnegat Bay watershed. Since 1980, all treated ...


Linking Water Quality To Living Resources In A Mid-Atlantic Lagoon System, Usa, Ce Wazniak, Mr Hall, Tjb Carruthers, B Sturgis, Wc Dennison, Rj Orth Jan 2007

Linking Water Quality To Living Resources In A Mid-Atlantic Lagoon System, Usa, Ce Wazniak, Mr Hall, Tjb Carruthers, B Sturgis, Wc Dennison, Rj Orth

VIMS Articles

The mid-Atlantic coastal bays are shallow coastal lagoons, separated from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier sand islands with oceanic exchanges restricted to narrow inlets. The relatively poor flushing of these lagoon systems makes them susceptible to eutrophication resulting from anthropogenic nutrient loadings. An intensive water quality and seagrass monitoring program was initiated to track ecological changes in the Maryland and Virginia coastal bays. The purpose of this study was to analyze existing monitoring data to determine status and trends in eutrophication and to determine any associations between water quality and living resources. Analysis of monitoring program data revealed several trends ...


Temporal And Vertical Dynamics In Picoplankton Photoheterotrophic Production In The Subtropical North Pacific Ocean, Matthew Church, Hugh Ducklow, Rm Letelier, David Karl Jan 2007

Temporal And Vertical Dynamics In Picoplankton Photoheterotrophic Production In The Subtropical North Pacific Ocean, Matthew Church, Hugh Ducklow, Rm Letelier, David Karl

VIMS Articles

The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the ...