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Theses/Dissertations

2019

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Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

The Development And Evaluation Of Small Specialized Turtle Excluder Devices To Reduce Sea Turtle Bycatch In Various Small Shrimp Gears, Meghan P. Gahm Aug 2019

The Development And Evaluation Of Small Specialized Turtle Excluder Devices To Reduce Sea Turtle Bycatch In Various Small Shrimp Gears, Meghan P. Gahm

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In the southeastern United States, skimmer trawls, pusher-head trawls, wing nets, and small try nets (headrope length less than 12-ft (3.66-m)) are exempt from using a turtle excluder device (TED) and instead must adhere to tow time restrictions as a mode to mitigate sea turtle bycatch. However, observer and stranding data indicate that these tow times may often be exceeded and result in mortality of sea turtles. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) published a notice of proposed rulemaking in December 2016 to extend TED requirements to other trawl types, however there has been limited development of specialized TEDs ...


A Low-Water Crossing Impacts Movement Behavior Of Northern Hog Suckers In An Ozark Stream, Jeff Michael Williams May 2019

A Low-Water Crossing Impacts Movement Behavior Of Northern Hog Suckers In An Ozark Stream, Jeff Michael Williams

MSU Graduate Theses

Low-water crossings are common in Ozark streams and can restrict longitudinal movement in fishes. I evaluated the impact of the Cedar Grove low-water crossing on Northern Hog Sucker Hypentelium nigricans movement behavior in Missouri’s Current River. Radio-tagged fish upstream (henceforth ‘above’; N = 24) and downstream (henceforth ‘below’; N = 26) of the crossing were followed monthly for a year to assess 1) frequency of fish passage, 2) direction of passage, and 3) maximum displacement of mobile (displacement > 1 km) fish. I then looked at diel movement behavior of stationary (displacement < 1 km) fish near the crossing to assess 1) total displacement and linear home range, 2) direction of diel displacement, and 3) habitat use. Passage was limited to four below-tagged fish and was more likely to occur in the upstream direction and during high flow. The direction of maximum displacement in mobile fish was primarily away from the crossing, and below-tagged fish exhibited over seven times greater displacement than above-tagged fish. Diel displacement and linear home range were greater in above-tagged fish, likely due to degraded upstream habitat that increased the distance between day and night habitats. My results suggest the crossing is a semi-permeable barrier that also affects local-scale movement behavior of Northern Hog Suckers. Alternatives to the low-water crossings at Cedar Grove, such as modifying the side channel into a fish bypass, should be considered to promote natural longitudinal movement of fishes in the upper Current River.


A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith May 2019

A Fishy Problem: Effects Of Atlantic Salmon Farming In The Pacific Ocean, Madeleine A. Griffith

Student Theses 2015-Present

In this report, I explore the historical, climatological, economic, and ethical issues created by the contemporary industrial salmon farming practices off Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Chapter 1 utilizes a variety of sources from Stephen Hume’s A Stain upon the Sea to Miller’s Living in the Environment, to examine the integral part salmon plays in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services salmon contribute in wild and farmed settings, and the trends in salmon consumption around the world. Chapter 2 examines the historically relevant role salmon held among indigenous societies and how that role ...


Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina May 2019

Examining Citizens' Preferences For Aquaculture Using Discrete Choice Experiments, Olga Bredikhina

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the last few decades, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have become increasingly popular across different subfields of economics as a way to elicit citizens‟ stated preferences for product and service attributes as well as various environmental and infrastructure features. The DCE framework could be seen as a time- and cost-effective alternative to the revealed preferences framework that is based on data obtained using transactions observed in real-world markets. DCEs offer the advantage over revealed preferences data because they allow learning about consumer preferences for hypothetical products or product attributes without bearing the costs of introducing new products to the market ...


Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard May 2019

Assessing Migrations And Habitat Connectivity For Two Anadromous Species Following A Major Restoration Effort In The Penobscot River, Maine, George A. Maynard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The construction of industrial dams across major rivers in New England began in the early 1800s with textile mills in Massachusetts. Because of its legacy of mill dams and log driving dams, New England has the highest density of dams anywhere in North America, averaging one dam for every 44 km2 of drainage area. By the early 1900s, these dams drastically limited migrations by diadromous fishes, resulting in declines in populations of migratory fishes, including Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and American shad Alosa sapidissima. Since that time, different fishway designs and river management plans have been tried around the ...


Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan May 2019

Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan

Masters Theses

Anthropogenically driven factors, such as increasing temperature and sediment in valley streams, acidification of mountain streams, and the introduction of non-native trout, are restricting habitat suitable for healthy populations of eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) throughout their native Appalachian range. Brook trout are important as predators of insects in mountain streams and as a favorite of anglers. It is crucial that remaining populations in sustainable habitats be identified and preserved. Waterfalls are geologic knickpoints preventing base-level lowering that create unique, stable landscapes above them, which may alleviate the temperature-productivity/acidity “habitat squeeze” for populations of brook trout and could serve ...


Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard May 2019

Feasibility Of Custom Aquaponics For Home Use, Jesse Blanchard

Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Undergraduate Honors Theses

The primary goal of this research is to access the feasibility of implementing and operating small scale aquaponic systems in a home setting to serve as a means of producing high quality fresh produce and fish protein to supplement similar store-bought products. Factors such as system cost, skill level and management requirements will be addressed alongside customizable, educational and sustainable aspects of aquaponic systems to determine whether home aquaponic systems are a feasible option for the home grower. To elaborate, feasibility in this research will refer to both economic costs relative to costs of the system. Outlined in this short ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli Apr 2019

The Effects Of Salinity On Zootechnical Performance Of Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus) In Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, Eric Gigli

Master's Theses

The spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) is a euryhaline finfish candidate for marine aquaculture in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Aquaculture of this species currently uses salinities of 25 psu or greater making production challenging in areas where high salinity water is not available. This study aimed to document the effects of salinity on zootechnical performance of spotted seatrout embryos, early larvae, and juveniles in recirculating aquaculture systems to assist with the development of protocols for low salinity culture.

Embryos obtained from a volitional spawn at 29 psu were incubated at three salinities (12.5, 18.75, or 25 psu) until ...


Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk Jan 2019

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


Analysis Of Unconventional Oil And Gas Impacts On Downstream Fish Assemblages And Physiological Stress, Joshua Noah Ankeny Jan 2019

Analysis Of Unconventional Oil And Gas Impacts On Downstream Fish Assemblages And Physiological Stress, Joshua Noah Ankeny

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Unconventional Oil and Gas (UOG) production has been steadily expanding throughout the mid-Atlantic since 2008. Increased sedimentation, degraded water chemistry and an overall decrease in habitat quality due to UOG is anticipated to negatively impact aquatic inhabitants, a common observation in other stressed landscapes (i.e., mining, agriculture, development). We assessed stream health through both community analysis and physiological parameters (i.e., growth and hematocrit). A before-after-control-impact study uncovered three fish metrics that were significantly different following UOG disturbances. The invertivore-piscivore metric decreased following UOG disturbance (p = 0.045) whereas two benthic metrics saw a surprising increase (p = 0.003 ...


Distribution And Habitat Use Of Benthic Fishes In The Lower Kanawha River, West Virginia, Nathaniel V. Owens Jan 2019

Distribution And Habitat Use Of Benthic Fishes In The Lower Kanawha River, West Virginia, Nathaniel V. Owens

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Kanawha River in West Virginia is a historically diverse system in terms of ichthyofauna although, like many other large rivers, it has been subjected to a suite of anthropomorphic perturbations. These include this system being modified to allow the passage of commercial vessels for industry thus altering flow regimes, increased sedimentation, water depth, and channelization, and decreased interactions with its floodplain. Additionally, the fishes of this system have suffered from deleterious historical water quality issues caused by intensive timber operations, mining, and industrial waste. Post Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act water ...


Analyzing The Diet Composition Of Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) In Upper Priest Lake, Coty W. Jasper Jan 2019

Analyzing The Diet Composition Of Lake Trout (Salvelinus Namaycush) In Upper Priest Lake, Coty W. Jasper

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were intentionally introduced to the Priest Lake system in 1925 with the intentions of creating a recreational fishery. As the Lake Trout population increased within this system, the native Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) population began to decline. Possible negative impacts of Lake Trout on Bull Trout include direct effects such as predation, or indirect effects, such as resource competition. In this study our objective was to estimate the frequency of piscivory of Lake Trout from Upper Priest Lake and document any possible Lake Trout predation upon Bull Trout in the Upper Priest Lake system. We obtained ...


White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White Jan 2019

White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White

Masters Theses

White grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) is a digenetic trematode that uses a piscivorous bird, a pulmonate snail, and a centrarchid fish to complete its life cycle. To assess the impact of impoundment and sewage effluent on white grub infection parameters, infections in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were monitored in 3 reaches of the Sangamon River near Decatur, Illinois: Reach 1- free-flowing river upstream of Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, Reach 2- impounded flow below Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, and Reach 3- free-flowing river downstream of Sanitary District of Decatur, impacted by sewage effluent. Liver and kidney abundances ...


A Time- And State-Based Approach To Estimate Winter Movement And Survival Of Juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch) In Freshwater Creek, California, Nicholas Paul Van Vleet Jan 2019

A Time- And State-Based Approach To Estimate Winter Movement And Survival Of Juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch) In Freshwater Creek, California, Nicholas Paul Van Vleet

Theses and projects

Accounting for life history diversity and overwinter survival of juvenile Coho Salmon is important to inform restoration and recovery efforts for this threatened species. Multiple seaward migration patterns of Coho Salmon have been identified, including spring fry migrants, fall and winter parr migrants, and spring smolt migrants. Previous studies have indicated that spring smolt migrants have low overwinter survival rates while they are rearing in upstream habitats, suggesting that freshwater overwinter survival may be one factor that limits smolt production. However, previous research did not account for the early emigration of fall and winter parr migrants from the study area ...


Shrimp Production Environment And The Effect Of Gut Microbiome: Effects Of Aquaculture Practices And Selective Breeding On The Gut Microbiome Of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, Angela Landsman Jan 2019

Shrimp Production Environment And The Effect Of Gut Microbiome: Effects Of Aquaculture Practices And Selective Breeding On The Gut Microbiome Of Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei, Angela Landsman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Knowledge of the functional role of the gut microbiome in animal health and nutrition may provide solutions to shrimp aquaculture challenges, such as improving disease resistance and optimizing growth particularly with low cost feeds. Successful manipulation of bacteria found in the gut requires a deeper understanding of shrimp microbial communities and how their compositional structure is influenced by environmental conditions, and inherent host factors such as genetics. The initial research investigated the intestinal bacterial communities of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in pond systems compared to indoor aquaculture facilities as an exploration of the effects of aquaculture practices ...


The Economic And Social Values Associated With Small South Dakota Lakes, Aaron Patrick Sundmark Jan 2019

The Economic And Social Values Associated With Small South Dakota Lakes, Aaron Patrick Sundmark

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The valuation of small fishing lakes is a vital component in understanding the importance of fishing and of recreational resources, in general. Knowing the values associated with such lakes is essential when prioritizing management activities. The overall value of a lake as a resource for human benefit is estimated as the summation of both instrumental and non-instrumental values. Instrumental values consist of economic and utilitarian values, as well as the values that a lake provides from ecosystem services. Non-instrumental values consider what the lake is worth as a good of its own, such as aesthetic, moral, and spiritual values gained ...


Assessing Freshwater Mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) Assemblages And Effects Of Eutrophication On Pyganodon Grandis In Lakes Of Eastern South Dakota, Katherine M. Wollman Jan 2019

Assessing Freshwater Mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) Assemblages And Effects Of Eutrophication On Pyganodon Grandis In Lakes Of Eastern South Dakota, Katherine M. Wollman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Globally, the family Unionidae is the most threatened group of freshwater fauna. South Dakota is well known for its agricultural production, leading to cultural eutrophication from enhanced fertilizers and sediments. This impact can alter species presence, age, growth and mortality. Objectives of this study were to 1) implement the first comprehensive lake survey of freshwater mussels in eastern South Dakota lakes and document distribution, occurrence and relative abundance, 2) evaluate relationships between age, growth and mortality of Pyganodon grandis and lake trophic state. Freshwater mussels were sampled in 2017 from 116 proportionally and randomly selected natural lakes and reservoir basins ...


Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak Jan 2019

Effect Of Water Velocity And Temperature On Energy Use, Behavior, And Mortality Of Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Albus Larvae, Joseph Thomas Mrnak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus are a federally endangered species endemic to the Missouri River basin. Natural reproduction has been limited for decades and a recruitment bottleneck is hypothesized to occur during the larval stage of development. Understanding factors that affect survival of Pallid Sturgeon larvae is key given their critical status and ongoing recovery efforts. In this study, I evaluated the effects of water velocity and temperature on energy use, behavior, and mortality of endogenously feeding Pallid Sturgeon larvae (< 25 mm TL). In the first experiment, I examined the effect of water velocity (0 – 8.3 cm s−1) on larval growth, energy density, swimming activity, and mortality. Larval growth rate at 16.3 °C was similar across treatments ...


Contribution Of Juvenile Estuarine Residency In A Bar-Built Estuary To Recruitment Of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha), Emily Katherine Chen Jan 2019

Contribution Of Juvenile Estuarine Residency In A Bar-Built Estuary To Recruitment Of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha), Emily Katherine Chen

Theses and projects

Estuaries are commonly touted as nurseries for out-migrating salmonids, providing higher prey availability than streams, a physiological transition zone, and refugee from marine predators. Yet the diversity of estuaries makes it difficult to generalize the effect they have on salmonid recruitment. In bar-built estuaries, sandbars form at the mouth of rivers during periods of low flow, closing access to the ocean and disrupting outmigration. In this thesis, I evaluated how residency in a bar-built estuary affects the growth, survival, and ultimately recruitment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Redwood Creek, California. I conducted a mark-recapture experiment on out-migrating juveniles during ...


Caracterización De Las Comunidades De Peces Diurnos En Zonas De Pocetas De Los Arroyos De La Hacienda Matepantano (Yopal-Casanare), Juan Sebastian Sanabria Jiménez Jan 2019

Caracterización De Las Comunidades De Peces Diurnos En Zonas De Pocetas De Los Arroyos De La Hacienda Matepantano (Yopal-Casanare), Juan Sebastian Sanabria Jiménez

Biología

El piedemonte del Casanare forma parte de la cuenca del Orinoco, un ecosistema caracterizado por ser el hábitat del 10% de la biodiversidad del planeta y el 45,8% de las especies ícticas de todo el país, destacándose el río Meta como la zona donde habita el mayor número de especies endémicas. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que este afluente ha sido pobremente estudiado, requeriendo aumentar la cobertura geográfica de sus inventarios ícticos y caracterizar los aspectos más básicos de la biología de las especies que allí habitan, como lo son los análisis meristicos, el estudio de hábitos alimenticios y ...