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Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Grassbed Treatments As Habitat For Juvenile Black Bass In A Drawdown Reservoir, D. R. Ratcliff, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, J. Zustak Jan 2009

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Grassbed Treatments As Habitat For Juvenile Black Bass In A Drawdown Reservoir, D. R. Ratcliff, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, J. Zustak

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Many reservoirs in arid regions experience highly variable water levels caused by seasonal inflow fluctuations and designated outflow requirements. At Shasta Lake, California, managers plant cereal-grain grassbeds on exposed drawdown shorelines to increase juvenile fish habitat, localize productivity, and increase invertebrate fish prey. To determine the efficacy of these plantings, the abundance of juvenile black basses Micropterus spp. (20–55 mm standard length) and the amount of periphyton and macroinvertebrate prey were compared among three treatment types: (1) planted grassbeds of cereal barley Hordeum vulgare; (2) artificial rope grassbeds, which eliminated physical deterioration and nutrient release; and (3) nonplanted control ...


Lakes And Forests As Determinants Of Downstream Nutrient Concentrations In Small Mountain Watersheds, P. D. Brown, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, K. Nydick Jan 2008

Lakes And Forests As Determinants Of Downstream Nutrient Concentrations In Small Mountain Watersheds, P. D. Brown, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, K. Nydick

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Lakes are dynamic processors of nutrients and may hold an active role in modifying the water chemistry of stream systems. In this study, we examine the influence of lakes and an important terrestrial component—forest cover—on the nutrient levels of stream water in 11 Rocky Mountain (Idaho) watersheds. Water samples were collected from the inflow and outflow of lakes with varying amounts of upstream lakes and forested area during spring runoff and summer base flow. During base flow, mean total nitrogen concentrations at the inflow of final lakes were significantly related to relative upstream lake area, increasing from 34 ...


Salinity Controls Phytoplankton Response To Nutrient Enrichment In The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Usa, A. M. Marcarelli, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, O. Griset Jan 2006

Salinity Controls Phytoplankton Response To Nutrient Enrichment In The Great Salt Lake, Utah, Usa, A. M. Marcarelli, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, O. Griset

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

To examine how salinity and nutrient supply interact to control phytoplankton community composition, nutrient limitation, and dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), we conducted a series of bioassay experiments with plankton from both Gilbert Bay, where salinities are near 160 g·L–1, and Farmington Bay, where salinities range from 10 to 90 g·L–1. Six-day nutrient addition bioassay experiments showed that the extant phyto plankton communities in both bays were limited by nitrogen (N). However, in 28- to 30-day factorial bioassay experiments in which both salinities and nutrient supply were manipulated, phosphorus stimulated ...


Winter Ecology Of Kokanee: Implications For Salmon Management, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 2003

Winter Ecology Of Kokanee: Implications For Salmon Management, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We sampled various limnological parameters and measured growth and diet of age-0 kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (lacustrine sockeye salmon) during two winters in a high-mountain lake of the Sawtooth Valley, Idaho. Although winter has been recognized as an important period for many warmwater fishes and for stream-dwelling salmonids, winter limitations have only recently been studied for coolwater and coldwater species. Ice and snow cover in winter limited light penetration. As a result, chlorophyll-a and zooplankton density were lower in ice-covered periods than during ice-free periods. The weight of stomach contents was often below a maintenance ration, yet the incidence of empty ...


Salmonine Consumption And Competition For Endemic Prey Fishes In Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, J. R. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Chris Luecke Jan 2001

Salmonine Consumption And Competition For Endemic Prey Fishes In Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, J. R. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Chris Luecke

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Two principal sport fish—the indigenous Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and the introduced lake trout Salvelinus namaycush—are the dominant piscivores in Bear Lake, a 282-km^2 oligotrophic system. These piscivores rely predominantly on four endemic prey fish species that make up a major portion of the unique Bear Lake fish assemblage. We estimated the annual biomass of pelagic and benthic prey fish by using hydroacoustic and trawling techniques. We also estimated the lakewide abundance of piscivores with a multiple mark–recapture survey and used a bioenergetics model to compare the population-level consumption of prey fish with prey ...


Effects Of Epilimnetic Versus Metalimnetic Fertilization On The Phytoplankton And Periphyton Of A Mountain Lake With A Deep Chlorophyll Maxima, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. P. Gross, P. Budy, Chris Luecke Jan 2001

Effects Of Epilimnetic Versus Metalimnetic Fertilization On The Phytoplankton And Periphyton Of A Mountain Lake With A Deep Chlorophyll Maxima, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. P. Gross, P. Budy, Chris Luecke

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Nutrients can load directly to either the epilimnion or metalimnion of lakes via either differential inflow depths of tributaries or intentional fertilization of discrete strata. We evaluated the differential effects of epilimnetic versus metalimnetic nutrient loading using 17-m-deep mesocosms that extended into the deep chlorophyll layer of oligotrophic Pettit Lake in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho. Addition of nitrogen plus phosphorus stimulated primary production nearly identically (2.4- to 4-fold on different dates) in both treatments, with the production peaks occurring in the strata where nutrients were added. The metalimnetic fertilization, however, resulted in equal or greater stimulation of chlorophyll ...


Under-Ice Diel Vertical Migrations Of Oncorhynchus Nerka And Their Zooplankton Prey, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1999

Under-Ice Diel Vertical Migrations Of Oncorhynchus Nerka And Their Zooplankton Prey, G. B. Steinhart, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We used stationary hydroacoustics and measures of environmental conditions (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, light levels, and zooplankton) to determine what factors, foraging or predation risk, influenced diel vertical migrations of Oncorhynchus nerka during winter in three high-mountain lakes. The Sawtooth Valley lakes are deep, oligotrophic, glacial lakes located in central Idaho, U.S.A., and historically contained populations of anadromous O. nerka. In general, low light intensities limited foraging opportunities of O. nerka under ice, especially at night. In Stanley Lake, O. nerka underwent diel vertical migrations to exploit available light to feed. Oncorhynchus nerka occupied shallow water at night ...


Ontogenetic Habitat Shifts Of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, J. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1999

Ontogenetic Habitat Shifts Of Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, J. Ruzycki, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Bear lake sculpin Cottus extensus exhibit ontogenetic habitat shifts during their initial year of life. Distribution and habitat switching was measured with bimonthly bottom-trawl surveys repeated throughout the summer. Patterns of daily growth increments on otoliths were used to measure the history of habitat residence, individual size at the time of the habitat switch, and habitat-specific growth rates. Laboratory experiments and known-age fish confirmed daily increment formation of otoliths. After dispersing during an initial pelagic larval stage, postlarval juveniles settled in both the warm, food-rich littoral zone and the cold, unproductive profundal zone. During summer, initial profundal-zone inhabitants underwent a ...


The Role Of Anadromous Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) In The Nutrient Loading And Productivity Of The Sawtooth Valley Lakes, Idaho, H. P. Gross, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Chris Luecke Jan 1998

The Role Of Anadromous Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) In The Nutrient Loading And Productivity Of The Sawtooth Valley Lakes, Idaho, H. P. Gross, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Chris Luecke

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We constructed a simulation model for Redfish Lake, Idaho, using water budget and nutrient loading measurements, to predict the dependence of lake production on nutrients from the watershed, precipitation, lake fertilization, and marine-derived nutrients from sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, which historically have reared in the lake. We also used the model to simulate different management scenarios to help restore the endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. The model and other empirical evidence indicated that even before hydropower dams were present in the migration corridor, marine-derived nutrients were not of major importance to lake production, contributing only about 3% of the annual ...


Adding Nutrients To Enhance The Growth Of Endangered Sockeye Salmon: Trophic Transfer In An Oligotrophic Lake, P. Budy, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1998

Adding Nutrients To Enhance The Growth Of Endangered Sockeye Salmon: Trophic Transfer In An Oligotrophic Lake, P. Budy, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, listed under U.S. law as endangered in 1991 in response to a decline in anadromous adult numbers, spend their first 1–2 years in Redfish Lake, Idaho, before migrating to the sea. To determine how nutrient enhancement might influence phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish production, we performed fertilization experiments in large enclosures in this oligotrophic lake using juvenile kokanee (lacustrine O. nerka) as analogues for endangered sockeye salmon. Fertilization of the metalimnion substantially increased chlorophyll a (150%), phytoplankton biovolume (75%), primary productivity (250%), and zooplankton biomass (200%), and moderately increased fish growth (12%) over ...


Hydroacoustic Assessment Of Abundance And Diel Distribution Of Sockeye Salmon And Kokanee In The Sawtooth Valley Lakes, Idaho, D. Beauchamp, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. G. Gross, P. Budy, S. Spaulding, R. Dilenger, C. P. Gubala Jan 1997

Hydroacoustic Assessment Of Abundance And Diel Distribution Of Sockeye Salmon And Kokanee In The Sawtooth Valley Lakes, Idaho, D. Beauchamp, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. G. Gross, P. Budy, S. Spaulding, R. Dilenger, C. P. Gubala

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We used dual-beam hydroacoustics and echo integration techniques, combined with midwater trawling and gillnetting, to assess the abundance and distribution of the endangered Snake River juvenile sockeye salmon and resident kokanee (both Oncorhynchus nerka) in Sawtooth Valley lakes of Idaho during September 1991 and 1992. Abundance of O. nerka varied among the four lakes containing this species (12,500–257,000) and varied between years in Redfish Lake (86,400 in 1994 and 241,000 in 1992) and Alturas Lake (230,000 in 1991 and 257,000 in 1992). In Alturas Lake, where piscivore densities were high and zooplankton densities ...


Fertilization Of An Oligotrophic Lake With A Deep Chlorophyll Maximum: Predicting The Effect On Primary Productivity, H. P. Gross, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, P. Budy, Chris Luecke Jan 1997

Fertilization Of An Oligotrophic Lake With A Deep Chlorophyll Maximum: Predicting The Effect On Primary Productivity, H. P. Gross, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, P. Budy, Chris Luecke

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We investigated how epilimnetic fertilization would affect chlorophyll levels and light penetration of oligotrophic sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) lakes and how the resulting self-shading would affect primary production of the prominent deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) of the lakes. Epilimnetic nutrient additions to large mesocosms (330 m3) in Redfish Lake, Idaho, increased levels of primary productivity and chlorophyll a but decreased Secchi depths and light available in the metalimnion and hypolimnion. Redfish Lake and other Sawtooth Valley (Idaho) lakes had DCM in which the mean chlorophyll a peaks were 240-1000% of mean epilimnetic chlorophyll a concentrations. The DCM existed at low ...


Nutrient Limitation Of Oligotrophic Sockeye Salmon Lakes Of Idaho (Usa), Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. P. Gross, Chris Luecke, P. Budy Jan 1997

Nutrient Limitation Of Oligotrophic Sockeye Salmon Lakes Of Idaho (Usa), Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, H. P. Gross, Chris Luecke, P. Budy

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

"Phytoplankton production in lake ecosystems is frequently controlled by amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus (Smith 1982, Elser et al. 1990), as well as minor- and micro-nutrients (Wurtsbaugh & Horne 1983, Wurtsbaugh 1988, Lovstad & Bjorndalen 1990). Nutrient limitation is often studied to determine which nutrient(s) should be reduced to control lake eutrophication (Schindler 1974(. Conversely, nutrients have been used for decades to stimulate plankton and, subsequently, fish production in aquaculture (Bardach et al. 1972). More recently, lake fertilization has been used to augment salmon runs for commercial exploitation (Hyatt & Stockner 1985, lye et al. 1988), and it has been suggested for ...


Effects Of Daphnia Availability On Growth And Food Consumption Of Rainbow Trout In Two Utah Reservoirs, R. Tabor, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1996

Effects Of Daphnia Availability On Growth And Food Consumption Of Rainbow Trout In Two Utah Reservoirs, R. Tabor, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We monitored the diet and growth of stocked rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in two Utah reservoirs during 1986 and 1989–1990. For the first month after stocking, juvenile rainbow trout in both reservoirs fed extensively on large Daphnia spp. In East Canyon Reservoir where Daphnia were abundant, this pattern continued throughout the summer, fall, and winter. Growth of rainbow trout in East Canyon Reservoir was generally good throughout 1989–1990. In Causey Reservoir, where Daphnia were less abundant and smaller, rainbow trout fed progressively less on smaller Daphnia throughout the summer, fall, and winter, while other prey items (snails, aquatic ...


Simulated Growth And Production Of Endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Assessing Management Strategies For The Nursery Lakes, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, P. Budy, H. P. Gross Jan 1996

Simulated Growth And Production Of Endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Assessing Management Strategies For The Nursery Lakes, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, P. Budy, H. P. Gross

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We examined the potential of employing a series of lake management strategies to enhance production of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in its historical nursery lakes in central Idaho. We used a combination of limnological sampling, experimentation, and simulation modeling to assess effects of lake fertilization and kokanee reduction on growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Juvenile sockeye salmon from a broodstock of this endangered species are being introduced into the lakes from 1995 to 1998. Results of our analyses indicated that several lakes were suitable for receiving broodstock progeny. Field experimentation and simulation modeling indicated that ...


Summer Habitat Use Of Littoral-Zone Fishes In Lake Tahoe And The Effects Of Shoreline Structures, D. Beauchamp, E. Byron, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1994

Summer Habitat Use Of Littoral-Zone Fishes In Lake Tahoe And The Effects Of Shoreline Structures, D. Beauchamp, E. Byron, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

We used scuba observations to determine summer habitat use and the effects of piers on the littoral-zone fish community in Lake Tahoe, California–Nevada. Habitat complexity declined with depth. Over 50% of the littoral zone less than 2 m deep was composed of complex boulder substrates, but this substrate represented less than 10% of the habitat between 10 and 18 m deep. A severe drought lowered the surface elevation of the lake 2 m and reduced the wetted complex rocky habitat by 20% between the 0- and l0-m isobaths (referenced to the mean lake level of 1,899 m above ...


An Empirical Model Of Gastric Evacuation Rates For Fish And An Analysis Of Digestion In Piscivorous Brown Trout, E. He, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1993

An Empirical Model Of Gastric Evacuation Rates For Fish And An Analysis Of Digestion In Piscivorous Brown Trout, E. He, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

The gastric evacuation rates of brown trout Salmo trutta (0.9–1.6 kg) feeding on fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (3.5–7.6 g) were measured in the laboratory at five temperatures (4.5, 9.0, 14.0, 19.0, and 22.5°C). Instantaneous gut evacuation rates (Re) increased exponentially with temperature (T): Re = 0.053se^0.073T, r^2 = 0.98; they varyied from 7%sh^–1 at 4.5°C to 29%sh^–1 at 22.5°C. Linear regressions described the relationship between time and qualitative measures of fish digestion, thus allowing investigators to ...


Effects Of Moonlight And Daylight On Hydroacoustic Estimates Of Pelagic Fish Abundance, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1993

Effects Of Moonlight And Daylight On Hydroacoustic Estimates Of Pelagic Fish Abundance, Chris Luecke, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

To determine how moonlight and daylight affect hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance, we used a dual-beam transducer and echo integration to survey pelagic fish (primarily Bonneville ciscoes Prosopium gemmifer) in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho. During the new moon, the fish were dispersed (not schooling) below the thermocline, chiefly at the depths of 10–20 m. At full moon, they were dispersed but much closer to the bottom, where they were difficult to detect. Acoustic estimates offish density and biomass during full moons were approximately 50% of values derived during new moons. A diel survey during a new moon indicated ...


Visual Feeding By Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, D. Neverman, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1992

Visual Feeding By Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, D. Neverman, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Young-of-the-year Bear Lake sculpin Cottus extensus feed throughout the day on benthic invertebrates and cease feeding at night when they migrate to the metalimnion. We investigated their reliance on vision by conducting feeding trials at different light levels in the laboratory. Feeding rate reached a maximum at intermediate light levels (near 10^16 photons sm^–2 ss^–1; approximately 1 lux) but decreased as light intensity increased beyond this range. At this maximum rate, the fish fed nine times faster than they were able to feed in the dark, showing that young Bear Lake sculpin rely heavily upon vision to ...


Lake Trout Spawning In Lake Tahoe: Egg Incubation In Deepwater Macrophyte Beds, D. A. Beauchamp, B. C. Allen, R. C. Richards, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, C. R. Goldman Jan 1992

Lake Trout Spawning In Lake Tahoe: Egg Incubation In Deepwater Macrophyte Beds, D. A. Beauchamp, B. C. Allen, R. C. Richards, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, C. R. Goldman

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Although most populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawn over rocky shoals, use of these substrates by lake trout has not yet been found in Lake Tahoe. Large cobble substrate exists at depths less than 20 m, and steep, fractured, rocky substrate can be found in isolated areas from the surface down to at least 100 m, but no evidence of spawning activity in these areas has been found. Instead, at least a portion of the population spawns on deepwater mounds (40–60 m deep) over beds of the macrophyte Chara delicatula. This is the first known report of lake ...


Predation Risk And The Importance Of Cover For Juvenile Rainbow Trout In Lentic Systems, R. A. Tabor, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1991

Predation Risk And The Importance Of Cover For Juvenile Rainbow Trout In Lentic Systems, R. A. Tabor, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss stocked in midelevation reservoirs in Utah inhabit shallow nearshore areas and are vulnerable to predation from piscivorous fish and birds. We determined the use and importance of nearshore habitats by (1) measuring habitat selection by, prey availability to, and feeding of juvenile rainbow trout in two reservoirs with populations of predators, and (2) measuring survival and growth rates in the presence and absence of cover in a pond experiment where adult brown trout Salmo trutta were predators. In the reservoirs juvenile rainbow trout (60–120 mm standard length) were abundant in complex inshore habitats but ...


A Mass Mortality Of Fishes In Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) Associated With The Protozoan Parasite Ichthyophthirius Multifiliis, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, R. Alfaro Jan 1988

A Mass Mortality Of Fishes In Lake Titicaca (Peru-Bolivia) Associated With The Protozoan Parasite Ichthyophthirius Multifiliis, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, R. Alfaro

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

In December 1981 , an epizootic of the protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis killed an estimated 18 million killifish Orestias spp. in Lake Titicaca, a high-altitude tropical system. Of the dead fish collected, 93% were adult O. agassii, a commercially important species that is abundant in the littoral zone. Juvenile Orestias spp., pelagic species, and some other littoral zone fis hes were slightly affected. lchthyophthirius multifiliis was probably introduced with exotic fishes brought to Lake Titicaca in the 1940s and 1950s.


Growth And Activity Of Juvenile Mosquitofish: Temperature And Ration Effects, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, J. Cech Jan 1983

Growth And Activity Of Juvenile Mosquitofish: Temperature And Ration Effects, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, J. Cech

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

The effects of constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C) and ration size on the growth rates and activity of juvenile mosquitofish Gambusia affinis (mean wet weight, about 20 mg) were measured in laboratory experiments. On ad libitum rations of Tubifex spp. worms, food-consumption rates of mosquitofish were very high, ranging from 7% dry body weight/day at 10 C to 83%/day at 35 C. Growth increased from 0% dry body weight/day at 10 C to 21%/day at 30 C and declined slightly at 35 C. Gross efficiencies (100 growth/food consumption) increased from ...


Laboratory Apparatus For Providing Diel Temperature Regimes For Aquatic Animals, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, G. Davis Jan 1976

Laboratory Apparatus For Providing Diel Temperature Regimes For Aquatic Animals, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, G. Davis

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

In studies of the effects of elevated temperature on aquatic organisms, little emphasis has been placed on modeling the fluctuating temperatures to which organisms are exposed in nature. To some extent this may be related to problems of design and maintenance of apparatus for fluctuating temperature control. The complexity of apparatus used to provide cycled temperatures has ranged from manually controlled valves for introducing water of different temperatures into aquariums (Kelso 1972), to a complex and expensive feedback system, regulated by rotating cams, that controls the temperature of influent water (Honeywell Cam Programmer Thermometers, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania). To facilitate studies ...


Food And Distribution Of Underyearling Brook And Rainbow Trout In Castle Lake, California, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, R. Brocksen, C. Goldman Jan 1975

Food And Distribution Of Underyearling Brook And Rainbow Trout In Castle Lake, California, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, R. Brocksen, C. Goldman

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

A difference was found in the summer distribution of underyearling brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and planted rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in Castle Lake, California. Brook trout underyearlings oriented to the bottom and were found primarily in shallow water on the eastern shore of the lake near springs. The rainbow trout underyearlings were more pelagic and were found in the littoral areas along the entire shoreline. Gravimetrically, the food eaten during the summer by brook trout underyearlings was 13% terrestrial, 11% limnetic, and 76% benthic. Rainbow trout ate 15% terrestrial, 15% limnetic, and 70% benthic food. In summer, rainbow ...