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Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kc Weng, Cg Lowe May 2019

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kc Weng, Cg Lowe

VIMS Articles

While adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators with a circumglobal distribution, juvenile white sharks (JWS) feed primarily on bottom dwelling fishes and tend to be coastally associated. Despite the assumedly easier access to juveniles compared to large, migratory adults, limited information is available on the movements, environments, and distributions of individuals during this life stage. To quantify movement and understand their distribution in the southern California Bight, JWS were captured and fitted with dorsal fin-mounted satellite transmitters (SPOT tags; n = 18). Nine individuals crossed the U.S. border into Baja California, Mexico. Individuals used shallow habitats (134.96 ...


A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

There are two approaches to estimating age composition from a large number of length observations and a limited number of age determinations: the forward and the inverse age-length keys. The forward key looks at the distribution of age within each length bin while the inverse key looks at the distribution of length at each age. The former is more precise but has stringent requirements for the way data are collected. The latter approach is more widely applicable. We review the theory of the two keys with particular attention to necessary assumptions and the restrictions on when the methods are applicable ...


Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walker Iii, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walker Iii, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Age–length key (ALK) methods generally perform well when length samples and age samples are representative of the underlying population. It is unclear how well these methods perform when lengths are representative but age samples are sparse (i.e. age samples are small or missing in many years, and some length groups do not have any age observations). With western Atlantic bluefin tuna, the available age data are sparse and have been, for the most part, collected opportunistically. We evaluated two methods capable of accommodating sparse age data: a novel hybrid ALK (combining forward ALKs and cohort slicing) and the ...


Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld Feb 2019

Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld

VIMS Articles

Pot fisheries occur worldwide with a significant proportion of the gear becoming derelict. Derelict pots induce detrimental ecological and economic impacts, and more recently were found to reduce blue crab harvests in the Chesapeake Bay commercial fishery. We simulated the presence of derelict pots near actively fished pots in seasonal field experiments to quantify the effect derelict pots have on blue crab harvest. Derelict pots reduced harvests by 30% during the summer, but not during the fall. Female blue crab capture rates were consistently lower when derelict pots were present; while capture rates of the less abundant males were not ...


Evaluating Summer Flounder Spatial Sex-Segregation In A Southern New England Estuary, Joseph A. Langan, M. Conor Mcmanus, Adena J. Schonfeld, Corinne L. Truesdale, Jeremy S. Collie Jan 2019

Evaluating Summer Flounder Spatial Sex-Segregation In A Southern New England Estuary, Joseph A. Langan, M. Conor Mcmanus, Adena J. Schonfeld, Corinne L. Truesdale, Jeremy S. Collie

VIMS Articles

Marine fish species can exhibit sex-specific differences in their biological traits. Not accounting for these characteristics in the stock assessment or management of a species can lead to misunderstanding its population dynamics and result in ineffective regulatory strategies. Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus, a flatfish that supports significant commercial and recreational fisheries along the northeastern U.S. shelf, expresses variation in several traits between the sexes, including growth and habitat preference. To further understand these patterns, 1,302 Summer Flounder were collected and sexed in 2016 and 2017 from fisheries-independent surveys conducted in Rhode Island state waters. Female flounder were more ...


Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2019

Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

High-quality nursery habitats support greater numbers of juveniles that survive to adulthood, but characteristics underlying high-quality habitats remain elusive because their productivity varies spatially and temporally and may be species-specific. Fish condition is an energy-integrative measure of ecological interactions, stress, and activity within a habitat, such that juvenile fish condition is representative of the quality of nursery habitats. We apply spatially explicit models to examine patterns in nursery habitat quality of Virginia estuaries based on nutritional condition for Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus, and striped bass Morone saxatilis. Environmental factors (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth ...


Monitoring Demographics Of A Commercially Exploited Population Of Shovelnose Sturgeon In The Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, Usa, Jessica L. Thornton, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Leslie D. Frankland, Craig R. Jansen, Jana Hirst, Robert E. Colombo Jan 2019

Monitoring Demographics Of A Commercially Exploited Population Of Shovelnose Sturgeon In The Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, Usa, Jessica L. Thornton, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Leslie D. Frankland, Craig R. Jansen, Jana Hirst, Robert E. Colombo

VIMS Articles

Shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Rafinesque, 1820) in the Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, USA, provide an important recreational sport and commercial caviar fishery. In fact, it is one of the last commercially viable populations for sturgeon roe harvest. Due to increased demand in the caviar trade and endangered species legislation that protect shovelnose sturgeon in only a portion of their range, efforts of the roe harvest market may continue to divert toward unprotected populations like the shovelnose sturgeon in the Wabash River. Previous studies have shown that increased harvest pressure in this species can affect the age‐at‐maturation and result ...


Tooth Development And Replacement In The Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus Lepturus, With Comparisons To Other Scombroidei, Katherine E. Bemis, Samantha M. Burke, Carl A. St John, Eric Hilton, William E. Bemis Jan 2019

Tooth Development And Replacement In The Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus Lepturus, With Comparisons To Other Scombroidei, Katherine E. Bemis, Samantha M. Burke, Carl A. St John, Eric Hilton, William E. Bemis

VIMS Articles

Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, have large, barbed, premaxillary and dentary fangs, and sharp dagger-shaped teeth in their oral jaws. Functional teeth firmly ankylose to the dentigerous bones. We used dry skeletons, histology, SEM, and micro-CT scanning to study 92 specimens of T. lepturus from the western North Atlantic to describe its dentition and tooth replacement. We identified three modes of intraosseous tooth replacement in T. lepturus depending on the location of the tooth in the jaw. Mode 1 relates to replacement of premaxillary fangs, in which new tooth germs enter the lingual surface of the premaxilla, develop horizontally, and rotate ...


Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr. Jan 2019

Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr.

VIMS Articles

Since 2012, aquacultured eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica have been reported by oyster farmers to display mortality approaching 30%, and in some cases 85%, in areas of the lower Chesapeake Bay, VA. Based on accounts from industry, this mortality has typically affected 1-y-old oysters between May and early July, and has tended to occur in triploid oysters, which represent the vast bulk of production in the area. During this period, samples submitted for pathology have not revealed the presence of major pathogens as a cause. In 2015, to gain deeper insight into this mortality and determine whether specific sites, ploidy condition ...


Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg Dec 2018

Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg

VIMS Articles

Oyster reef restoration can significantly increase benthic denitrification rates. Methods applied to measure nutrient fluxes and denitrification from oyster reefs in previous studies include incubations of sediment cores collected adjacent to oyster clumps, benthic chambers filled with intact reef segments that have undergone in situ equilibration and ex situ incubation, and cores with single oysters. However, fluxes of nutrients vary by orders of magnitude among oyster reefs and methods. This study compares two methods of measuring nutrient and metabolic fluxes on restored oyster reefs: incubations including intact segments of oyster reef and incubations containing oyster clumps without underlying sediments. Fluxes ...


Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie Dec 2018

Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie

VIMS Articles

Risks associated with disease spread from fish and shellfish farming have plagued the growth and public perception of aquaculture worldwide. However, by processing nutrients and organic material from the water column, the culture of many suspension-feeding bivalves has been proposed as a novel solution toward mitigating problems facing coastal water quality, including the removal of disease-causing parasites. Here we developed and simulated an epidemiological model describing sympatric oyster Crassostrea virginica populations in aquaculture and the wild impacted by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. Our model captured the indirect interaction between wild and cultured populations that occurs through sharing water-borne P ...


Assessment Of The Relationship Of Stock And Recruitment In The Atlantic Surfclam Spisula Solidissima In The Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Jeremy R. Timbs, Eric N. Powell, Roger Mann Dec 2018

Assessment Of The Relationship Of Stock And Recruitment In The Atlantic Surfclam Spisula Solidissima In The Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Jeremy R. Timbs, Eric N. Powell, Roger Mann

VIMS Articles

Atlantic surfclams support a major commercial fishery in the western North Atlantic Ocean with landings consistently between 15,000 and 25,000 metric tons since 1982. The stock is not and historically has not been overfished nor has overfishing occurred; however, in recent years landings per unit effort have declined. Surfclams are a biomass dominant on the continental shelf and a bellwether of climate change in the northwestern Atlantic. This study investigated the relationship of broodstock and recruitment during a period when Mid-Atlantic warming initiated a shelf-wide shift in the surfclams range. A species distribution function model was used to ...


Impacts Of A Multi-Trap Line On Benthic Habitat Containing Emergent Epifauna Within The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Cara C. Schweitzer, Romuald N. Lipcius, Bradley G. Stevens Dec 2018

Impacts Of A Multi-Trap Line On Benthic Habitat Containing Emergent Epifauna Within The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Cara C. Schweitzer, Romuald N. Lipcius, Bradley G. Stevens

VIMS Articles

Alteration and degradation of benthic structure by fishing gear can impede efforts to manage fish stock sustainably. Although the impacts of mobile gear are well known, effects of passive gear (e.g. fish traps) upon structure have been little studied. We modified commercial traps for American lobster Homarus americanus and black sea bass Centropristis striata by attaching GoPro (R) cameras to ascertain the degree and nature of impacts to seafloor habitats. Customized traps were included within a line of 20 traps, deployed and retrieved according to standard commercial fishing practice. Less than 5% of traps landed directly on bedforms when ...


The Effect Of Capture And Handling Stress In Lophius Americanus In The Scallop Dredge Fishery, Amelia M. Weissman, John W. Mandelman, David B. Rudders, James A. Sulikowski, Oct 2018

The Effect Of Capture And Handling Stress In Lophius Americanus In The Scallop Dredge Fishery, Amelia M. Weissman, John W. Mandelman, David B. Rudders, James A. Sulikowski,

VIMS Articles

Capture and handling stress studies are considered a primary research priority, particularly for species and fisheries where discard rates are high, and/or for overfished stocks and species of concern. Lophius americanus, a commercially valuable finfish in New England, constitutes the second highest bycatch species within the sea scallop dredge fishery. Despite its commercial importance, no data exists on the capture and handling stress of monkfish for any gear type. Given these shortcomings, our goals were to evaluate the stress response of monkfish captured in scallop dredge gear by evaluating physical, behavioural and physiological responses to scallop fishing practices. While ...


Successful Recruitment, Survival And Long-Term Persistence Of Eastern Oyster And Hooked Mussel On A Subtidal, Artificial Restoration Reef System In Chesapeake Bay, Romuald N. Lipcius, Russell P. Burke Oct 2018

Successful Recruitment, Survival And Long-Term Persistence Of Eastern Oyster And Hooked Mussel On A Subtidal, Artificial Restoration Reef System In Chesapeake Bay, Romuald N. Lipcius, Russell P. Burke

VIMS Articles

Restoration efforts with native eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere have been limited by shell availability, necessitating the use of alternative structures as subtidal reefs, yet these have rarely been evaluated quantitatively. We quantified population structure, density, abundance and biomass of eastern oyster and hooked mussel, Ischadium recurvum, on a concrete modular reef (75 m(2) surface area over 5 m(2) of river bottom) deployed subtidally at 7 m depth in the Rappahannock River, Virginia during October, 2000. After nearly 5 y (May 2005), we took 120 stratified random samples over the reef. The reef was ...


Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini Oct 2018

Restoring The Eastern Oyster: How Much Progress Has Been Made In 53 Years?, Ab Hernandez, Rd Brumbaugh, P Fredrick, R Grizzle, Mw Luckenbach, Ch Peterson, C Angelini

VIMS Articles

Coastal ecosystem restoration is accelerating globally as a means of enhancing shoreline protection, carbon storage, water quality, fisheries, and biodiversity. Among the most substantial of these efforts have been those focused on re-establishing oyster reefs across the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Despite considerable investment, it is unclear how the scale of and approaches toward oyster restoration have evolved. A synthesis of 1768 projects undertaken since 1964 reveals that oyster substrate restoration efforts have primarily been concentrated in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf Coast, have been heavily reliant on oyster shell, and have re-established 4.5% of the reef ...


An Overview Of Factors Affecting Distribution Of The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima), A Continental Shelf Biomass Dominant, During A Period Of Climate Change, Ee Hofmann, En Powell, Jm Klinck, Dm Munroe, R Mann, Et Al Oct 2018

An Overview Of Factors Affecting Distribution Of The Atlantic Surfclam (Spisula Solidissima), A Continental Shelf Biomass Dominant, During A Period Of Climate Change, Ee Hofmann, En Powell, Jm Klinck, Dm Munroe, R Mann, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The Atlantic surfclam (Spisula solidissitna) is a dominant member of the biological community of the Middle Atlantic Bight continental shelf and a commercially harvested species. Climate warming is affecting the biology and distribution of this species, which provides an opportunity to investigate the processes and conditions that are restructuring this fishery and the implications for ecological and socioeconomic systems. A Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) developed for the surfclam fishery provides a mechanistic description of the surfclam's response to climate change and understanding of the cascade of effects initiated by changes in oceanographic conditions that ultimately appear as social and ...


Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Rb Carnegie, Em Burreson Oct 2018

Investigating The Life Cycle Of Haplosporidium Nelsoni (Msx), Se Ford, Na Stokes, Ka Alcox, Bsf Kraus, Rd Barber, Rb Carnegie, Em Burreson

VIMS Articles

Attempts to decipher the life cycle of Haplosporidium nelsoni began almost immediately after it was identified as the pathogen causing MSX disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. But transmission experiments failed and the spore stage, characteristic of haplosporidans, was extremely rare. Researchers concluded that another host was involved: an intermediate host in which part of the life cycle was produced, or-if the oyster was an accidental host-an alternate host that produces infective elements. A later finding that spores were found more often in spat (< 1 y old) than in adults revived the idea of direct transmission between oysters. The new findings and the availability of molecular diagnostics led us to revive life cycle investigations. Over several years, oyster spat were examined for spores and searched for H. nelsoni in potential non-oyster hosts using both histological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies. Although ...


Short-Term Pain And Long-Term Gain: Using Phased-In Minimum Size Limits To Rebuild Stocks-The Pacific Bluefin Tuna Example, Lisa E. Ailloud, Todd Gedamke, John M. Hoenig Oct 2018

Short-Term Pain And Long-Term Gain: Using Phased-In Minimum Size Limits To Rebuild Stocks-The Pacific Bluefin Tuna Example, Lisa E. Ailloud, Todd Gedamke, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Like many stocks, the Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis has been considerably depleted. High exploitation rates on very young fish have reduced the spawning stock biomass (SSB) to 2.6% of the unexploited level. We provide a framework for exploring potential benefits of minimum size regulations as a mechanism for rebuilding stocks, and we illustrate the approach using simulations patterned after Pacific Bluefin Tuna dynamics. We attempt to mitigate short-term losses in yield by considering a phased-in management strategy. With this approach, the minimum size limit (MSL) is gradually increased as biomass rebuilds, giving fishing communities time to adjust to ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Approach For The Habitat Distribution Of Smooth Dogfish By Sex And Season In Inshore Coastal Waters Of The Us Northwest Atlantic, Andrea Dell'apa, Maria Grazia Pennino, Charles W Bangley, Christopher Bonzek Oct 2018

A Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Approach For The Habitat Distribution Of Smooth Dogfish By Sex And Season In Inshore Coastal Waters Of The Us Northwest Atlantic, Andrea Dell'apa, Maria Grazia Pennino, Charles W Bangley, Christopher Bonzek

VIMS Articles

The Smooth Dogfish Mustelus canis is an abundant, small coastal shark occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Despite being targeted by a directed fishery and having recently undergone a stock assessment that found the population neither overfished nor experiencing overfishing, little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. Here, we used catch data from the spring and fall Northeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program's fishery-independent trawl surveys conducted between 2007 and 2016 and various environmental factors to perform hierarchical Bayesian modeling as a first attempt to spatially predict adult Smooth Dogfish CPUE in U ...


Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Human Influence At The Coast: Upland And Shoreline Stressors Affect Coastal Macrofauna And Are Mediated By Salinity, Rochelle D. Seitz, Kathleen E. Knick, Theresa M. Davenport, Gabrielle G. Saluta Aug 2018

Human Influence At The Coast: Upland And Shoreline Stressors Affect Coastal Macrofauna And Are Mediated By Salinity, Rochelle D. Seitz, Kathleen E. Knick, Theresa M. Davenport, Gabrielle G. Saluta

VIMS Articles

Anthropogenic stressors can affect subtidal communities within the land-water interface. Increasing anthropogenic activities, including upland and shoreline development, threaten ecologically important species in these habitats. In this study, we examined the consequences of anthropogenic stressors on benthic macrofaunal communities in 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We investigated how subestuary upland use (forested, agricultural, developed land) and shoreline development (riprap and bulkhead compared to marsh and beach) affected density, biomass, and diversity of benthic infauna. Upland and shoreline development were parameters included in the most plausible models among a candidate set compared using corrected Akaike's Information Criterion. For benthic macrofauna ...


Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour Jul 2018

Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Relative abundance trends of highly migratory species (HMS) have played a central role in debates over the health of global fisheries. However, such trends have mostly been inferred from fishery catch rates, which can provide misleading signals of relative abundance. While many biases are accounted for through traditional catch rate standardization, pelagic habitat fished is rarely directly considered. Using a method that explicitly accounts for temperature regimes, we analysed data from the US pelagic longline fishery to estimate relative abundance trends for 34 HMS in the Atlantic Ocean from 1987 through 2013. This represents one of the largest studies of ...


Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Romuald N. Lipcius, Rp Burke May 2018

Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Romuald N. Lipcius, Rp Burke

VIMS Articles

Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster ...


Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino May 2018

Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino

VIMS Articles

Increasing the size and number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is widely seen as a way to meet ambitious biodiversity and sustainable development goals. Yet, debate still exists on the effectiveness of MPAs in achieving ecological and societal objectives. Although the literature provides significant evidence of the ecological effects of MPAs within their boundaries, much remains to be learned about the ecological and social effects of MPAs on regional and seascape scales. Key to improving the effectiveness of MPAs, and ensuring that they achieve desired outcomes, will be better monitoring that includes ecological and social data collected inside and outside ...


Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle May 2018

Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle

VIMS Articles

Background: Central place foragers (CPF) rest within a central place, and theory predicts that distance of patches from this central place sets the outer limits of the foraging arena. Many marine ectothermic predators behave like CPF animals, but never stop swimming, suggesting that predators will incur ‘travelling’ costs while resting. Currently, it is unknown how these CPF predators behave or how modulation of behavior contributes to daily energy budgets. We combine acoustic telemetry, multi-sensor loggers, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) to generate ‘activity seascapes’, which combine space use with patterns of activity, for reef sharks (blacktip reef and grey reef ...


Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig May 2018

Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Length‐based methods provide alternatives for estimating the instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) in exploited marine populations when data are not available for age‐based methods. We compared the performance of three equilibrium length‐based methods: the length‐converted catch curve (LCCC), the Beverton–Holt equation (BHE), and the length‐based spawning potential ratio (LB‐SPR) method. The LCCC and BHE are two historically common procedures that use length as a proxy for age. From a truncated length‐frequency distribution of fully selected animals, the LCCC estimates Z with a regression of the logarithm of catch at length by the ...


Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris May 2018

Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris

VIMS Articles

The introduction of a non-native freshwater fish, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, in tributaries of Chesapeake Bay resulted in the establishment of fisheries and in the expansion of the population into brackish habitats. Blue catfish are an invasive species in the Chesapeake Bay region, and efforts are underway to limit their impacts on native communities. Key characteristics of the population (population size, survival rates) are unknown, but such knowledge is useful in understanding the impact of blue catfish in estuarine systems. We estimated population size and survival rates of blue catfish in tidal habitats of the James River subestuary. We tagged ...


Genetic Evaluation Of Population Structure In White Marlin (Kajikia Albida): The Importance Of Statistical Power, Nadya Mamoozadeh, Jan R. Mcdowell, Jay R. Rooker, John E. Graves Mar 2018

Genetic Evaluation Of Population Structure In White Marlin (Kajikia Albida): The Importance Of Statistical Power, Nadya Mamoozadeh, Jan R. Mcdowell, Jay R. Rooker, John E. Graves

VIMS Articles

The genetic basis of population structure in white marlin (Kajikia albida) is not well understood. Previous evaluation of genetic population structure in this species utilized a small number of molecular markers to survey genetic variation across opportunistically collected samples of adults, resulting in statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation for some pairwise comparisons and global levels of genetic differentiation that approached statistical significance. This study increased statistical power to improve resolution of genetic population structure in white marlin by surveying a larger number of molecular markers across sample collections of increased size, including collections from additional geographic locations and a ...


Mitotic Instability In Triploid And Tetraploid One-Year-Old Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica, Assessed By Cytogenetic And Flow Cytometry Techniques, Jt De Sousa, Sk Allen, Bm Wolfe, Jm Moss Feb 2018

Mitotic Instability In Triploid And Tetraploid One-Year-Old Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica, Assessed By Cytogenetic And Flow Cytometry Techniques, Jt De Sousa, Sk Allen, Bm Wolfe, Jm Moss

VIMS Articles

For commercial oyster aquaculture, triploidy has significant advantages. To produce triploids, the principal technology uses diploid x tetraploid crosses. The development of tetraploid brood stock for this purpose has been successful, but as more is understood about tetraploids, it seems clear that chromosome instability is a principal feature in oysters. This paper is a continuation of work to investigate chromosome instability in polyploid Crassostrea virginica. We established families between tetraploids-apparently stable (non-mosaic) and unstable (mosaic)-and normal reference diploids, creating triploid groups, as well as tetraploids between mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploids. Chromosome loss was about the same for triploid juveniles ...