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Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Forensic Markers Of Lampricide Toxicity In Oncorhynchsus Mykiss, Chris White Jan 2018

Forensic Markers Of Lampricide Toxicity In Oncorhynchsus Mykiss, Chris White

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used for decades to control invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes, normally with little harm to other fish populations. However, due to the nature of lampricide treatments and the chemical properties of TFM, adverse effects to non-target fishes and non-target mortality occasionally occur. However, investigations of non-target mortality can be complex, particularly if fish deaths are not noticed immediately, due to decomposition of the carcasses. The objectives of this thesis were to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchsus mykiss) to TFM in order to: (i) identify forensic markers of lampricide toxicity and ...


The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen Jan 2015

The Effects Of Lampricide 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol Toxicity On The Gills Of Larval Sea Lamprey And Non-Target Rainbow Trout And Lake Sturgeon, Lisa A. Sorensen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), is widely used in the Great Lakes to control invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) populations, but much about its sub-lethal effects remains unknown. A better understanding of its toxicity is needed to improve TFM effectiveness and to protect non-target organisms from its potential adverse effects. The objectives of this thesis were to test the following two hypotheses: (1) impairment of mitochondrial ATP production by TFM interferes with ATP-dependent ion-uptake by fish, leading to altered electrolyte balance, and (2) perturbations of gill function by TFM are exacerbated in soft, ion poor water (SW; 40 mg CaCO3 ...


Distribution And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) By Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Michael W. Le Clair Jan 2014

Distribution And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) By Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Michael W. Le Clair

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), has been highly successful in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes. Treatments with TFM involve applying it to streams, where it targets larval sea lamprey which live burrowed in the stream substrate. While the toxic mechanism of TFM has been elucidated, and its effects on sea lamprey described, its effects on non-target fish species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are not as well understood. The present work demonstrated that rainbow trout show a great capacity to detoxify the lampricide using glucuronidation, when exposed to ...


Linking Cd Accumulation And Effect In Resistant And Sensitive Freshwater Invertebrates, Tony Straus Jan 2011

Linking Cd Accumulation And Effect In Resistant And Sensitive Freshwater Invertebrates, Tony Straus

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

There has been recent discussion within the field of environmental toxicology as to the viability of using the bioaccumulation of a chemical toxicant to predict toxic effects. Current literature has shown this concept to carry some merit, although there is a major flaw in that with many cases, namely those involving sensitive species, body burdens cannot be reliably linked to effects (Adams et al. (2010)). Bearing this issue in mind the goal of this thesis was to assess the viability of using bioaccumulation as a measure of effect in a different way.

The proposed idea utilized Cd accumulation in a ...


Cd-Induced Responses In Plasma Ionic Regulation And Oxidative Stress In Rainbow Trout (O. Mykiss) Or Lake Whitefish (C. Clupeaformis) During Chronic Waterborne Exposure, Amanda Mancini Jan 2011

Cd-Induced Responses In Plasma Ionic Regulation And Oxidative Stress In Rainbow Trout (O. Mykiss) Or Lake Whitefish (C. Clupeaformis) During Chronic Waterborne Exposure, Amanda Mancini

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

During chronic exposure to Cd or other metals, freshwater fish generally undergo physiological changes that results in acclimation, following a phase of damage and subsequent repair. The mechanisms associated with deleterious cellular effects induced by Cd throughout long-term exposures are less understood than those of acute toxicity, and may relate to an over-production of reactive oxygen species. The objectives of the present study were to examine the changes in, and relationship between, tissue-specific oxidative damage and antioxidant response, as well as plasma ionic regulation and tissue accumulation, in two freshwater salmonids throughout chronic Cd exposure. Rainbow trout (O. mykiss) or ...


Effects Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) On Energy Stores And Gill Function In Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Matthew Henry Jan 2011

Effects Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) On Energy Stores And Gill Function In Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Matthew Henry

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The primary method of controlling invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes is the application of the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to larval lamprey nursery streams. Recent evidence suggests that the mode of toxic action of TFM involves the inhibition of oxidative ATP production in the mitochondria. As a result, there is increased reliance on the anaerobic pathways of ATP production which involves the hydrolysis of phosphocreatine (PCr) and anaerobic glycolysis. TFM may also damage the gills, which may disrupt gill-mediated ion regulation and cause internal ion imbalances. While knowledge of TFM toxicity in larval lampreys has been ...


Physiological And Toxicological Effects Of Pb Plus Cd Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Soft Acidic Water, Yvonne Kara Jan 2010

Physiological And Toxicological Effects Of Pb Plus Cd Mixtures On Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Soft Acidic Water, Yvonne Kara

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The ability of a metal to cause toxicity in aquatic environments is highly dependant upon the water chemistry, which can influence metal bioavailability. Metal bioavailability is affected by the concentration of the metal, complexation of the metal by organic and inorganic ligands, and by the speciation of the metal. Predictive models of metal toxicity, such as the biotic ligand model (BLM) have mainly focused upon predicting the toxicity of individual metals rather than the toxicity of metals in mixtures, which are more commonly found in contaminated waters. Two metals that are commonly found together are Pb and Cd which can ...


The Dynamics Of Chronically Bioaccumulated Cd In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) During Both Moderately Hard And Soft Waterborne Exposures, Jessica Milne Jan 2010

The Dynamics Of Chronically Bioaccumulated Cd In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) During Both Moderately Hard And Soft Waterborne Exposures, Jessica Milne

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Aquatic organisms respond to metal exposures by modulating uptake, elimination and detoxification capacity and, therefore, it is difficult to link accumulation within fish to adverse chronic effects. When fish are exposed to sublethal concentrations of metal, physiological responses follow a damage-repair scenario with rapid uptake into the gills followed by transfer via the circulatory system and accumulation into key organs such as the liver and kidney. Anthropogenic sources of cadmium (Cd) arise mainly from mining, smelting, and refining sulphide ores of Zn, Pb and Cu (Norton et al., 1990). The free divalent ion (Cd2+) is the toxic form of ...


Mechanism(S) Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) Toxicity In Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) & Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Oana Birceanu Jan 2009

Mechanism(S) Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) Toxicity In Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) & Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Oana Birceanu

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), has been extensively used over the last 50 years to control invasive sea lamprey (P. marinus) populations in the Great Lakes, but its mechanism of toxicity is unresolved. Due to its structural similarity to phenolic compounds known to inhibit mitochondrial ATP production, one hypothesis on the mode of action of TFM is that it impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. A second hypothesis is that TFM targets the gill, interfering with gill ion uptake. Exposure of larval sea lamprey and rainbow trout (O. mykiss), to each animal’s respective 12-h TFM LC50, resulted in marked disturbances to internal ...


Of Fish And People: Managerial Ecology In Newfoundland And Labrador Cod Fisheries, Dean Louis Yelwa Bavington Jan 2006

Of Fish And People: Managerial Ecology In Newfoundland And Labrador Cod Fisheries, Dean Louis Yelwa Bavington

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation aims to understand the history of, and possible alternatives to, managerial responses to socio-ecological issues by examining one of the largest natural resource management failures of the twentieth century—the collapse of the Northern cod fisheries off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. In 1992, the Northern cod fishery off Newfoundland and Labrador (the world's largest ground fishery) was shut down. The Northern cod had been reduced to 1% of their historic spawning biomass and cod fishing as a way of life had come to an end after a 500 year history. The dissertation develops and applies a critical ...


Institutional Arrangements For Cooperative Fisheries Management: A Case Study Of The Newfoundland And Labrador Northern Shrimp Fishery, Bram F. Noble Jan 1999

Institutional Arrangements For Cooperative Fisheries Management: A Case Study Of The Newfoundland And Labrador Northern Shrimp Fishery, Bram F. Noble

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The intent of this study is to examine the present institutional arrangements of the Newfoundland and Labrador Northern shrimp fishery, to identify the roles of cooperative fisheries economic development corporations and make recommendations for institutional improvements. There are a number of institutional and organizational arrangements more favorable for fisheries management and development than present ones (Bishop, 1981; Bromley, 1982; McCay and Acheson, 1987; Pinkerton, 1989). Jentoft and McCay (1995) identified the need for this type of research in fisheries management in order to understand the complexity of relationships in fisheries management and to develop more effective means of fisheries management ...


Fisheries Co-Management And The Tahltan First Nation: From The Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy To A Treaty Regime (British Columbia), Kristen Lynn Smith Jan 1998

Fisheries Co-Management And The Tahltan First Nation: From The Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy To A Treaty Regime (British Columbia), Kristen Lynn Smith

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

For several years now, the Canadian Federal government’s Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy has provided a means for substantial co-management of fisheries resources by First Nations. Unfortunately, there is a widespread lack of understanding of the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS) by all interested parties. This study examines the AF S agreement of the Tahltan First Nation of Northwestern British Columbia and other fisheries co-management agreements in place in B.C. It does so by comparing them with the provisions and process of development of comprehensive claim based co- management agreements elsewhere in Canada. It also offers an assessment of aboriginal fisheries ...


River Channel Stability And The Implications For Fish Habitat, John T. Beebe Jan 1992

River Channel Stability And The Implications For Fish Habitat, John T. Beebe

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The purpose of this project was to investigate various aspects of river channel stability as they relate to fish habitat. Two headwater creeks of the Credit River system, Black and Silver Creeks, and their confluent stream, the West Credit River in Southern Ontario were used in the study. Thirty-five cross-sections were established and revisited during four flow regimes, summer base flow, fall secondary peak flow, spring melt-high flow and post-spring high flow. Measurements of width, depth and temperature were taken at these times. Water samples were taken for determination of suspended sediment concentration. Channel stability was investigated in relation to ...