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Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Analysis Of Bioaccumulation Of Selenium Diets In Brook Trout (Salvelnius Fontinalis), Kyle Aaron Tasker Jan 2017

Analysis Of Bioaccumulation Of Selenium Diets In Brook Trout (Salvelnius Fontinalis), Kyle Aaron Tasker

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is facing many challenges throughout the Appalachian region, which are thought to be brought on by effects of climate change and the loss of habitat because of the disturbance from the pursuit of energy sources, namely, the mining of coal in the region. Most of the mining occurs in the central plateau and southern mountain region of West Virginia. The brook trout have historically had an expansive range covering this region and has the potential to inhabit the headwater stream systems that occur very prevalently throughout the Appalachians. In the state of West Virginia, the ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Metabolism And Energetics Of Darters (Percidae), Emma Kirsten Kist Jan 2016

A Comparative Analysis Of The Metabolism And Energetics Of Darters (Percidae), Emma Kirsten Kist

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Ecological niche theory suggests two species cannot live in the same ecological niche and differences should exist among species that appear to cohabitate. Variations in physiology and behavior that potentially enable species coexistence can be reflected in metabolism. This study investigated coexisting darter fishes by measuring the metabolism of greenside (Etheostoma blennioides) and variegate (E. variatum) darters over 48 h using intermittent-flow respirometry. Activity was analyzed using time-lapse videos. E. blennioides mean metabolic rate (154.64 ± SE 52.54 mg O2·kg-1 ·hr-1 ; n=14; p=0.0006) was significantly greater than and varied more than E. variatum’s mean ...


Hibernacula Site Selection Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene C. Carolina, In A West Virginia Population, Benjamin Owen Koester Jan 2016

Hibernacula Site Selection Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene C. Carolina, In A West Virginia Population, Benjamin Owen Koester

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) are a terrestrially hibernating reptile found throughout the eastern United States. Despite their prevalence, little, outside of anecdotal observations, is known about their hibernacula selection. This study examines if they preferentially select hibernacula locations, and if so, what characteristics they select in a West Virginia population. Over the course of two years, radio-tagged turtles (n=12) were followed into hibernation in Wayne County, WV. Upon entering hibernation, ~36 data point were collected in a grid-like fashion around the hibernacula, with an additional point collected at the hibernacula. At each point, seven variables were recorded ...


Testing The Efficacy Of Anuran Callback Surveys, Matthew S. Grisnik Jan 2016

Testing The Efficacy Of Anuran Callback Surveys, Matthew S. Grisnik

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Monitoring programs often suffer from imperfect detection resulting in skewed population estimates, biased estimates of changes in occupancy over time, and can result in an underestimated proportion of area occupied (PAO) by a species. To increase the detection probability, researchers must increase sampling both spatially and temporally. Callback surveys are an active form of sampling that have been used to monitor many avian and mammal species. During callback surveys, the call of a conspecific male is projected with the intention of increasing probability of detection by eliciting a response from territorial males. These methods work for organisms that establish breeding ...


The Effect Of Silver Nanoparticles On Synaptic Responses In The Lateral Giant Escape Circuit Of The Crayfish, Samantha N. Adkins Jan 2015

The Effect Of Silver Nanoparticles On Synaptic Responses In The Lateral Giant Escape Circuit Of The Crayfish, Samantha N. Adkins

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The lateral giant neuron in the crayfish is a neuron that controls the reflexive escape response; the context and experience-dependent tuning of this response is critical for survival. Serotonin modulates synaptic responses in this neuron, and social experiences (stress) changes the modulatory role of serotonin. I investigated the mechanisms of induced synaptic response changes and serotonergic modulatory changes after silver nanoparticle exposure to ask if 1) contaminant induced stress changes serotonergic modulation in a manner consistent with social stress and 2) shed light on potential neurotoxic effects of widely used, but poorly understood nanomaterials. Our data show that stress induced ...


Monitoring The Land Cover Change In The Historic Range Of Cambarus Veteranus In West Virginia Using A 1973-2013 Landsat Time Series, Emma Martha Arneson Jan 2015

Monitoring The Land Cover Change In The Historic Range Of Cambarus Veteranus In West Virginia Using A 1973-2013 Landsat Time Series, Emma Martha Arneson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The crayfish Cambarus veteranus is near extinction in its historic range of the Upper Guyandotte River watershed. The biggest threats to C. veteranus are mining and road construction. Mining has been a continuous activity in the southern coalfields where the crayfish has historically been found, yet little is known about how much land cover change the practice has done to the region. Crayfish act as important organisms within aquatic ecosystems and without them, those systems are often degraded. Quantifying the change in land cover is important to understanding threats to C. veteranus for future protection of the crayfish and its ...


Population Level Responses To Direct Application Liming In Gyrinophilus Porphyriticus, Shelby Renea Timm Jan 2015

Population Level Responses To Direct Application Liming In Gyrinophilus Porphyriticus, Shelby Renea Timm

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Direct application liming (DAL) has been used to neutralize acidified streams to restore aquatic biota. This mitigation technique has been used globally for decades, yet little data exist on its effects on amphibian populations. My study investigated the effects of liming on amphibians by measuring variability in life histories of larval Gyrinophilus porphyriticus. I collected larvae from six streams in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. I examined the effects of DAL on age structure, and I failed to detect a treatment effect. I used ANCOVAs to examine differences in body condition, body size, and gape size. I observed that ...


Subthreshold Toxic Effects Of Atrazine And Three Degradates On Behavior In Procambarus Clarkii, Carol B. Starkey Jan 2014

Subthreshold Toxic Effects Of Atrazine And Three Degradates On Behavior In Procambarus Clarkii, Carol B. Starkey

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Atrazine is among the most heavily applied pesticides worldwide, and recent evidence suggests that it may be unsafe at environmental levels. It is a known endocrine disruptor and a suggested neurotoxin. The US EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) is 3 μg/L for human ingestion and 200 μg/L for limited human exposure. Several environmentally persistent degradates have been identified, including deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and hydroxyatrazine (HA). No MCLs have been established for these degradates, although some are suggested toxins. Thus, there remains concern for the risk associated with the presence of atrazine and its degradates in the environment ...


The Natural Life History Of Cambarus (Puncticambarus) Smilax, The Greenbrier Crayfish, Paul William Hughes Jan 2014

The Natural Life History Of Cambarus (Puncticambarus) Smilax, The Greenbrier Crayfish, Paul William Hughes

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The natural life history of Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax, the Greenbrier Crayfish, was studied in West Fork of the Greenbrier River and in Thorny Creek, a tributary of the main stem of the Greenbrier River. The Greenbrier Crayfish gets its name from the Greenbrier River watershed where it is thought to occur exclusively. Among described members of the subgenus Puncticambarus, C. smilax is a sister taxon most similar to Cambarus (Puncticambarus) robustus. Monthly collections were made within the two study sites, from August 2010 to July 2011. Collecting techniques included dip-netting, seine-netting, and hand collecting. Cambarus smilax and all other species ...


Filling In The Gaps In Phenology And Life History Of The Cumberland Plateau Salamander (Plethodon Kentucki), Robert C. Bowers Jan 2013

Filling In The Gaps In Phenology And Life History Of The Cumberland Plateau Salamander (Plethodon Kentucki), Robert C. Bowers

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, is a member of the Plethodon glutinosus complex comprising 16 sibling species, which are best differentiated by range. Few studies have been conducted to gain information on the natural history of P. kentucki. To alleviate this, two sites at Beech Fork State Park in Wayne County, West Virginia were used to study the salamander’s general life history with emphasis on reproduction, phenology, and population size. At each site, three 20m x 20m sample plots were arranged based on viability of the habitat for P. kentucki. Ground searches of all cover objects within the ...


Dietary Preference Of The Queensnake (Regina Septemvittata), Timothy J. Brust Jan 2013

Dietary Preference Of The Queensnake (Regina Septemvittata), Timothy J. Brust

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Queensnake (Regina septemvittata) is a small secretive water snake found throughout the eastern United States. Once common, their numbers have declined to the extent that they are now threatened throughout most of their range, largely the result of pollutant-based reduction in prey species. These snakes are assumed to eat molted crayfish exclusively. For some common crayfish species, molting happens only twice a summer during a two- week period. It has not been documented if Queensnakes eat anything besides crayfish on a regular basis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prey preference of Queensnakes with particular focus ...


Examining The Influence Of Mating Systems On Testes Size In Salamanders, Howard James Stanton Ii Jan 2013

Examining The Influence Of Mating Systems On Testes Size In Salamanders, Howard James Stanton Ii

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Sperm competition theory predicts that relatively larger testes sizes evolve in animals with polygamous mating systems compared to those in monogamous mating systems due to sperm competition. Whereas intensity of sperm competition is the significant predictor of testes sizes in other taxa such as mammals, frogs, birds, insects, and fish, in salamanders the intensity of male-male competition in the transfer of spermatophores to females is predicted to be a critical factor. This is because males have to deposit more spermatophores to secure reproductive pay-off under higher intensity of male-male competition. I hypothesized that salamander species that breed explosively as groups ...


Quantitative Reconstruction And Two-Dimensional, Steady Flow Hydrodynamics Of The Plesiosaur Flipper, Mark Cruz Deblois Jan 2013

Quantitative Reconstruction And Two-Dimensional, Steady Flow Hydrodynamics Of The Plesiosaur Flipper, Mark Cruz Deblois

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Plesiosaurs are a group of extinct marine reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic Era. They are unique for swimming with two hydrofoil-shaped flippers. Penguins, sea turtles, and cetaceans all have hydrofoil shaped flippers but penguins and sea turtles only use the front pair to produce thrust and cetaceans use their tail flukes. Consequently, the mode of swimming for plesiosaurs has long been debated. However, a quantitative study of the hydrodynamic properties of the flippers, which would constrain inference about their mode of swimming, has not yet been done. The main reason is that the trailing edge of the plesiosaur flipper ...


Size And Age Variation Of Larval Gyrinophilus Porphyriticus Porphyriticus In Sympatry With Salvelinus Fontinalis, Aaron Jacob Semasko Jan 2013

Size And Age Variation Of Larval Gyrinophilus Porphyriticus Porphyriticus In Sympatry With Salvelinus Fontinalis, Aaron Jacob Semasko

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Northern Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) has a larval stage that could extend up to six years, an anomaly unheard of in other plethodontid salamanders. The size of a larva could be larger than an adult of a younger age. A sympatric species, Salvelinus fontinalis, the native brook trout, negatively alters the individual mass and survival of G. p. porphyriticus larvae. In the absence of trout, the role of G. porphyriticus ascends to top predator in a small stream community. Amphibians specifically have proven their role as stream indicators, a position attributed to their porous skin. I attempted to determine ...


The Crayfishes Of West Virginia’S Southwestern Coalfields Region With An Emphasis On The Life History Of Cambarus Theepiensis, David Allen Foltz Ii Jan 2013

The Crayfishes Of West Virginia’S Southwestern Coalfields Region With An Emphasis On The Life History Of Cambarus Theepiensis, David Allen Foltz Ii

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Crayfish are the third most endangered faunal group in the world behind freshwater snails and unionid mussels. A better understanding of each species’ life history is vital in order to aid in crayfish conservation; however, little to no life history information is available for most crayfish. Recently, an undescribed species of crayfish, Cambarus theepiensis, was discovered in the Cumberland Mountains of West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky. In conjunction with the species’ scientific description, life history data was collected from May 2012 through April 2013 from two sites located within the Twelvepole watershed of southwestern West Virginia. Animals were collected monthly ...


A Reproductive And Trophic Transfer Study Associated With Selenium Concentrations In The Upper Mud River Watershed, Amanda Lee Wilson Jan 2012

A Reproductive And Trophic Transfer Study Associated With Selenium Concentrations In The Upper Mud River Watershed, Amanda Lee Wilson

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Selenium in mining-related discharges has created concern in the Appalachian Region where coal is a significant resource. In West Virginia, evaluation of streams receiving mining discharges focused attention on the Mud River watershed where bioaccumulation of selenium was highest in preliminary surveys. Chronic exposure (mainly dietary) of mature female fish to selenium has the potential to cause developmental abnormalities in developing embryos due to the maternal transfer of selenium into the eggs. Literature suggests that factors affecting the bioaccumulation rate of selenium, and the concentration of selenium associated with the aforementioned effects are site-specific. The purpose of this study was ...


Freshwater Mussel Populations Of The Monongahela River, Pa And Evaluation Of The Orsanco Copper Pole Substrate Sampling Technique Using G.I.S. Interpolation With Geometric Means, Jonathan Hart Jan 2012

Freshwater Mussel Populations Of The Monongahela River, Pa And Evaluation Of The Orsanco Copper Pole Substrate Sampling Technique Using G.I.S. Interpolation With Geometric Means, Jonathan Hart

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Large river studies for freshwater mussel populations and habitat in the Monongahela River within Pennsylvania have been almost non-existent over the past century. Aquatic diversity and water quality have been impaired in the Monongahela River since the Industrial Revolution and early impoundments were constructed to control the river. To date, there have been no thorough mussel population studies conducted on the Pennsylvanian Monongahela River proper since A.E. Ortmann in 1919. The mussel population accounts for this large river system are invaluable accounts of the aquatic condition of the Monongahela River. Mussel populations and habitat within the river have diminished ...


The Status And Distribution Of Invasive Crayfishes And Their Effects On Native Crayfish Communities In West Virginia, Casey David Swecker Jan 2012

The Status And Distribution Of Invasive Crayfishes And Their Effects On Native Crayfish Communities In West Virginia, Casey David Swecker

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Introductions of non-native crayfish species have resulted in the global decline of native crayfish populations, including those in North America. The last large survey of crayfishes from West Virginia was in 1988 and 1989. In this thorough document Raymond Jezerinac, Whitney Stocker, and Donald Tarter identified three separate areas in West Virginia where non-native crayfish species have been introduced. One area is located in the Potomac River drainage in northeastern West Virginia commonly referred to as the eastern panhandle of the state. This is also the only drainage in West Virginia where the native spiny cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) occurs ...


The Effect Of Auditory Call Playback On Anuran Detection And Capture Rates, Derek Adam Bozzell Jan 2012

The Effect Of Auditory Call Playback On Anuran Detection And Capture Rates, Derek Adam Bozzell

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Calls of male anurans during breeding seasons are species-specific identification tools. However, males cease calling after any nearby disturbance, including those of researchers. I proposed a variation on current methods that attempts to reduce this lag in calling after researcher-created disturbance by utilizing the propensity for competition in male frogs. I surveyed 14 breeding sites in Cabell and Wayne counties during the 2010 and 2011 breeding seasons. First, I used traditional visual encounter surveys (VESs). After using automated recording devices to gather site-specific recordings of calls of all species present, I conducted secondary VESs while playing these playlists over a ...


Diversity Of The Ohio River Bacterial Communities Using Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques, Emily Michele Anneken Jan 2012

Diversity Of The Ohio River Bacterial Communities Using Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques, Emily Michele Anneken

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The ability to sequence bacterial genetic material directly from environmental samples has unlocked the field of metagenomics. Next-generation sequencing techniques, such as pyrosequencing, have been instrumental in providing knowledge about bacterial communities. This study focused on identifying the bacterial diversity of the Ohio River via pyrosequencing and compared the diversity of cultivable bacteria versus the entire river community. To ensure the maximum number of cultivable bacteria was obtained, cultures were grown on nonselective media and incubated at river temperature. Bacterial DNA was extracted, sequenced, and classified. The dominant phyla for the Ohio River included Cyanobacteria (38-66% of the total), Actinobacteria ...


Rediscovering The Maryland Darter (Etheostoma Sellare), Tyler Russell Hern Jan 2011

Rediscovering The Maryland Darter (Etheostoma Sellare), Tyler Russell Hern

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Maryland darter has not been observed since 1988. Historic populations were located in Deer Creek, Swan Creek, and Gashey’s Run all of which occur in the lower Susquehanna drainage. At these locations, specimens were collected or observed at the lowest riffle of the stream. Some researchers suggest this may be a large river darter. The Conowingo Dam complicates surveying below the facility due to the rapid fluctuations in water levels caused by regulation for power production. Surveying efforts included trawling in the mainstem, and visual surveys in the mainstem, and searching/sampling all historically known locations of Etheostoma ...


The Little Coal River Improvement Project, West Virginia: An Initial Study Of Sediment, Bacteria And Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Emily Vargo Jan 2011

The Little Coal River Improvement Project, West Virginia: An Initial Study Of Sediment, Bacteria And Benthic Macroinvertebrates, Emily Vargo

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Little Coal River, located in southern West Virginia, has undergone many changes over the last few years in an effort to reverse the negative effects of various point source and non-point source pollutions. Marshall University, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Army Corp of Engineers, and the Coal River Group, has designed and implemented a plan for rehabilitation known as the Little Coal Improvement Project. Several improvement structures were strategically installed within the Little Coal River during the summer of 2007. The functions of these structures include sediment flushing and overall habitat improvement. Monitoring these ...


Plastron Reduction And Associated Myology In Turtles, And Its Implications For Functional Morphology And Natural History, He Zhu Jan 2011

Plastron Reduction And Associated Myology In Turtles, And Its Implications For Functional Morphology And Natural History, He Zhu

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

This study seeks to understand the locomotor implications of plastron reduction in turtles through dissection, description and qualitative and quantitative analysis of muscle masses. A comparative study will be conducted between a turtle species with a reduced plastron (Chelydra serpentina) and a species with a full plastron (Trachemys scripta elegans) to gain a better understanding of how the reduced plastron in snapping turtles affects their myology and gait. Quantitative data on muscular mass and length will be obtained for statistical comparison between the two clades. Data collected will be used to make inferences on gait, stance and natural history.


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Blacknose Dace (Rhinichthys) In West Virginia Streams, Samantha Taylor Jan 2011

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Blacknose Dace (Rhinichthys) In West Virginia Streams, Samantha Taylor

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Blacknose dace (Rhinichthys) are one of the most common cyprinid fishes in eastern North America. They also have been a topic of debate for over 30 years because morphology-based systematics has failed to clearly define their taxa. Taxonomists classify the complex into two species and one subspecies: the eastern form, R. atratulus atratulus; and the western form R. obtusus obtusus, and southern form R. obtusus meleagris. This research uses the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and genomic RAG 2 gene in a phylogenetic analysis to help clarify species relations according to differences between each current species. Maps have been created to ...


The Natural History & Distribution Of Riverine Turtles In West Virginia, Linh Diem Phu Jan 2010

The Natural History & Distribution Of Riverine Turtles In West Virginia, Linh Diem Phu

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Turtles are unique evolutionary marvels that evolved from amphibians and developed their protective shelled form more than 200 million years ago. In West Virginia, there are 10 native species of turtles, 9 of which are aquatic. Most of these aquatic turtles feed on carrion and dead plant matter, in the water and essentially "clean" our water systems. Turtles are long-lived animals with sensitive life stages that can serve as both long-term and short-term bioindicators of environmental health. With the increase in commercial trade, habitat fragmentation, degradation, destruction, there has been a marked decline in turtle species. The need for well ...


Long-Term Growth And Monitoring Of The Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus A. Alleganiensis) In Eastern West Virginia, Douglas Charles Horchler Jan 2010

Long-Term Growth And Monitoring Of The Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus A. Alleganiensis) In Eastern West Virginia, Douglas Charles Horchler

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Amphibian declines have been well documented, specifically in the last few decades. The Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, one of North America’s largest salamander species, has suffered dramatic declines throughout much of its range, with estimated declines of up to 77 percent recently documented in some populations. With diurnal and nocturnal searches and mark-recapture techniques, I collected data on the status of Eastern Hellbender populations in Eastern West Virginia. We re-sampled a study site on the West Fork of the Greenbrier River that was first examined in 1998 by Jeff Humphries. Long-term growth and survivorship data were collected and compared to ...


Testing The Behavioral Responses Of West Virginia Turtles To Roads And Vehicles, Aaron Clinton Gooley Jan 2010

Testing The Behavioral Responses Of West Virginia Turtles To Roads And Vehicles, Aaron Clinton Gooley

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Road mortality has been identified as a major threat to many turtle species; however, response to passing vehicles, crossing speed, and general behavior while crossing roads has never been investigated in turtles. To investigate these factors, Midland Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta marginata), Eastern Box Turtles (Terrapene c. carolina), and Stinkpots (Sternotherus odoratus) were collected and placed in a release box on the side of a closed road with an active road running parallel to it 26 m away. Turtles were released via a pulley-operated door facing the road, and their actions videotaped by an observer in a nearby blind. A ...


Movement Patterns And Artificial Arboreal Cover Use Of Green Salamanders (Aneides Aeneus) In Kanawha County, West Virginia, Sarah Elizabeth Miloski Jan 2010

Movement Patterns And Artificial Arboreal Cover Use Of Green Salamanders (Aneides Aeneus) In Kanawha County, West Virginia, Sarah Elizabeth Miloski

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Global amphibian declines have spawned a need for amphibian monitoring studies using standardized sampling techniques for early detection of population declines. The Green Salamander (Aneides aeneus) is a declining plethodontid salamander (Family: Plethodontidae) associated with rock outcrops and arboreal habitat. The unique habitat requirements of this species make A. aeneus populations particularly susceptible to habitat perturbations. Although primarily associated with rock outcrops, A. aeneus morphology and ecology suggest that A. aeneus may be highly mobile. High mobility has important implications for habitat management, particularly pertaining to land surrounding rock outcrops. However, few studies have addressed plethodontid movement patterns, which are ...


A Natural History Study Of Bufo A. Americanus, The Eastern American Toad, And The Phenology Of Spring Breeders In Southwest West Virginia, Tomi Maria Bergstrom Jan 2010

A Natural History Study Of Bufo A. Americanus, The Eastern American Toad, And The Phenology Of Spring Breeders In Southwest West Virginia, Tomi Maria Bergstrom

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Natural history traits have not been thoroughly collected and analyzed on the "common hoptoad," Bufo a. americanus (eastern American toad) in West Virginia. Updating natural history information is important to understand the present population status (Jackson, 2001). I chose to have two study sites at opposing physiographic regions to constitute a better understanding of B. a. americanus natural history in WV. The study was initiated in spring 2008 at Beech Fork State Park and Green Bottom Swamp Wildlife Refuge (in Mason and Cabell counties) and in 2009 incorporated Canaan Valley of Tucker County. Ten natural history morphometrics and characters were ...


Dopamine Modulates The Lateral Giant Neuron And Serotonergic Facilitation In Crayfish, Joshua Scott Titlow Jan 2010

Dopamine Modulates The Lateral Giant Neuron And Serotonergic Facilitation In Crayfish, Joshua Scott Titlow

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The lateral giant (LG) neural circuit is a model system used to study the function of individual neurons. The LG circuit is part of a tail flip escape reflex that is a defensive behavior for crayfish. This thesis begins by addressing the effects of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter involved in normal and abnormal behaviors of most animals. Here it is shown that dopamine decreases the excitability of the LG neuron, a trigger for the escape reflex. An electrophysiology protocol was used to mimic sensory input to the LG neuron. Stimulating a sensory nerve in the last ganglion with an electrode ...