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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 51

Full-Text Articles in Aquaculture and Fisheries

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk Jan 2019

Developmental And Functional Analysis Of Scutes In The Armored Catfish Corydoras Aeneus, Emily Volk

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fish scales are specialized biological structures of current interest in innovative materials design because of the combination of protective function, flexibility, and light weight they offer. This study presents a developmental and functional investigation of a particular fish scale structure, the scutes (bony external plates) of the armored Bronze Corydoras Catfish (Corydoras aeneus). Scutes in this model fish species were analyzed via three complementary approaches. First, scutes were documented throughout fish development via high-quality microscope images. These images were subsequently used to inform fabrication of synthetic models to characterize the relationship between scute overlap and overall bending stiffness of scute ...


Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler Dec 2017

Effects Of Crude Oil On Tumor Suppressor P53 Polymorphisms In Laboratory-Exposed Atlantic Killifish, Fundulus Heteroclitus, Allison Margaret Nadler

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), constituents of crude oil, are implicated as a potent source of adverse toxicological effects on living organisms. To model the effects of PAHs in response to environmental oil spill disasters a species of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) was captured and exposed to crude oil in a laboratory-controlled setting. Over a period of 7 days, fish were dosed with crude oil by gavage, culled, and organs were harvested for analysis. Excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) of gall bladder tissue homogenates was used to verify exposure. Effects of PAHs on the p53 gene were evaluated as an indicator of genotoxicity ...


Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel Aug 2017

Changes In Zooplankton Community, And Seston And Zooplankton Fatty Acid Profiles At The Freshwater/Saltwater Interface Of The Chowan River, North Carolina, Deborah A. Lichti, Jacques Rinchard, David G. Kimmel

Environmental Science and Ecology Faculty Publications

The variability in zooplankton fatty acid composition may be an indicator of larval fish habitat quality as fatty acids are linked to fish larval growth and survival. We sampled an anadromous fish nursery, the Chowan River, during spring of 2013 in order to determine how the seston fatty acid composition varied in comparison with the zooplankton community composition and fatty acid composition during the period of anadromous larval fish residency. The seston fatty acid profiles showed no distinct pattern in relation to sampling time or location. The mesozooplankton community composition varied spatially and the fatty acid profiles were typical of ...


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2017

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki Jan 2017

Behavioural And Biochemical Responses To Dietary Mercury Exposure In Two Commercially Important Marine Species, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki

Theses

Mercury is a toxic metal with a global distribution. Studies on waterborne exposure to inorganic mercury in aquatic organisms showed changes in biochemical markers and behaviour. Few studies have focused on the effects of inorganic mercury ingestion. This thesis investigated dietary exposure of mercuric chloride to post-larvae and juveniles of Penaeus monodon and juvenile Acanthopagrus australis and showed that biochemical marker response depends on the organism, age (post-larvae or juvenile), tissue analysed (e.g. muscle and neurologic tissue) and exposure period (up to 16 days). Additionally, swimming behaviour was a sensitive parameter for post-larvae prawn studies, but not for juvenile ...


Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Frontiers In Otolith Chemistry: Insights, Advances And Applications, B. D. Walther, K. E. Limburg, C. M. Jones, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

The rapid proliferation of publications employing chemical assays of fish hard parts, and otoliths in particular, has led to many novel insights into the migration patterns, life history strategies and mixed stock dynamics of fishes across the globe (Campana et al., 2000; Elsdon et al., 2008; Walther & Limburg, 2012). These insights include uncovering diverse migratory strategies within species and populations (Kerr et al., 2009; Hogan et al., 2014; Schoen et al., 2016), quantifying rates of mixing among stocks across management boundaries (Rooker et al., 2008; Walther & Thorrold, 2010) and estimating the relative importance of particular natal habitats for recruitment (Thorrold et al., 2001; Schaffler et al., 2015; Anstead et al., 2016). Much of this work has been driven by advances in instrumentation that allow more precise and higher throughput analyses with greater spatial and ...


Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler Jan 2017

Beyond Zar: The Use And Abuse Of Classification Statistics For Otolith Chemistry, C. M. Jones, M. Palmers, J. J. Schaffler

OEAS Faculty Publications

Classification method performance was evaluated using otolith chemistry of juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus when assumptions of data normality were met and were violated. Four methods were tested [linear discriminant function analysis (LDFA), quadratic discriminant function analysis (QDFA), random forest (RF) and artificial neural networks (ANN)] using computer simulation to determine their performance when variable-group means ranged from small to large and their performance under conditions of typical skewness to double the amount of skewness typically observed. Using the kappa index, the parametric methods performed best after applying appropriate data transformation, gaining 2% better performance with LDFA performing slightly better ...


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins Jun 2016

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks May 2016

Physical Modeling Of Vortical Cross-Step Filtration In The Oral Cavity Of American Paddlefish (Polyodon Spathula), Hannah Brooks

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the filter-feeding mechanisms of the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. The data indicate that paddlefish use a filtration method termed cross-step filtration, which utilizes vortices formed behind the branchial arches by the incoming water flow. Videos of these vortices were obtained and quantified for the first time inside the oral cavities of preserved paddlefish. Since the paddlefish can move the branchial arches within the oral cavity, the effects of changing branchial arch angle on vortex characteristics were studied in 3D models. The vortices in three models with different arch angles were quantified. The data demonstrated that a change ...


An Investigation Of Juvenile Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus) Habitat Use And Growth Using Natural Markers, Gregory Norman Labonte Jan 2016

An Investigation Of Juvenile Alewife (Alosa Pseudoharengus) Habitat Use And Growth Using Natural Markers, Gregory Norman Labonte

All Theses & Dissertations

This research attempts to connect patterns in growth and migration of an anadromous species. The goal of this research was to understand habitat movements and growth of juvenile alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Penobscot Estuary and Bay through the use of otolith microchemistry, otolith growth increments, and a laboratory stable isotope turnover study. Understanding the connection between growth and movement of juvenile alewives may lead to more accurate and sophisticated conservation and restoration methods for anadromous species.


Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson Jan 2016

Letter From The Dean, Lona Robertson

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Reproductive Strategies In Captive California Yellowtail (Seriola Dorsalis) Using Genetic Parentage Analyses, Elizabeth K. Smith, Mark Drawbridge Ms, John Hyde Phd, Geoffrey Morse Phd Sep 2015

Evaluation Of Reproductive Strategies In Captive California Yellowtail (Seriola Dorsalis) Using Genetic Parentage Analyses, Elizabeth K. Smith, Mark Drawbridge Ms, John Hyde Phd, Geoffrey Morse Phd

Theses

A good understanding of spawning dynamics of species in aquaculture is vital in order to maximize egg production and quality as well as efficient allocation of food and space resources. The breeding program of California yellowtail (CYT; Seriola dorsalis previously Seriola lalandi) at Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute (HSWRI) is set up such that up to 30 wild caught brood fish can broadcast spawn in a group setting, just as CYT reproduce in the wild. The population of brood fish were originally caught offshore from Southern California, and are maintained under ambient sea water and natural lighting conditions. The spawning season at ...


Linking Old Librarianship To New: Aligning 5-Steps Of The Innovator's Dna In Creating Thematic Discovery Systems For The Everglades, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez May 2015

Linking Old Librarianship To New: Aligning 5-Steps Of The Innovator's Dna In Creating Thematic Discovery Systems For The Everglades, L. Bryan Cooper, Margarita Perez Martinez

Works of the FIU Libraries

This poster presentation from the May 2015 Florida Library Association Conference, along with the Everglades Explorer discovery portal at http://ee.fiu.edu, demonstrates how traditional bibliographic and curatorial principles can be applied to: 1) selection, cross-walking and aggregation of metadata linking end-users to wide-spread digital resources from multiple silos; 2) harvesting of select PDFs, HTML and media for web archiving and access; 3) selection of CMS domains, sub-domains and folders for targeted searching using an API.

Choosing content for this discovery portal is comparable to past scholarly practice of creating and publishing subject bibliographies, except metadata and data are ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2015

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Biological And Physiological Condition Of Juvenile California Halibut (Paralichthys Californicus) Exposed To A Contamination Gradient In Mission Bay, Ca, Kevin Stolzenbach Dec 2014

Biological And Physiological Condition Of Juvenile California Halibut (Paralichthys Californicus) Exposed To A Contamination Gradient In Mission Bay, Ca, Kevin Stolzenbach

Theses

Contaminated sediments in marine environments have been shown to be good indicators of ecological risk and a means to assess anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats and the animals that inhabit them (Long et al. 1995, Rattner 2009). Estuarine sediments are especially complex media with regard to physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that trap, store, modify and sometimes release contaminants to the biota (Long et al. 1995). Especially vulnerable are animals that are in constant contact with the sediments, such as flatfishes that partially bury themselves for camouflage (Costa et al. 2011). Impacts can be assessed in a number of ways ...


Estrogenic Effects On A Protandrous Hermaphroditic Species: Amphiprion Percula, Randall Burns, Katie Dose Apr 2014

Estrogenic Effects On A Protandrous Hermaphroditic Species: Amphiprion Percula, Randall Burns, Katie Dose

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Estrogen concentrations are increased in aquatic environments due to the addition of pharmaceutical drugs (i.e. birth control) through runoff water. This manipulates maturation of sexes within many species that inhabit aquatic enviornments, including fresh and marine habitats. Amphiprion percula exhibit a hierarchal system behavioral pattern, which determines the social status of individuals within a group. Multiple clown anemonefish, A. percula were studied via a controlled environment and hierarchal succession was observed under estrogenic additions. From this study, data on sex change of a hermaphroditic protandrous species was observed under the influence of three concentrations of natural estrogen. Based on ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2014

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Distribution And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) By Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Michael W. Le Clair Jan 2014

Distribution And Elimination Of 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-Nitrophenol (Tfm) By Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) And Non-Target, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) And Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens), Michael W. Le Clair

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The pesticide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), has been highly successful in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes. Treatments with TFM involve applying it to streams, where it targets larval sea lamprey which live burrowed in the stream substrate. While the toxic mechanism of TFM has been elucidated, and its effects on sea lamprey described, its effects on non-target fish species such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are not as well understood. The present work demonstrated that rainbow trout show a great capacity to detoxify the lampricide using glucuronidation, when exposed to ...


Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill May 2013

Validation Of Antibodies Used To Study Hypoxia Inducible Factors In Two Species Of Fundulus, Jenna D. Hill

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors and the master regulators of oxygen-dependent gene expression in animals. The focus of this thesis is the distribution of HIF protein in tissues of the fish Fundulus heteroclitus and F. grandis, two widespread species that occur in naturally hypoxic waters. Polyclonal antibodies against HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α were tested on proteins made in vitro and on extracts made from several tissues of normoxic and hypoxic fish. Antibodies against HIF-1α and 3α bound specifically to full length protein made in vitro, and produced bands on western blots of nuclear extracts of near the expected ...


Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson Mar 2013

Effect Of Anthraquinone Dyes On The Carbohydrate, Protein And Lipid Content In The Muscle Of Channa Punctatus And Cyprinus Carpio, Rajee Olaganathan, Jamila Patterson

Publications

Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio was exposed to sub lethal concentrations viz., 6.15 and 6.60 mg/l of vat blue 4 and vat green 1 respectively for a period of thirty days. The cumulative effect of these two dyes on the total carbohydrate, protein and lipid levels in the muscle of both the fishes were assayed on 7th, 18th and 30th day of exposure. The mean carbohydrate content of C. punctatus (both control and treated fish) collected on 18th and 30th day showed a significant difference (P < 0.01 to 0.04). In the case of control and treated C. carpio the data collected on 30th day showed significant variation (P < 0.04) in the carbohydrate content of the muscle. Student’s ‘t’ test analysis conducted on the protein content of C. punctatus during different occasions registered a significant decrease; in case of lipid content, except between the 1st and 30th day in all other cases the ‘t’ value is not significant. In case of C. carp protein and lipid content were observed to increase during the 7th day and thereafter a marked decrease was recorded on the 18th and 30th day of exposure. When the data was subjected to student’s ‘t’ test, both in protein and lipid, significant difference could not be recorded.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2013

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors Jan 2013

Instructions For Authors, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Brief Embryonic Strychnine Exposure In Zebrafish Causes Long-Term Adult Behavioral Impairment With Indications Of Embyronic Synaptic Changes, Nicole Roy, Brianna Arpie, Joseph Lugo, Elwood Linney, Edward D. Levin, Daniel Cerutti Nov 2012

Brief Embryonic Strychnine Exposure In Zebrafish Causes Long-Term Adult Behavioral Impairment With Indications Of Embyronic Synaptic Changes, Nicole Roy, Brianna Arpie, Joseph Lugo, Elwood Linney, Edward D. Levin, Daniel Cerutti

Biology Faculty Publications

Zebrafish provide a powerful model of the impacts of embryonic toxicant exposure on neural development that may result in long-term behavioral dysfunction. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 1.5mM strychnine for short embryonic time windows to induce transient changes in inhibitory neural signaling, and were subsequently raised in untreated water until adulthood. PCR analysis showed indications that strychnine exposure altered expression of some genes related to glycinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal synapses during embryonic development. In adulthood, treated fish showed significant changes in swimming speed and tank diving behavior compared to controls. Taken together, these data show ...


Diversity Of The Ohio River Bacterial Communities Using Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques, Emily Michele Anneken Jan 2012

Diversity Of The Ohio River Bacterial Communities Using Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques, Emily Michele Anneken

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The ability to sequence bacterial genetic material directly from environmental samples has unlocked the field of metagenomics. Next-generation sequencing techniques, such as pyrosequencing, have been instrumental in providing knowledge about bacterial communities. This study focused on identifying the bacterial diversity of the Ohio River via pyrosequencing and compared the diversity of cultivable bacteria versus the entire river community. To ensure the maximum number of cultivable bacteria was obtained, cultures were grown on nonselective media and incubated at river temperature. Bacterial DNA was extracted, sequenced, and classified. The dominant phyla for the Ohio River included Cyanobacteria (38-66% of the total), Actinobacteria ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2012

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley Aug 2011

Interspecies Comparison Of Αii-Spectrin Abundance Between Chinook Salmon And Steelhead, Brielle D. Kemis, Ann L. Miracle, Katie A. Wagner, Christa M. Woodley

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Salmonids, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), are a staple economic, recreational, tribal, and environmental resource, yet many populations are unsustainable. This study was part of a broad scale effort to monitor the impact of downstream migration obstacles on juvenile salmonid health and survival, which is an essential step towards increasing Smolt-to-Adult Return ratios (SARs). The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead exhibit differing quantities of alphaII-Spectrin Breakdown Products (SBDPs) over two consecutive spring migration periods, indicative of neurogenesis rate and/or biological response to head injury. AlphaII-Spectrin is ...


Accumulation Of Polonium-210 In Different Species Of Fish In Lake Mead, Suraj Ghevarghese John, Shungmugam Nallaperumal, Vernon Hodge Apr 2011

Accumulation Of Polonium-210 In Different Species Of Fish In Lake Mead, Suraj Ghevarghese John, Shungmugam Nallaperumal, Vernon Hodge

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Discovered by Pierre Curie and Marie Skłodowska-Curie in 1898, polonium is a chemical element with an atomic number of 84. This rare naturally occurring radioactive element is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and forms in uranium ores. Polonium-210 is an naturally occurring radioactive element with a half-life of 138.376 days(1). This element is found in trace amounts in most organisms. Our research is focused on the accumulation of polonium-210 in fish that occupy in Lake Mead.

The sample species is chosen based on varying lake stratification (layers of the lake). This gives us a good idea of ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2011

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Novel Relationships Among Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) Revealed By A Taxonomically Comprehensive Molecular Data Set, Nicholas J. Lang, Kevin J. Roe, Claude B. Renaud, Howard S. Gill, Ian C. Potter, Jörg Freyhof, Alexander M. Naseka, Philip Cochran, Hector Espinosa Pérez, Evelyn M. Habit, Bernard R. Kuhajda, David A. Neely, Yuri S. Reshetnikov, Vladimir B. Salnikov, Maria Th. Stoumboudi, Richard L. Mayden Jan 2009

Novel Relationships Among Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) Revealed By A Taxonomically Comprehensive Molecular Data Set, Nicholas J. Lang, Kevin J. Roe, Claude B. Renaud, Howard S. Gill, Ian C. Potter, Jörg Freyhof, Alexander M. Naseka, Philip Cochran, Hector Espinosa Pérez, Evelyn M. Habit, Bernard R. Kuhajda, David A. Neely, Yuri S. Reshetnikov, Vladimir B. Salnikov, Maria Th. Stoumboudi, Richard L. Mayden

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The systematics of lampreys was investigated using complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences from all genera and nearly all recognized species. The families Geotriidae and Petromyzontidae are monophyletic, but the family Mordaciidae was resolved as two divergent lineages at the base of the tree. Within Petromyzontidae, the nonparasitic Lethenteron sp. S and Okkelbergia aepyptera were recognized as distinct lineages, Lethenteron morii and Lampetra zanandreai were moved to new genera, a sister species relationship was recovered between Caspiomyzon wagneri and Eudontomyzon hellenicus, and a clade was recovered inclusive of Entosphenus hubbsi and western North American Lampetra (L. ayresii and L. richardsoni). The ...