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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2011

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Genotypic Characterization, And Molecular Detection Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus From Louisiana Oysters, Feifei Han Jan 2010

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Genotypic Characterization, And Molecular Detection Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus And Vibrio Vulnificus From Louisiana Oysters, Feifei Han

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Members of the genus Vibrio are Gram-negative, halophilic bacteria that inhabit warm coastal and estuarine waters worldwide. Among pathogenic vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related illnesses and Vibrio vulnificus causes the highest number of seafood-related deaths in the United States. Moreover, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the incidence of infections of the two vibrios due to the consumption of oysters has shown a sustained increase since 2001, indicating further measures are needed to prevent human Vibrio illness. In this dissertation research, a total of 622 Vibrio isolates, consisting of 252 V ...


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2010

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2009

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Population Assessment Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In The Seaside Coastal Bays, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach Feb 2009

Population Assessment Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In The Seaside Coastal Bays, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach

Reports

Declines of oyster populations and commercial harvest from the Virginia seaside coastal bays have followed similar patterns, though not as severe, as those in Chesapeake Bay. High prevalence of Dermo disease (Perkinsus marinus) and MSX disease (Haplosporidium nelsoni) coupled with over harvest and habitat destruction have dramatically reduced populations. Nevertheless, there are several promising signs that significant enhancement of the population could be achieved with well conceived restoration efforts. Oyster habitat and population distribution were examined in the coastal bay system on the seaside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia. This system is composed of barrier islands, salt marshes, broad ...


Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang Jan 2009

Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang

CCPO Publications

Delaware Bay oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations are influenced by two lethal parasites that cause Dermo and MSX diseases. As part of the US National Science Foundation Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative, a program developed for Delaware Bay focuses on understanding how oyster population genetics and population dynamics interact with the environment and these parasites to structure he host populations, and how these interactions might modified by climate change. Laboratory and field studies undertaken during this program include identifying genes related to MSX and Dermo disease resistance, potential regions for refugia and the mechanisms that allow them to exist, phenotypic and ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2008

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Nutrient Enrichment Affects Recruitment Of Oysters And Barnacles In A Mangrove Forest, Todd E. Minchinton, Louise A. Mckenzie Jan 2008

Nutrient Enrichment Affects Recruitment Of Oysters And Barnacles In A Mangrove Forest, Todd E. Minchinton, Louise A. Mckenzie

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We tested the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment affects recruitment of the oyster Saccostrea glomerataand the barnacle Hexaminius popeiana, which are dominant occupiers of space on tree trunks in temperate mangrove forests in New South Wales, Australia. We measured recruitment on artificial settlement plates at high and low intertidal levels under ambient conditions and where we manipulated nutrient levels by adding fertiliser to the water column for 2 mo. To determine whether nutrients influenced temporal patterns of settlement and early mortality of larvae, we quantified recruitment for 2 sampling intervals: on plates that were replaced 4 times at 2 wk ...


Identification Of Management Strategies For Promoting Aquaculture In Virginia, Pamela Mason, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2008

Identification Of Management Strategies For Promoting Aquaculture In Virginia, Pamela Mason, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Jan 2008

Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences Faculty Publications

Shellfish production is often affected by bacterial pathogens that cause high losses in hatcheries and nurseries. We evaluated the relative survival of larvae and juveniles of 3 Crassostrea virginica oyster lines: (1) GHP, a Rhode Island line; (2) NEHY, a line resistant to dermo and multinucleated sphere X diseases; and (3) FLOWERS, a line resistant to Roseovarius oyster disease, experimental challenge with Vibrio spp. isolates RE22 and RE101, causative agents of bacillary necrosis in Pacific oyster larvae, and the type strain of Roseovarius crassostreae, causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. All of the isolates were able to induce significant mortalities ...


Report And Recommendations Of The Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel, Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel May 2007

Report And Recommendations Of The Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel, Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel

Reports

The maps are generated to illustrate the results of the targeting effort following the protocol described above. The authors recognize this level of targeting does not preclude the need for field inspection at potential sites prior to reef construction. The atlas is comprised of a series of boxes preceded by an index locator. The scale of each box may vary. The potential restoration areas are illustrated in red. The legend reports the total acres available for restoration within the boundary of each box. At this time, the size of individual restoration sites can only be retrieved using the digital data ...


Cold Adaption Behaviors Of Vibrio Vulnificus And Vibio Parahaemolyticus In Oysters, Chiung-Ta Wu Jan 2007

Cold Adaption Behaviors Of Vibrio Vulnificus And Vibio Parahaemolyticus In Oysters, Chiung-Ta Wu

LSU Master's Theses

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that can cause primary septicemia as well as other serious wound infections. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that may cause gastroenteritis, diarrhea, headache, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in United States. Consumption of raw oysters is believed to closely relate with infection with Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus produce tlh genes and the major virulence factors of V.parahaemolyticus are the tdh and trh genes. This study was conducted to determine if Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus clinical and environmental strains ...


Detection Of Vibrio Vulnificus By Direct Colony Immunoblot, Reshani Nisansala Senevirathne Jan 2007

Detection Of Vibrio Vulnificus By Direct Colony Immunoblot, Reshani Nisansala Senevirathne

LSU Master's Theses

Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) is a natural occurring bacterium of world wide estuarine environments, which concentrate on filter feeding shellfish. Under cooked seafood contaminated with this pathogen is a leading cause of 95% of seafood-related, foodborne deaths. The development of a rapid, reliable and user-friendly method for Vv enumeration would help to reduce mortality rate. A direct colony immunoblot (DCI) method was developed and used as a rapid enumeration with high sensitivity and the specificity. This method was optimized using Vv agar plates incubated for 16 h at 35 °C. Colonies were transferred from incubated plates to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes ...


A Brief History Of Oyster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael A. Rice Dec 2006

A Brief History Of Oyster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

No abstract provided.


Vims Researchers Anticipate High Levels Of Dermo In 2006, Ryan Carnegie, Gene Burreson, Erin Seiling Jun 2006

Vims Researchers Anticipate High Levels Of Dermo In 2006, Ryan Carnegie, Gene Burreson, Erin Seiling

Reports

No abstract provided.


The History Of Seafood In Irish Cuisine And Culture, Mairtin Mac Con Iomaire Jan 2006

The History Of Seafood In Irish Cuisine And Culture, Mairtin Mac Con Iomaire

Conference papers

Fish is one of the most abundant wild foods available to a small island nation. Certain species of seafood have moved from being ‘poor man’s food’ to ‘luxury food’ over time. It may be said that the Irish do not behave as island people since we have little or no history of exploiting the sea compared to our European partners. Ireland was late developing its fishing industry and now suffers reduced EU fish quotas, the unfortunate but necessary result of decades of over-fishing on European waters. This paper investigates the historical role seafood has played in Irish cuisine and ...


Purification Of Lysozyme From Shell Liquor Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) And Its Use In Antimicrobial Films To Preserve Smoked Fish, Shreya Datta Jan 2005

Purification Of Lysozyme From Shell Liquor Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) And Its Use In Antimicrobial Films To Preserve Smoked Fish, Shreya Datta

LSU Master's Theses

The objective of our study was to purify lysozyme from the fluid filling cavity (shell liquor) of the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and determine the antimicrobial activity of purified lysozyme against foodborne pathogens in smoked salmon samples. Oyster shell liquor was collected over four seasons namely summer 2003, fall 2003, winter 2004, and spring 2004. Spring season showed the highest lysozyme concentration. Lysozyme was purified from 300 liters of oyster shell liquor by a two-step ion exchange chromatography using SP- and CM- Sepharose Fast Flow columns, respectively. Two hundred five mg of pure lysozyme was obtained which represented a recovery ...


Control Of Vibrio Vulnificus And Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In Oysters, Ligia Virginia Antonia Da Silva Jan 2005

Control Of Vibrio Vulnificus And Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In Oysters, Ligia Virginia Antonia Da Silva

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are gram-negative halophilic bacteria found in the natural aquatic environment. V. vulnifcus and V. parahaemolyticus have been implicated in foodborne illness and can cause gastroenteritis that has been associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. V. vulnificus can cause primary septicemia after its ingestion, and secondary septicemia through skin lesions in individuals with preexisting conditions such as elevated serum iron levels. Bacteriophages, viruses that invade and lyse bacteria, specific to V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are naturally found in seawater and oysters. Every summer, the oyster industry is threatened by recall of oysters due ...


Virginia Oyster Reef Restoration Map Atlas, Marcia Berman, Sharon Killeen, Roger L. Mann, J. A. Wesson Aug 2002

Virginia Oyster Reef Restoration Map Atlas, Marcia Berman, Sharon Killeen, Roger L. Mann, J. A. Wesson

Reports

The maps are generated to illustrate the results of the targeting effort following the protocol described above. The authors recognize this level of targeting does not preclude the need for field inspection at potential sites prior to reef construction. The atlas is comprised of a series of boxes preceded by an index locator. The scale of each box may vary. The potential restoration areas are illustrated in red. The legend reports the total acres available for restoration within the boundary of each box. At this time, the size of individual restoration sites can only be retrieved using the digital data ...


Aquaculture Of Triploid Crassostrea Ariakensis In The Chesapeake Bay A Symposium Report, Eric Hallerman, Merrill Leffler, Sally Mills, Standish K. Allen Jr. Oct 2001

Aquaculture Of Triploid Crassostrea Ariakensis In The Chesapeake Bay A Symposium Report, Eric Hallerman, Merrill Leffler, Sally Mills, Standish K. Allen Jr.

Reports

A Symposium Held at the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia October 18-19, 2001


Molecular Methods For The Dectection Of Quahog Parasite Unknown (Qpx), Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Nancy A. Stokes, Eugene Burreson Jun 2001

Molecular Methods For The Dectection Of Quahog Parasite Unknown (Qpx), Lisa M. Ragone Calvo, Nancy A. Stokes, Eugene Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Ariakensis And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen Jr., Eugene M. Burreson Mar 2000

A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Ariakensis And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen Jr., Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

In accordance with the Rational Plan for Testing Application of Non-Native Oyster Species (VIMS 1996) we conducted a field experiment to examine survival, growth and disease susceptibility of Crassostrea ariakensis (=rivularis) in relation to salinity in Virginia. The performance of triploid C. ariakensis in comparison with that of diploid C. virginica, (n = 250, age = 2 years, mean shell height = 60- 64 mm) was evaluated at replicate sites within low, medium, and high salinity regimes (respectively, < 15‰, 15-25‰, > 25‰) in Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Coast. During the course of this study, from June 1998 to September 1999, there was a severe oyster ...


A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Eugene M. Burreson Jan 1999

A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Continuing Trophic Studies On Constructed “Restored” Oyster Reefs, Roger Mann, Juliana M. Harding Jun 1998

Continuing Trophic Studies On Constructed “Restored” Oyster Reefs, Roger Mann, Juliana M. Harding

Reports

No abstract provided.


Trophic Studies On Constructed “Restored” Oyster Reefs, Roger L. Mann, Juliana Harding Aug 1997

Trophic Studies On Constructed “Restored” Oyster Reefs, Roger L. Mann, Juliana Harding

Reports

No abstract provided.


Small-Scale Settlement Patterns Of The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica On A Constructed Intertidal Reef, Ian K. Bartol, Roger Mann Jan 1997

Small-Scale Settlement Patterns Of The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica On A Constructed Intertidal Reef, Ian K. Bartol, Roger Mann

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The construction of three-dimensional, intertidal reefs resembling those widely present during colonial times in the Chesapeake Bay, but now absent due to years of overharvesting, may provide a more ecologically advantageous environment for oyster settlement and subsequent survival than present subtidal, two-dimensional habitats. We examined settlement processes on a constructed, 210 x 30 m intertidal reef composed of oyster shell. The reef was destructively and non-destructively sampled weekly throughout the summer and fall at tidal heights ranging from 30 cm above to 90 cm below mean low water (MLW) and at two substrate levels (reef surface and 10 cm below ...


Filtration By Oysters : Interactive Effects Of Water Flow, Seston Composition And Filtration Rate, Mark W. Luckenbach, Deborah A. Harsh, Roger L. Mann, R J. Orth, Ken Moore Jan 1995

Filtration By Oysters : Interactive Effects Of Water Flow, Seston Composition And Filtration Rate, Mark W. Luckenbach, Deborah A. Harsh, Roger L. Mann, R J. Orth, Ken Moore

Reports

Filtration by suspension-feeding bivalves affects water quality and the postulated impacts include increased light penetration and enhanced benthic primary production. Such system-level predictions are extrapolated fiom still water experiments which neglect the effects of flow, seston composition, turbulent mixing and refiltration by oysters within groups. Flume experiments were used to investigate the effects of varying flow speed and seston composition on filtration capacity of oysters. Six groups of 90 oysters were used in treatments which varied concentrations of the algae Ekalassiosira weisj70grgrsie parately and in combination with inorganics; four sets of shell only controls were used to evaluate hydrodynamic effects ...


A Comparative Study Of Dry Weight Measurements Of Oyster Soft Tissue, Cheol Mo, Bruce Neilson Jun 1992

A Comparative Study Of Dry Weight Measurements Of Oyster Soft Tissue, Cheol Mo, Bruce Neilson

Reports

Four alternative drying methods for oyster soft tissue were compared: oven drying at 105, 100 and 80°C and freeze drying. Weights were recorded every 12 hours for 5 days, and after sample treatments were switched, every 24 hours for another 3 days. The time required for all of the oysters in a treatment to reach constant weight were 36, 36, 60, and 120 hours for the 105, 100, 80°C ovens and freeze drier respectively. Within a treatment, the time for an individual oyster to reach constant weight was not related to that weight. For oven drying, drying was ...


Temporal And Spatial Changes In Fecundity Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) In The James River, Virginia, Carrollyn Cox, Roger L. Mann Jan 1992

Temporal And Spatial Changes In Fecundity Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) In The James River, Virginia, Carrollyn Cox, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

A~u1t Crass~strea virgi.nic~ ~Gmelin) were examined during the reproductive season of 1986 to determine temporal and spatial vanation m fecundity among md!Vldual female oysters from four reefs in the James River, Virginia. Sex ratio and oyster abu.ndance were. ~so determined to :acilitate ~s~imation of total reproductive output of oyster assemblages. Fecundity was highly vanable, both w1thm and among locations. Vanation was attributed to differences in oyster size, asynchrony and variation in time since pri~r spawning, prevalence of parasites (especially Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus) and differing salinity regimes.


Sterile Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) Grow Faster Than Diploids But Are Equally Susceptible To Perkinsus Marinus, Bruce J. Baker, Roger L. Mann Jan 1991

Sterile Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) Grow Faster Than Diploids But Are Equally Susceptible To Perkinsus Marinus, Bruce J. Baker, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

Growth, tolerance of Perkinsus marinus, and gametogenesis of diploid and triploid Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) were compared in the York River, Virginia between June 1989 and November 1990. Triploid oysters had significantly greater mean shell height (P ,a;; 0.02) and whole weight (P ,a;; 0.005) than diploid oysters throughout the study period. In November 1990, triploids had significantly greater mean dry tissue weight (P ,a;; 0.006) than diploids. On average, triploid oysters reached commercial size (63.5 mm) 5 months before diploid oysters. Diploid and triploid groups became similarly infected with P. marinus during summer ...