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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Assessment Of Quantity And Quality Of Microplastics In The Sediments, Waters, Oysters, And Selected Fish Species In Key Sites Along The Bombong Estuary And The Coastal Waters Of Ticalan In San Juan, Batangas, Emilyn Q. Espiritu, Sophia Angeli Sn Dayrit, Annabel Soledad O. Coronel, Natasha Sophia C. Paz, Pilar Isabel L. Ronquillo, Virgil Christian G. Castillo, Erwin P. Enriquez Jan 2019

Assessment Of Quantity And Quality Of Microplastics In The Sediments, Waters, Oysters, And Selected Fish Species In Key Sites Along The Bombong Estuary And The Coastal Waters Of Ticalan In San Juan, Batangas, Emilyn Q. Espiritu, Sophia Angeli Sn Dayrit, Annabel Soledad O. Coronel, Natasha Sophia C. Paz, Pilar Isabel L. Ronquillo, Virgil Christian G. Castillo, Erwin P. Enriquez

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Microplastics (or MPs; < 5 mm in size) pollution is largely unstudied in the Philippines. From an environmental sustainability standpoint, it is important to understand the characteristics, abundance, and environmental fate of plastic debris of various sizes, and these include microplastics that are not more easily and readily detected. In this study, we assessed the extent of microplastics contamination in the sediments, waters, oysters, and selected fishes found in the rivers and coastal areas of Ticalan, Batangas, which were identified from water quality parameters as Class C and CS, respectively. The microplastics were extracted from these samples by chemical digestion of the matrix, series of filtration, and separation by flotation through a density gradient to finally isolate the microplastics which were not dissolved by chemical digestion. The isolated samples were imaged by optical microscopy and characterized based on their descriptive attributes. The results showed the presence of microplastics in all the samples tested, which were found mostly in the form of filaments, fragments, films, and pellets – with most showing weathered, degraded, or angular and irregular surfaces. Identification was done through spectral matching of the Fourier transform infrared spectra of isolated fragments with that of known plastics, although identification in some cases is made uncertain by possibility of degradation of the plastics in the environment. The majority of the isolates showed signature absorption bands of the C-H stretching vibrations of polyethylene-based plastics.


Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman Oct 2018

Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman

Shannon Point Marine Center Faculty Publications

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying organisms such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In contrast, eelgrass, Zostera marina, can benefit from the increase in available carbon for photosynthesis found at a lower seawater pH. Seagrasses can remove dissolved inorganic carbon from OA environments, creating local daytime pH refugia. Pacific oysters may improve the health of eelgrass by filtering out pathogens such as Labyrinthula zosterae, which causes eelgrass wasting disease (EWD). Using a laboratory experiment, we found that co-culture of eelgrass with oysters reduced the severity of EWD. EWD was also reduced in more acidic waters, which negatively affect oyster growth.


Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Environmental Stress In Marine Bivalves With A Focus On Harmful Algal Blooms, Maria Victoria Suarez Ulloa Jun 2017

Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Environmental Stress In Marine Bivalves With A Focus On Harmful Algal Blooms, Maria Victoria Suarez Ulloa

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global change poses new threats for life in the oceans forcing marine organisms to respond through molecular acclimatory and adaptive strategies. Although bivalve molluscs are particularly tolerant and resilient to environmental stress, they must now face the challenge of more frequent and severe Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) episodes. These massive outbreaks of microalgae produce toxins that accumulate in the tissues of these filter-feeder organisms, causing changes in their gene expression profiles, which in turn modify their phenotype in order to maintain homeostasis. Such modifications in gene expression are modulated by epigenetic mechanisms elicited by specific environmental stimuli, laying the foundations ...


History Of The Virginia Oyster Fishery, Chesapeake Bay, Usa, David M. Schulte May 2017

History Of The Virginia Oyster Fishery, Chesapeake Bay, Usa, David M. Schulte

VIMS Articles

Oyster populations in Virginia's waters of Chesapeake Bay were lightly exploited until the early 1800s, when industrial fishery vessels first arrived, driven south from New England due to the collapse of northeastern oyster fisheries. Early signs of overexploitation and habitat degradation were evident by the 1850s. The public fishery, where oyster fishers harvest on state-owned bottom, rapidly developed after the Civil War and peaked in the early 1880s. Declines were noted by the late 1880s and eventually prompted the creation of Virginia's shell-planting and oyster-seed (young-of-the-year, YOY) moving repletion program in the 1920s. Despite management and increasing repletion ...


Stakeholders Of The Chesapeake: Curse Of The Eastern Oyster. Subjects: Life Science / Biology, Environmental Science, Marine/Ocean Science Grades: 6-8, Taylor Goelz Jan 2017

Stakeholders Of The Chesapeake: Curse Of The Eastern Oyster. Subjects: Life Science / Biology, Environmental Science, Marine/Ocean Science Grades: 6-8, Taylor Goelz

Reports

How do we decide how to manage oysters and who has a stake in that management decision? Students are placed in the role of a stakeholder group who cares about what happens to the Eastern oyster and asked to rank management priorities from the perspective of their group and others. Through viewing oyster management through a single perspective, students can begin to understand that balancing stakeholder’s views in setting policy and management is challenging.


Practical Oyster Larvae And Remote Deployment Pool, Albert Pollard Jan 2016

Practical Oyster Larvae And Remote Deployment Pool, Albert Pollard

Reports

This grant will evaluate the costs of constructing and operating a 100 bushel “floating pool” in which aged, washed, and containerized shell is placed with purchased larvae for setting on the cultch. The 100 bushel sized pool is being proposed because it is a sample size large enough to test future scalability but small enough to manage as a controlled experiment. In addition, the proposal will compare the setting efficiency of the pool vs the standard upland tanks. Also, we intend to test practicality - after lifting the skirt that forms the pool – of towing the POLARDS Pool (now a barge ...


Quantifying Finfish And Blue Crab Use Of Created Oyster Reefs In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Bruce W. Pfirrmann, Rochelle Seitz Oct 2015

Quantifying Finfish And Blue Crab Use Of Created Oyster Reefs In The Lower Chesapeake Bay, Bruce W. Pfirrmann, Rochelle Seitz

Presentations

Structurally complex reefs created by the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica provide a host of ecosystem services yet have experienced significant declines, prompting extensive restoration efforts. We investigate the use of created oyster reefs in the lower Bay by mobile finfish and blue crabs with field surveys and diet analysis. The results of this study provide insight into how restoration activities influence estuarine community dynamics and the provision of ecosystem services.


The Relationship Between Reproduction And Mortality In Triploid Crassostrea Virginica: A Matter Of Economic Importance, Joseph L. Matt, Standish K. Allen Oct 2015

The Relationship Between Reproduction And Mortality In Triploid Crassostrea Virginica: A Matter Of Economic Importance, Joseph L. Matt, Standish K. Allen

Presentations

The goal of this project is to maximize survival for commercially produced triploid Crassostrea virginica oysters in Virginia. Over the last few years, commercial oyster growers in Virginia have reported significant mortality events of triploid oysters during the spring and summer months. The summer of 2014 was the worst yet, as growers across the state reported summer mortality, most severe on the Eastern shore and in some cases as high as 85% of the crop (Karen Hudson, personal communication). Surviving oysters from some of these mortality events were sent to the Virginia Institute of Marine Science and several of the ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2015

Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 107th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Monterey, California, March 22–26, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Abstracts Of Shellfish Technical Papers, Presented At The Joint Meeting Of The Northeast Aquaculture Conference And Exposition And The 35th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Portland, Maine, January 14–16, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2015

Abstracts Of Shellfish Technical Papers, Presented At The Joint Meeting Of The Northeast Aquaculture Conference And Exposition And The 35th Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Portland, Maine, January 14–16, 2015, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Short-Term Temporal Variation In Densities Of Pathogenic Vibrio Species In Virginia Oysters, Kimberly Huskey Jan 2015

Analysis Of Short-Term Temporal Variation In Densities Of Pathogenic Vibrio Species In Virginia Oysters, Kimberly Huskey

Reports

The objective of this project was to establish the baseline densities of the pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus(Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus(Vv) strains in oysters from Virginia across seasons and over a short time scale.


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Modeling Of Oyster Larval Connectivity For Cbf In Support Of Noaa’S Community-Based Restoration Program & Restore America’S Estuaries Oyster And Reef Balls On Sanctuary Reefs In Md And Va - Phase Three, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen Dec 2012

Modeling Of Oyster Larval Connectivity For Cbf In Support Of Noaa’S Community-Based Restoration Program & Restore America’S Estuaries Oyster And Reef Balls On Sanctuary Reefs In Md And Va - Phase Three, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen

Reports

1. The overarching goal of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) for this project has been to enhance the Chesapeake Bay’s oyster population. In Virginia, CBF is working with partners to focus restoration efforts on the Lafayette River in order to bring the river’s biomass and reef substrate to a threshold level that will show a systemic response in terms of enhanced spatset. Portions of their grant have funded the hydrodynamic modeling of the Lafayette River recently performed and herein reported. 2. VIMS personnel have modified its existing three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Lafayette/Elizabeth/James Rivers to conduct ...


Blue Crab Industry - Oyster Aquaculture Training And Transition June 2011- June 2012 Final Report, Matthew Richmond Dec 2012

Blue Crab Industry - Oyster Aquaculture Training And Transition June 2011- June 2012 Final Report, Matthew Richmond

Reports

No abstract provided.


Setting The Sound Up For Success, Hillary Kenyon Oct 2012

Setting The Sound Up For Success, Hillary Kenyon

Wrack Lines

Deploying remotely-set disease-resistant oyster seed in biodegradable netting on a natural bed in Connecticut. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is a keystone species in Connecticut's coastal environment.


Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 104th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, Washington, March 24–29, 2012, National Shellfisheries Association Apr 2012

Abstracts Of Technical Papers, Presented At The 104th Annual Meeting, National Shellfisheries Association, Seattle, Washington, March 24–29, 2012, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel Jan 2012

Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel

CCPO Publications

The interactions of circulation and growth processes in determining the horizontal distribution of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in the Delaware Bay estuary were investigated with a coupled circulation-individual-based larvae model that used environmental conditions from the spawning seasons (mid-June to mid-September) of 1984, 1985, 1986, 2000, and 2001. Particles, representing oyster larvae, were released at five-day intervals from areas in Delaware Bay that correspond to natural oyster reefs. The simulated larval development time was used to estimate potential larval success, determined by the percent of larvae that successfully reached settlement size (330 µm) within the planktonic larval duration of ...


An Introduction To Ecology Of Infectious Diseases - Oysters And Estuaries, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford Jan 2012

An Introduction To Ecology Of Infectious Diseases - Oysters And Estuaries, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford

OEAS Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases are recognized as an important factor regulating marine ecosystems (Harvell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Porter et al., 2001; McCallum et al., 2004; Ward and Lafferty, 2004; Stewart et al., 2008; Bienfang et al., 2011). Many of the organisms affected by marine diseases have important ecological roles in estuarine and coastal environments and some are also commercially important. Outbreaks of infectious diseases in these environments, referred to as epizootics, can produce significant population declines and extinctions, both of which threaten biodiversity, food web interactions, and ecosystem productivity (Harvell et al., 2002, 2004).


Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek Jan 2012

Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek

CCPO Publications

Populations of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, are commonly limited by mortality from dermo disease. Little development of resistance to Perkinsus marinus, the dermo pathogen, has occurred, despite the high mortality rates and frequency of epizootics. Can the tendency of the parasite to exhibit cyclic epizootics limit the oyster's response to the disease despite the presence of alleles apparently conferring disease resistance? We utilize a gene-based population dynamics model to simulate the development of disease resistance in Crassostrea virginica populations exposed to cyclic mortality encompassing periodicities expected of dermo disease over the geographic range at which epizootics have been observed ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2011

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 103rd Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Baltimore, Maryland March 27–31, 2011, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2010

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2009

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 101st Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Savannah, Georgia March 22–26, 2009, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Population Assessment Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In The Seaside Coastal Bays, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach Feb 2009

Population Assessment Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In The Seaside Coastal Bays, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach

Reports

Declines of oyster populations and commercial harvest from the Virginia seaside coastal bays have followed similar patterns, though not as severe, as those in Chesapeake Bay. High prevalence of Dermo disease (Perkinsus marinus) and MSX disease (Haplosporidium nelsoni) coupled with over harvest and habitat destruction have dramatically reduced populations. Nevertheless, there are several promising signs that significant enhancement of the population could be achieved with well conceived restoration efforts. Oyster habitat and population distribution were examined in the coastal bay system on the seaside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia. This system is composed of barrier islands, salt marshes, broad ...


Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang Jan 2009

Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang

CCPO Publications

Delaware Bay oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations are influenced by two lethal parasites that cause Dermo and MSX diseases. As part of the US National Science Foundation Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative, a program developed for Delaware Bay focuses on understanding how oyster population genetics and population dynamics interact with the environment and these parasites to structure he host populations, and how these interactions might modified by climate change. Laboratory and field studies undertaken during this program include identifying genes related to MSX and Dermo disease resistance, potential regions for refugia and the mechanisms that allow them to exist, phenotypic and ...


Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association Aug 2008

Abstracts Of Technical Papers Presented At The 100th Annual Meeting National Shellfisheries Association Providence, Rhode Island April 6–10, 2008, National Shellfisheries Association

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Nutrient Enrichment Affects Recruitment Of Oysters And Barnacles In A Mangrove Forest, Todd E. Minchinton, Louise A. Mckenzie Jan 2008

Nutrient Enrichment Affects Recruitment Of Oysters And Barnacles In A Mangrove Forest, Todd E. Minchinton, Louise A. Mckenzie

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

We tested the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment affects recruitment of the oyster Saccostrea glomerataand the barnacle Hexaminius popeiana, which are dominant occupiers of space on tree trunks in temperate mangrove forests in New South Wales, Australia. We measured recruitment on artificial settlement plates at high and low intertidal levels under ambient conditions and where we manipulated nutrient levels by adding fertiliser to the water column for 2 mo. To determine whether nutrients influenced temporal patterns of settlement and early mortality of larvae, we quantified recruitment for 2 sampling intervals: on plates that were replaced 4 times at 2 wk ...


Identification Of Management Strategies For Promoting Aquaculture In Virginia, Pamela Mason, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2008

Identification Of Management Strategies For Promoting Aquaculture In Virginia, Pamela Mason, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Jan 2008

Survival Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica From Three Lines Following Experimental Challenge With Bacterial Pathogens, Javier Gomez-Leon, Luisa Villamil, Scott A. Salger, Rachel Sallum, Antonio Remacha-Trivino, Dale F. Leavitt, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences Faculty Publications

Shellfish production is often affected by bacterial pathogens that cause high losses in hatcheries and nurseries. We evaluated the relative survival of larvae and juveniles of 3 Crassostrea virginica oyster lines: (1) GHP, a Rhode Island line; (2) NEHY, a line resistant to dermo and multinucleated sphere X diseases; and (3) FLOWERS, a line resistant to Roseovarius oyster disease, experimental challenge with Vibrio spp. isolates RE22 and RE101, causative agents of bacillary necrosis in Pacific oyster larvae, and the type strain of Roseovarius crassostreae, causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. All of the isolates were able to induce significant mortalities ...


Report And Recommendations Of The Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel, Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel May 2007

Report And Recommendations Of The Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel, Blue Ribbon Oyster Panel

Reports

The maps are generated to illustrate the results of the targeting effort following the protocol described above. The authors recognize this level of targeting does not preclude the need for field inspection at potential sites prior to reef construction. The atlas is comprised of a series of boxes preceded by an index locator. The scale of each box may vary. The potential restoration areas are illustrated in red. The legend reports the total acres available for restoration within the boundary of each box. At this time, the size of individual restoration sites can only be retrieved using the digital data ...


Vims Researchers Anticipate High Levels Of Dermo In 2006, Ryan Carnegie, Gene Burreson, Erin Seiling Jun 2006

Vims Researchers Anticipate High Levels Of Dermo In 2006, Ryan Carnegie, Gene Burreson, Erin Seiling

Reports

No abstract provided.