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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman Oct 2018

Oysters And Eelgrass: Potential Partners In A High Pco2 Ocean, Maya L. Groner, Colleen A. Burge, Ruth Cox, Natalie D. Rivlin, Mo Turner, Kathryn L. Van Alstyne Dr., Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, John Bucci, Philip Staudigel, Carolyn S. Friedman

Shannon Point Marine Center Faculty Publications

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens calcifying organisms such as the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In contrast, eelgrass, Zostera marina, can benefit from the increase in available carbon for photosynthesis found at a lower seawater pH. Seagrasses can remove dissolved inorganic carbon from OA environments, creating local daytime pH refugia. Pacific oysters may improve the health of eelgrass by filtering out pathogens such as Labyrinthula zosterae, which causes eelgrass wasting disease (EWD). Using a laboratory experiment, we found that co-culture of eelgrass with oysters reduced the severity of EWD. EWD was also reduced in more acidic waters, which negatively affect oyster growth.


Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Environmental Stress In Marine Bivalves With A Focus On Harmful Algal Blooms, Maria Victoria Suarez Ulloa Jun 2017

Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Environmental Stress In Marine Bivalves With A Focus On Harmful Algal Blooms, Maria Victoria Suarez Ulloa

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global change poses new threats for life in the oceans forcing marine organisms to respond through molecular acclimatory and adaptive strategies. Although bivalve molluscs are particularly tolerant and resilient to environmental stress, they must now face the challenge of more frequent and severe Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) episodes. These massive outbreaks of microalgae produce toxins that accumulate in the tissues of these filter-feeder organisms, causing changes in their gene expression profiles, which in turn modify their phenotype in order to maintain homeostasis. Such modifications in gene expression are modulated by epigenetic mechanisms elicited by specific environmental stimuli, laying the foundations ...


Stakeholders Of The Chesapeake: Curse Of The Eastern Oyster. Subjects: Life Science / Biology, Environmental Science, Marine/Ocean Science Grades: 6-8, Taylor Goelz Jan 2017

Stakeholders Of The Chesapeake: Curse Of The Eastern Oyster. Subjects: Life Science / Biology, Environmental Science, Marine/Ocean Science Grades: 6-8, Taylor Goelz

Reports

How do we decide how to manage oysters and who has a stake in that management decision? Students are placed in the role of a stakeholder group who cares about what happens to the Eastern oyster and asked to rank management priorities from the perspective of their group and others. Through viewing oyster management through a single perspective, students can begin to understand that balancing stakeholder’s views in setting policy and management is challenging.


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Modeling Of Oyster Larval Connectivity For Cbf In Support Of Noaa’S Community-Based Restoration Program & Restore America’S Estuaries Oyster And Reef Balls On Sanctuary Reefs In Md And Va - Phase Three, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen Dec 2012

Modeling Of Oyster Larval Connectivity For Cbf In Support Of Noaa’S Community-Based Restoration Program & Restore America’S Estuaries Oyster And Reef Balls On Sanctuary Reefs In Md And Va - Phase Three, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen

Reports

1. The overarching goal of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) for this project has been to enhance the Chesapeake Bay’s oyster population. In Virginia, CBF is working with partners to focus restoration efforts on the Lafayette River in order to bring the river’s biomass and reef substrate to a threshold level that will show a systemic response in terms of enhanced spatset. Portions of their grant have funded the hydrodynamic modeling of the Lafayette River recently performed and herein reported. 2. VIMS personnel have modified its existing three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Lafayette/Elizabeth/James Rivers to conduct ...


Setting The Sound Up For Success, Hillary Kenyon Oct 2012

Setting The Sound Up For Success, Hillary Kenyon

Wrack Lines

Deploying remotely-set disease-resistant oyster seed in biodegradable netting on a natural bed in Connecticut. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is a keystone species in Connecticut's coastal environment.


Genetic Variation In Potentially Virulent Vibrio Parahaemolyticus From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Nicholas Felix Noriea Iii May 2012

Genetic Variation In Potentially Virulent Vibrio Parahaemolyticus From The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Nicholas Felix Noriea Iii

Dissertations

Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a gram-negative bacterium found naturally in marine and estuarine environments. Vp is found in oysters including those which are later consumed by the public. Sub-populations of potentially virulent Vp contain specific virulence factors and are relevant human pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infection, and death. The tdh and trh genes, both encoding hemolysins, have been correlated with the majority of clinical Vp isolates but have not been shown to be the definitive virulence factors.

A total of 146 Vp isolates from the northern Gulf of Mexico were collected and probed for ...


Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel Jan 2012

Modeling The Dispersal Of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica) Larvae In Delaware Bay, Diego A. Narvaez, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell, Eileen E. Hofmann, John Wilkin, Dale B. Haidvogel

CCPO Publications

The interactions of circulation and growth processes in determining the horizontal distribution of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in the Delaware Bay estuary were investigated with a coupled circulation-individual-based larvae model that used environmental conditions from the spawning seasons (mid-June to mid-September) of 1984, 1985, 1986, 2000, and 2001. Particles, representing oyster larvae, were released at five-day intervals from areas in Delaware Bay that correspond to natural oyster reefs. The simulated larval development time was used to estimate potential larval success, determined by the percent of larvae that successfully reached settlement size (330 µm) within the planktonic larval duration of ...


An Introduction To Ecology Of Infectious Diseases - Oysters And Estuaries, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford Jan 2012

An Introduction To Ecology Of Infectious Diseases - Oysters And Estuaries, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford

OEAS Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases are recognized as an important factor regulating marine ecosystems (Harvell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Porter et al., 2001; McCallum et al., 2004; Ward and Lafferty, 2004; Stewart et al., 2008; Bienfang et al., 2011). Many of the organisms affected by marine diseases have important ecological roles in estuarine and coastal environments and some are also commercially important. Outbreaks of infectious diseases in these environments, referred to as epizootics, can produce significant population declines and extinctions, both of which threaten biodiversity, food web interactions, and ecosystem productivity (Harvell et al., 2002, 2004).


Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek Jan 2012

Can Oysters Crassostrea Virginica Develop Resistance To Dermo Disease In The Field: The Impediment Posed By Climate Cycles, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Ximing Guo, Eileen E. Hofmann, Susan E. Ford, David Bushek

CCPO Publications

Populations of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, are commonly limited by mortality from dermo disease. Little development of resistance to Perkinsus marinus, the dermo pathogen, has occurred, despite the high mortality rates and frequency of epizootics. Can the tendency of the parasite to exhibit cyclic epizootics limit the oyster's response to the disease despite the presence of alleles apparently conferring disease resistance? We utilize a gene-based population dynamics model to simulate the development of disease resistance in Crassostrea virginica populations exposed to cyclic mortality encompassing periodicities expected of dermo disease over the geographic range at which epizootics have been observed ...


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2010

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis ...


Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang Jan 2009

Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang

CCPO Publications

Delaware Bay oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations are influenced by two lethal parasites that cause Dermo and MSX diseases. As part of the US National Science Foundation Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative, a program developed for Delaware Bay focuses on understanding how oyster population genetics and population dynamics interact with the environment and these parasites to structure he host populations, and how these interactions might modified by climate change. Laboratory and field studies undertaken during this program include identifying genes related to MSX and Dermo disease resistance, potential regions for refugia and the mechanisms that allow them to exist, phenotypic and ...


A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Ariakensis And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen Jr., Eugene M. Burreson Mar 2000

A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Ariakensis And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Standish K. Allen Jr., Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

In accordance with the Rational Plan for Testing Application of Non-Native Oyster Species (VIMS 1996) we conducted a field experiment to examine survival, growth and disease susceptibility of Crassostrea ariakensis (=rivularis) in relation to salinity in Virginia. The performance of triploid C. ariakensis in comparison with that of diploid C. virginica, (n = 250, age = 2 years, mean shell height = 60- 64 mm) was evaluated at replicate sites within low, medium, and high salinity regimes (respectively, < 15‰, 15-25‰, > 25‰) in Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Coast. During the course of this study, from June 1998 to September 1999, there was a severe oyster ...


A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Eugene M. Burreson Jan 1999

A Comparative Field Study Of Crassostrea Gigas And Crassostrea Virginica In Relation To Salinity In Virginia, Gustavo W. Calvo, Mark Luckenbach, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Small-Scale Settlement Patterns Of The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica On A Constructed Intertidal Reef, Ian K. Bartol, Roger Mann Jan 1997

Small-Scale Settlement Patterns Of The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica On A Constructed Intertidal Reef, Ian K. Bartol, Roger Mann

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The construction of three-dimensional, intertidal reefs resembling those widely present during colonial times in the Chesapeake Bay, but now absent due to years of overharvesting, may provide a more ecologically advantageous environment for oyster settlement and subsequent survival than present subtidal, two-dimensional habitats. We examined settlement processes on a constructed, 210 x 30 m intertidal reef composed of oyster shell. The reef was destructively and non-destructively sampled weekly throughout the summer and fall at tidal heights ranging from 30 cm above to 90 cm below mean low water (MLW) and at two substrate levels (reef surface and 10 cm below ...


Sterile Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) Grow Faster Than Diploids But Are Equally Susceptible To Perkinsus Marinus, Bruce J. Baker, Roger L. Mann Jan 1991

Sterile Triploid Crassostrea Virginica (Gmelin, 1791) Grow Faster Than Diploids But Are Equally Susceptible To Perkinsus Marinus, Bruce J. Baker, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

Growth, tolerance of Perkinsus marinus, and gametogenesis of diploid and triploid Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) were compared in the York River, Virginia between June 1989 and November 1990. Triploid oysters had significantly greater mean shell height (P ,a;; 0.02) and whole weight (P ,a;; 0.005) than diploid oysters throughout the study period. In November 1990, triploids had significantly greater mean dry tissue weight (P ,a;; 0.006) than diploids. On average, triploid oysters reached commercial size (63.5 mm) 5 months before diploid oysters. Diploid and triploid groups became similarly infected with P. marinus during summer ...


Effects Of Perkinsus Marinus Infection In The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica: I. Susceptibility Of Native And Msx-Resistant Stocks, Eugene Burreson Jan 1991

Effects Of Perkinsus Marinus Infection In The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica: I. Susceptibility Of Native And Msx-Resistant Stocks, Eugene Burreson

VIMS Articles

A selective breeding program was implemented to attempt to decrease the disease susceptibility of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to Perkinsus marinus. Six oyster strains were spawned and the progeny exposed to Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) and P. marinus in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Three strains, a Delaware Bay MSX-resistant strain, a Delaware Bay native strain, and a Mobjack Bay native strain (lower Chesapeake Bay) were exposed for three years (1988-90); three other strains, a separate Delaware Bay MSX-resistant strain, a lower James River native strain (lower Chesapeake Bay) and a susceptible control strain, were exposed for two years (1989-90). During ...


Estimation Of Standing Stock Of Oysters In The James River, Virginia,Using Commercial Fishing Records, Bruce J. Barber, Roger L. Mann Jan 1991

Estimation Of Standing Stock Of Oysters In The James River, Virginia,Using Commercial Fishing Records, Bruce J. Barber, Roger L. Mann

Reports

No abstract provided.


Recruitment And Growth Of Oysters On Shell Clutch Planted At Monthly Intervals (May-August 1986) At Jones Shore Basin The Lower Potomac River, Maryland, Reinaldo Morales-Alamo, Roger L. Mann Feb 1990

Recruitment And Growth Of Oysters On Shell Clutch Planted At Monthly Intervals (May-August 1986) At Jones Shore Basin The Lower Potomac River, Maryland, Reinaldo Morales-Alamo, Roger L. Mann

Reports

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Resident Species On Recruitment Into A Community: Larval Settlement Versus Post-Settlement Mortality In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Roman Zajac, Richard W. Osman, Robert B. Whitlatch Jun 1989

Effects Of Resident Species On Recruitment Into A Community: Larval Settlement Versus Post-Settlement Mortality In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Roman Zajac, Richard W. Osman, Robert B. Whitlatch

Biology and Environmental Science Faculty Publications

Laboratory and field experiments revealed that a variety of species of common, sessile invertebrates, including barnacles, ascidians, and bryozoans, affected the settlement and post-settlement abundance of the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). While the nature of the effects varied, most species both reduced oyster settlement by covering and removing substrate available for attachment, and increased settlement on adjacent surfaces. The solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis (L.) and Styela clava (Herdman), were found to be predators of oyster larvae. Post-settlement survivorship and growth were also strongly affected by the presence of sessile species. In most cases the effects were negative and correlated with ...


The James River Public Seed Oyster Area In Virginia (A Review Of 22 Years Of Setting And Population Studies, 1946 To 1967 And Changes Caused By Minchinia Nelsoni (Msx) After 1960), Jay D. Andrews Jan 1982

The James River Public Seed Oyster Area In Virginia (A Review Of 22 Years Of Setting And Population Studies, 1946 To 1967 And Changes Caused By Minchinia Nelsoni (Msx) After 1960), Jay D. Andrews

Reports

The seed-oyster area is located in a low-salinity sector of the James River where seasonal riverflows and resulting salinities vary widely. Low spring salinities, usually below 10 °/oo in April or May, eliminate most predators and diseases. Prior to 1960, spatfalls were regular and moderate in intensity each year. High quality seed oysters 2 to 3 inches in size were produced with 1000 to 2000 thick-shelled oysters per bushel for use by private-ground planterH. Following the advent of M. nelsoni (MSX) in Chesapeake Bay in 1959:, setting declined to about one-tenth previous levels and there were spatfall failures in many ...


Enterovirus And Bacterial Evaluation Of Mississippi Oysters, R.D. Ellender, D.W. Cook, V.L. Sheladia, R.A. Johnson Jan 1980

Enterovirus And Bacterial Evaluation Of Mississippi Oysters, R.D. Ellender, D.W. Cook, V.L. Sheladia, R.A. Johnson

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The numbers of enteric viruses and fecal coliform bacteria in oysters and water samples collected along the Mississippi Gulf coast during 1979 were determined. Ten viral isolates, representing members of the poliovirus group, were identified from an approved oyster harvesting site. The number of virus isolations increased to 51 when oysters were collected from a prohibited harvesting location. The majority of isolates were identified as poliovirus type 1 or 2, coxsackievirus B3 and B4, and echovirus type 24. Fecal coliforms in water samples collected at approved and prohibited locations confirmed the classification assigned to each area by the Mississippi State ...


Occurrence And Seasonality Of Perkinsus Marinus (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) In Mississippi Oysters, John Ogle, Katherine Flurry Jan 1980

Occurrence And Seasonality Of Perkinsus Marinus (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) In Mississippi Oysters, John Ogle, Katherine Flurry

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Oysters from four reefs in Mississippi Sound, sampled over a period of 25 months, were found to have a low prevalence of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. The greatest values were 80% prevalence, and 0.88 weighted incidence recorded for oysters from Biloxi Bay, Mississippi.


A Report To The Oyster Industry Of Virginia On The Biology And Management Of The Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera Bonasus, Mitchill) In Lower Chesapeake Bay, John V. Merriner, Joseph W. Smith Aug 1979

A Report To The Oyster Industry Of Virginia On The Biology And Management Of The Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera Bonasus, Mitchill) In Lower Chesapeake Bay, John V. Merriner, Joseph W. Smith

Reports

The purpose of this report is to: (1) suggest reasons for the recently observed cownose ray predation on Rappahannock River oyster beds and the apparent increased abundance of the ray, and (2) recommend short- and long-term methods to control and/or manage cownose ray predation on commercially important sh1ellfish beds.


The Oyster Industry Of Virginia: It's Status, Problems, And Promise, Dexter Stearns Haven, William J. Hargis Jr., Paul Charles Kendall Jan 1978

The Oyster Industry Of Virginia: It's Status, Problems, And Promise, Dexter Stearns Haven, William J. Hargis Jr., Paul Charles Kendall

Reports

A short presentation of an exhaustive, multi-volume work on the history and current condition of the oyster industry of the Commonwealth' by the same authors.


Manual For Design And Operation Of An Oyster Seed Hatchery, John L. Dupuy, Nancy T. Windsor, Charles E. Sutton Jun 1977

Manual For Design And Operation Of An Oyster Seed Hatchery, John L. Dupuy, Nancy T. Windsor, Charles E. Sutton

Reports

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Depth On Survival And Growth Of Oysters In Suspension Culture From A Petroleum Platform Off The Texas Coast, John Ogle, Sammy M. Ray, W.J. Wardle Jan 1977

The Effect Of Depth On Survival And Growth Of Oysters In Suspension Culture From A Petroleum Platform Off The Texas Coast, John Ogle, Sammy M. Ray, W.J. Wardle

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The effect of depth on oysters in suspension culture from a petroleum platform off the Texas coast was monitored for 20 months. Growth and condition was similar for adult oysters cultured at five levels down to 8 m. Oysters had a growth rate of 1.2 mm (level 3) to 1.4 mm (level 1) per month,representing an increase in length of 94% to 150% for the 20 months. The condition was best in June 1973 after five months placement offshore (condition index of 14.8, 15.5, 14.7, 13.5 and 13.2 for levels 1 through ...


The Adventures Of Little Oyster, Revised Edition, Robert S. Bailey, Fred C. Biggs Jan 1968

The Adventures Of Little Oyster, Revised Edition, Robert S. Bailey, Fred C. Biggs

Reports

First published in 1955.


Effects Of River Flow Regulation By Salem Church Dam On Marine Organisms, J. D. Andrews Nov 1964

Effects Of River Flow Regulation By Salem Church Dam On Marine Organisms, J. D. Andrews

Reports

This report is concernen primarily with the effects on oysters and some of their associates of hydrographic changes that would be caused by the dam. Other marine organisms are certain to be affected in ways only vaguely preceived at present. The distribution and activity of oyster drills and certain diseases of oysters, such as those caused by MSX and Dermocystidium, are regulated annually or at intervals of several years by low spring salinities and high summer and fall salinities.


The Adventures Of Little Oyster, Robert S. Bailey Jan 1955

The Adventures Of Little Oyster, Robert S. Bailey

Reports

No abstract provided.