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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sustainability And Optimization Of Rangeland Uses: Issues Of Perspective And Scale, T. L. Thurow May 2020

Sustainability And Optimization Of Rangeland Uses: Issues Of Perspective And Scale, T. L. Thurow

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Forest Grouse Ecology And Management In The Bear River Range Northern Utah, Skyler Y. Farnsworth May 2020

Forest Grouse Ecology And Management In The Bear River Range Northern Utah, Skyler Y. Farnsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To better manage dusky grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), hereafter forest grouse, managers require better information on forest grouse population status and habitat selection. To address this need, from 2015-2017, I conducted research on a sympatric populations inhabiting the Bear River Range of northern Utah to develop a breeding survey protocol, assess habitat selection, evaluate dusky grouse response to livestock grazing, and determine hunter harvest rates.

The breeding census protocol that I developed compared listening intervals with and without electronic playback calls at designated survey stop locations. Using digital mapping software, I plotted the estimated location of ...


Effects Of Pesticide Residue Accumulation On Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Development & Implications For Hive Management, Jennifer Weisbrod Apr 2020

Effects Of Pesticide Residue Accumulation On Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Development & Implications For Hive Management, Jennifer Weisbrod

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies face annual declines of 40% in the United States. Pesticides play a role in these losses. Pesticide residues picked up from the environment as well as beekeeper-applied compounds may accumulate within the hive. The effects of pesticide accumulation in comb on bee health mitigation of accumulation have not been well-studied. To examine pesticide exposure on health and development, chlorothalonil and the amitraz metabolite N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl) formamidine (DMPF), two pesticides found in hive products, were applied to brood comb. Queen bees were caged onto treated and control comb and egg laying and development were ...


Effect Of Various Sowing Dates On The Management Of Wilt Of Guar (Cyamopsis Tetragonaloba L.), Upasana Rani, Simranjit Singh, Davinderpal Singh Mar 2020

Effect Of Various Sowing Dates On The Management Of Wilt Of Guar (Cyamopsis Tetragonaloba L.), Upasana Rani, Simranjit Singh, Davinderpal Singh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.], commonly known as guar, is a member of Leguminosae (Fabaceae) family. It is a short duration, drought resistant, low investment and high return cash crop. In Punjab, it is one of the important legume crop grown on about 9514 ha with production of 0.24 million ton (Anonymous, 2013). It can be grown in mixture with bajra and jowar but pure crop of guar supplies highest tonnage of palatable nutritious green fodder for longer duration without much deterioration in quality with the age of the crop. It is rich in nutrients with crude protein ...


Restoring Lake Urmia To A Range Of Lake Levels (2-Page Summary), Somayeh Sima, David E. Rosenberg, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Sarah Null, Karin M. Kettenring Mar 2020

Restoring Lake Urmia To A Range Of Lake Levels (2-Page Summary), Somayeh Sima, David E. Rosenberg, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Sarah Null, Karin M. Kettenring

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

More than 5 million people live near Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran. Urmia is one of the world's largest hypersaline lakes, yet over the past two decades, the lake has lost 95% of its volume and the lake level has dropped more than 7 m. We synthesized 40 years of available data, defined 10 management objectives for human health, water quality, ecology, recreation, and agro-economy (Box 1), and described trade-offs between those objectives and lake level. Results show that a single "ecological level" such as that set recently by the Iranian government may not achieve the objectives. Managers should ...


Soil And Water Conservation And Integrated Management In Watershed Ecosystem Of The Loess Plateau, China, Guobin Liu, Gaolin Wu, Guoliang Wang, David Mitchell Feb 2020

Soil And Water Conservation And Integrated Management In Watershed Ecosystem Of The Loess Plateau, China, Guobin Liu, Gaolin Wu, Guoliang Wang, David Mitchell

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Loess Plateau is well known for severe soil erosion and ecosystem degradation. The key issues in this region are the food security (grain), ecological security and a sustainable economy. This paper reviews a range of studies on ecological restoration, and management and the benefit at watershed scale on the Loess Plateau. This includes several successful cases and failures in soil conservation. The paper presents practical soil conservation measures and related benefit analysis, and discusses some effective methods adopted in soil erosion control, research directions and future perspectives for the Loess Plateau.


Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques For Forage Production Assessment And Management Of Northern Chhattisgarh In India, Nur Salim Ekka, S. K. Gupta Feb 2020

Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques For Forage Production Assessment And Management Of Northern Chhattisgarh In India, Nur Salim Ekka, S. K. Gupta

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands play a vital ecological and environmental role in global carbon balance and climate change. In the prairie provinces of Canada, grasslands occupy approximately 25 M ha of the land base and provide a valuable resource to the multi-billion dollar cattle industry. In recent years, remote sensing technology has been applied for estimating the fractional cover of arid grasslands and savannah ecosystems (Asner and Heidebrecht, 2003; Marsett et al. 2006; Guerschman et al., 2009). Grassland, a specific ecosystem, occurs naturally on all continents excluding Antarctica (White et al., 2000). Remote sensing imagery needs to be converted into tangible information which ...


Megathermic Spontaneous Grasses In The Mid Valley Ecotone, Rio Negro Of Argentina, Klich María Guadalupe Feb 2020

Megathermic Spontaneous Grasses In The Mid Valley Ecotone, Rio Negro Of Argentina, Klich María Guadalupe

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The vegetation in the ecotone of mid valley in Río Negro (Argentina) varies in community composition and plant cover depending on the annual precipitation regime and on the temperature requirements of the plants species. The megathermic forage grasses are characterized by a C4 photosynthetic metabolism, their production is concentrated in summer, they are tolerant to drought, efficient in the use of water and nitrogen, they have a high potential for dry matter production and the nutritional quality necessary to meet the demands of cattle. North Patagonia is a semiarid temperate region with hot, dry summers and with forage resources ...


Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2019, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Feb 2020

Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2019, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Different Herdsmen’S Size On Grassland Ecosystem Of Eastern Transect In Tibetan Plateau: A Case Study From Maqu, Huilan Wei, Xin Zong, Da Guo, Longfei Yan, Yang Liu Jan 2020

The Impact Of Different Herdsmen’S Size On Grassland Ecosystem Of Eastern Transect In Tibetan Plateau: A Case Study From Maqu, Huilan Wei, Xin Zong, Da Guo, Longfei Yan, Yang Liu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In order to address grassland degradation, an individual contracting system, or namely, single-household rangeland management, based on Garrett Hardin theory of “tragedy of the commons”, had been conducted in Maqu since 1980s. Despite the support of local government, such a well-intentioned system saw little fruits on managing degradation, encountering extensive frustration due to its poor practical outcomes. Meanwhile, joint-household rangeland management, as an inheritance of locality-based management, has been vigorously pursued and has played an important role on Maqu’s grassland management system. In order to better illustrate the impact of size on managing the grassland ecosystem, an experiment was ...


Coerced Regimes: Management Challenges In The Anthropocene, D. G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, Shana Sundstrom, A. Garmestani, Kevin L. Pope, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell, Craig R. Allen Jan 2020

Coerced Regimes: Management Challenges In The Anthropocene, D. G. Angeler, Brian C. Chaffin, Shana Sundstrom, A. Garmestani, Kevin L. Pope, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell, Craig R. Allen

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Management frequently creates system conditions that poorly mimic the conditions of a desirable self-organizing regime. Such management is ubiquitous across complex systems of people and nature and will likely intensify as these systems face rapid change. However, it is highly uncertain whether the costs (unintended consequences, including negative side effects) of management but also social dynamics can eventually outweigh benefits in the long term. We introduce the term “coerced regime” to conceptualize this management form and tie it into resilience theory. The concept encompasses proactive and reactive management to maintain desirable and mitigate undesirable regime conditions, respectively. A coerced regime ...


Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips Jan 2020

Black Bear, Jimmy D. Taylor, James P. Phillips

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The American black bear (Ursus americanus, Figure 1) is a challenging species for wildlife agencies to manage due to its size, intelligence, extensive range, food habits, and adaptability, as well as societal views. In North America alone, agencies receive more than 40,000 complaints about black bear annually. Black bears are known as ‘food-driven’ animals, meaning most conflicts result from a bear’s drive to meet its nutritional needs. Not surprisingly, an overwhelming proportion of conflicts are related to their use of anthropogenic (human) food sources, such as garbage, bird food, and crops. Understanding what drives human-bear conflict is the ...


After Decades Of Suburban Deer Research And Management In The Eastern United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Paul D. Curtis Jan 2020

After Decades Of Suburban Deer Research And Management In The Eastern United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Paul D. Curtis

Human–Wildlife Interactions

State wildlife agencies have regulatory authority and oversight over deer (Cervidae) management in the United States. However, increased urban sprawl and overabundant deer populations have created increased human–deer conflicts. Because of the growing controversy surrounding the use of traditional management practices such as regulated hunting in suburban areas in the eastern United States, managers are now using specialized tools and management approaches to reduce deer conflicts in urban areas. However, this has created new challenges as they try to meet the desires of diverse stakeholder groups. Although deer management programs in urban areas differ somewhat in every state, effective ...


Designing High-Yielding, High-Diversity And Low-Input Temporary Grasslands, Karen Søegaard, Tine B. Mortensen, Jørgen Eriksen Dec 2019

Designing High-Yielding, High-Diversity And Low-Input Temporary Grasslands, Karen Søegaard, Tine B. Mortensen, Jørgen Eriksen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Species-rich swards have received increasing interest due to their focus on ecosystem services, animal welfare and product quality. However, in high-yielding swards the proportion of herbs is often limited and there is little knowledge of their management. Seed mixture composition, cutting frequency, fertilization and grazing/cutting strategies were examined over 4 years in 3 experiments to quantify their effects on herbage yield and botanical composition. Inclusion of herbs in the sward gave similar or higher annual yields but swards established with 100% herbs depended on the presence of a driver species. The effects of management differed between species. Herb content ...


Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason Dec 2019

Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason

Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the lasting impacts of a management plan designed to improve oak regeneration and benefit wildlife in the Ozark Highlands in Madison, Co., AR. To assess the efficacy of the management plan, I used variables relevant to the success and establishment of oak trees. Controlled burns and selective logging were used to thin the canopy, increase ground level productivity, and increase the abundance of small mammals. I used measurements of overstory and understory densities, light availability, and the density of mice in the genus Peromyscus across time to look at the lasting impacts of management. Different treatment plots were ...


Stakeholders Integration For Sustainable Use Of Temperate Forage/Livestock Agriculture, Garry D. Lacefield, Don Ball Oct 2019

Stakeholders Integration For Sustainable Use Of Temperate Forage/Livestock Agriculture, Garry D. Lacefield, Don Ball

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Forage/livestock production is complex, and best management options are often site-specific, but some concepts have broad application. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of research-based management approaches that the authors believe are necessary to ensure the sustainability of forage/livestock farms. This overview discussion is needed because livestock agriculture is changing, thus creating both challenges and opportunities for producers. In the last 30 years, beef numbers in the USA have declined by 20%, but production per cow has more than doubled, resulting in increased total production on less land with fewer animals. Similar statistics exist ...


Production, Persistence And Diversity Of Species In Temperate Grasslands, Meredith L. Mitchell, Brendan P. Christy Oct 2019

Production, Persistence And Diversity Of Species In Temperate Grasslands, Meredith L. Mitchell, Brendan P. Christy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Temperate grassland areas are considered to be semi-arid, with rainfall typically between 250 and 500 mm, much of it occurring in the late spring and early summer. Grazing plays an important role in all these grasslands with impacts on diversity and persistence. Against this assumption that seasonal productivity would be more uniform within a pasture that was diverse, the research suggested that species rich pastures were less stable, because this species richness was composed of non-perennial, volunteer and weed species. This paper explores the concept that systems diversity of temperate grassland does not always equate to production. In these systems ...


International Consensus Principles For Ethical Wildlife Control, Sara Dubois, Nicole Fenwick, Erin A. Ryan, Liv Baker, Sandra E. Baker, Ngaio J. Beausoleil, Scott Carter, Barbara Cartwright, Federico Costa, Chris Draper, John Griffin, Adam Grogan, Gregg Howald, Bidda Jones, Kate E. Littin, Amanda T. Lombard, David J. Mellor, Daniel Ramp, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser Sep 2019

International Consensus Principles For Ethical Wildlife Control, Sara Dubois, Nicole Fenwick, Erin A. Ryan, Liv Baker, Sandra E. Baker, Ngaio J. Beausoleil, Scott Carter, Barbara Cartwright, Federico Costa, Chris Draper, John Griffin, Adam Grogan, Gregg Howald, Bidda Jones, Kate E. Littin, Amanda T. Lombard, David J. Mellor, Daniel Ramp, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Human–wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human–wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles ...


Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard Aug 2019

Heat Stress Adaptations In Pigs, Edith J. Mayorga, David Renaudeau, Brett C. Ramirez, Jason W. Ross, Lance H. Baumgard

Brett Ramirez

Implications

• Heat stress is a global issue constraining animal agriculture productivity, negatively affects welfare, and reduces production efficiency in many countries.

• The effects of heat stress on pig production will intensify, if climate change continues as predicted.

• To date, modifying the environment is the most effective way to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

• Identifying additional strategies (nutritional and genetics) to maximize pork production during the warm summer months is necessary to satiate a growing demand for high quality meat for human consumption.


Seed And Seedling Data From Sugarcreek Metropark Restoration Experiment, Michaela J. Woods, Meredith Cobb, Ryan W. Mcewan Aug 2019

Seed And Seedling Data From Sugarcreek Metropark Restoration Experiment, Michaela J. Woods, Meredith Cobb, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

This dataset encompasses information following seed germination and seedling growth of three tree species: Quercus rubra, Juglans cinerea, and Carya laciniosa. Seed sizes were recorded prior to incubation in sand, vermiculite, or without media. Seeds were then germinated with time to germination recorded in this dataset. After germination, seedlings were planted in Sugarcreek Metropark in either fall 2011 or spring 2012. One-half of seedlings were planted in tree tubes and a half without. Seedling height and diameter was recorded in June 2014 and March 2019, and death of seedlings was noted.


Ecological Interventions To Prevent And Manage Zoonotic Pathogen Spillover, Susanne H. Sokolow, Nicole Nova, Kim M. Pepin, Alison J. Peel, Juliet R.C. Pulliam, Kezia Manlove, Paul C. Cross, Daniel J. Becker, Raina K. Plowright, Hamish Mccallum, Giulio A. De Leo May 2019

Ecological Interventions To Prevent And Manage Zoonotic Pathogen Spillover, Susanne H. Sokolow, Nicole Nova, Kim M. Pepin, Alison J. Peel, Juliet R.C. Pulliam, Kezia Manlove, Paul C. Cross, Daniel J. Becker, Raina K. Plowright, Hamish Mccallum, Giulio A. De Leo

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Spillover of a pathogen from awildlife reservoir into a human or livestock host requires the pathogen to overcome a hierarchical series of barriers. Interventions aimed at one or more of these barriers may be able to prevent the occurrence of spillover. Here, we demonstrate how interventions that target the ecological context in which spillover occurs (i.e. ecological interventions) can complement conventional approaches like vaccination, treatment, disinfection and chemical control. Accelerating spillover owing to environmental change requires effective, affordable, durable and scalable solutions that fully harness the complex processes involved in cross-species pathogen spillover.

This article is part of the ...


A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark May 2019

A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark

HCNSO Student Capstones

Cephalopods are both important predators and prey in many marine environments and important fishery resources in many countries. The global fishery has expanded almost continuously from landings of 580,000 metric tonnes in 1950 to over 4 m.t. in 2007. Cephalopods are ecological opportunists with highly plastic biological characteristics and varied population dynamics. Nearly all commercially harvested species are short-lived and can reproduce quickly, enabling them to evolve more rapidly under high selection pressure relative to many fish competitors and predators. As a result, they may have the biological means to be successful under conditions of long-term global climate ...


Forest Structure Of Long-Term Conserved Areas Utilizing Different Strategies On A Continental, Glacial Moraine Formed Island, Christopher Coggin May 2019

Forest Structure Of Long-Term Conserved Areas Utilizing Different Strategies On A Continental, Glacial Moraine Formed Island, Christopher Coggin

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Understanding patterns of forest succession can help advise management plans within New England nature preserves. This study took place on Block Island, 13 miles off the coast of Rhode Island. The island has greater than 200+ years of farming practices. After 1960, conservation groups began reforesting the island using different strategies, such as actively planting with native and exotic tree species, mowing, and preventing further development. In 2018, woody vegetation was inventoried along transects within four reforested sites. Sites were characterized as the following: actively planted with exotic and native tree species and mowed (AP-M), actively planted with exotic and ...


Abiotic And Landscape Factors Constrain Restoration Outcomes Across Spatial Scales Of A Widespread Invasive Plant, Christine B. Rohal, Chad R. Cranney, Karin M. Kettenring Apr 2019

Abiotic And Landscape Factors Constrain Restoration Outcomes Across Spatial Scales Of A Widespread Invasive Plant, Christine B. Rohal, Chad R. Cranney, Karin M. Kettenring

Ecology Center Publications

The natural recolonization of native plant communities following invasive species management is notoriously challenging to predict, since outcomes can be contingent on a variety of factors including management decisions, abiotic factors, and landscape setting. The spatial scale at which the treatment is applied can also impact management outcomes, potentially influencing plant assembly processes and treatment success. Understanding the relative importance of each of these factors for plant community assembly can help managers prioritize patches where specific treatments are likely to be most successful. Here, using effects size analyses, we evaluate plant community responses following four invasive Phragmites australis management treatments ...


Forage News [2019-04], Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences, University Of Kentucky Apr 2019

Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr Mar 2019

Institutions And The Sustainability Of Community Borehole Water Supplies In Chiredzi Rural District, Zimbabwe, Emelder Muchadzoka Tagutanazvo Ms, John Bowora Mr

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This paper looks at institutions and sustainability of community-owned borehole water suppliers in Chiredzi Rural District of Zimbabwe. It examines the findings in Wards 13, 14 and 15 of Sengwe Communal Lands. The total number of boreholes in the mentioned wards amounts to 58. The paper also investigates the involvement of local institutions in the management of community boreholes, the socio-economic characteristics of the users of the boreholes, the number of boreholes and their functionality, and suggests a measurement

of sustenance of the boreholes in the study area. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Data were collected from ...


Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2018, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Feb 2019

Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2018, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


Almonds Production In The California Central Valley, Brandi Payne Jan 2019

Almonds Production In The California Central Valley, Brandi Payne

Creative Components

This learning module provides a summarized overview of the almond production system being grown in the California Central Valley. The goal of this project is to provide an easy user-friendly learning format highlighting critical decision points in almond production. The module covers key aspects of almond orchard management from planning, planting, tree growth, tree development, pest symptoms, pest control, nutrient management, harvest, and the importance of almond production to the state of California.


Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2018 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program Jan 2019

Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2018 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program

Reports

No abstract provided.


Should Subclinical Hypothyroidism Be Treated?, Rachel Kaufman Jan 2019

Should Subclinical Hypothyroidism Be Treated?, Rachel Kaufman

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Subclinical Hypothyroidism, SCH, has been detected with increasing frequency in recent years and has brought about major controversies regarding management and treatment [Meier et al., 2001]. The condition is characterized as having a high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone, yet normal thyroid hormone levels and is often asymptomatic. Scientific articles retrieved from various databases helped determine some of the long term risk factors associated with SCH, including progression to overt hypothyroidism, fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, neuropsychiatric complications and reproductive malfunctions. Studies determining the clinical and metabolic effects of L-thyroxine hormone replacement therapy on symptoms and potential risks of SCH ...